Cyclic Mixmaster Universes

We investigate the behaviour of bouncing Bianchi type IX `Mixmaster' universes in general relativity. This generalises all previous studies of the cyclic behaviour of closed spatially homogeneous universes with and without entropy increase. We determine the behaviour of models containing radiation by analytic and numerical integration and show that increase of radiation entropy leads to increasing cycle size and duration. We introduce a null energy condition violating ghost field to create a smooth, non-singular bounce of finite size at the end of each cycle and compute the evolution through many cycles with and without entropy increase injected at the start of each cycle. In the presence of increasing entropy we find that the cycles grow larger and longer and the dynamics approach flatness, as in the isotropic case. However, successive cycles become increasingly anisotropic at the expansion maxima which is dominated by the general-relativistic effects of anisotropic 3-curvature. However, it becomes positive after expansion drives the dynamics close enough to isotropy for the curvature to become positive and for gravitational collapse to ensue. In the presence of a positive cosmological constant, radiation and a ghost field we show that, for a very wide range of cosmological constant values, the growing oscillations always cease and the dynamics subsequently approach those of the isotropic de Sitter universe at late times. This model is not included in the scope of earlier cosmic no-hair theorems because the 3-curvature can be positive. In the case of negative cosmological constant, radiation and an ultra-stiff field (to create non-singular bounces) we show that a sequence of chaotic oscillations also occurs, with sensitive dependence on initial conditions. In all cases, we follow the oscillatory evolution of the scale factors, the shear, and the 3-curvature from cycle to cycle.

Comments: 19 pages, 28 figures

Similar Publications

In this paper, we study the evolution of asymptotically AdS initial data for the spherically symmetric Einstein--massless Vlasov system for $\Lambda<0$, with reflecting boundary conditions imposed on timelike infinity $\mathcal{I}$, in the case when the Vlasov field is supported only on radial geodesics. This system is equivalent to the spherically symmetric Einstein--null dust system, allowing for both ingoing and outgoing dust. In general, solutions to this system break down in finite time (independent of the size of the initial data); we highlight this fact by showing that, at the first point where the ingoing dust reaches the axis of symmetry, solutions become $C^{0}$ inextendible, although the spacetime metric remains regular up to that point. Read More

In 2006, Dafermos and Holzegel formulated the so-called AdS instability conjecture, stating that there exist arbitrarily small perturbations to AdS initial data which, under evolution by the Einstein vacuum equations for $\Lambda<0$ with reflecting boundary conditions on conformal infinity, lead to the formation of black holes. The numerical study of this conjecture in the simpler setting of the spherically symmetric Einstein--scalar field system was initiated by Bizon and Rostworowski, followed by a vast number of numerical and heuristic works by several authors. In this paper, we provide the first rigorous proof of the AdS instability conjecture in the simplest possible setting, namely for the spherically symmetric Einstein--massless Vlasov system, in the case when the Vlasov field is moreover supported only on radial geodesics. Read More

In this paper we will consider the ultraviolet (UV) finiteness of the most general one-particle irreducible ($1$PI) Feynman diagrams within the context of ghost-free, infinite-derivative scalar toy model, which is inspired from ghost free and singularity-free infinite-derivative theory of gravity. We will show that by using dressed vertices and dressed propagators, $n$-loop, $N$-point diagrams constructed out of lower-loop $2$- & $3$-point diagrams are UV finite with respect to internal and external loop momentum. Moreover, we will demonstrate that the external momentum dependences of the $n$-loop, $N$-point diagrams constructed out of lower-loop $2$- & $3$-point diagrams decrease exponentially as the loop-order increases and the external momentum divergences are eliminated at sufficiently high loop-order. Read More

Binary systems containing boson stars---self-gravitating configurations of a complex scalar field--- can potentially mimic black holes or neutron stars as gravitational-wave sources. We investigate the extent to which tidal effects in the gravitational-wave signal can be used to discriminate between these standard sources and boson stars. We consider spherically symmetric boson stars within two classes of scalar self-interactions: an effective-field-theoretically motivated quartic potential and a solitonic potential constructed to produce very compact stars. Read More

We present a unified description of the dark matter and the dark energy sectors, in the framework of shift-symmetric generalized Galileon theories. Considering a particular combination of terms in the Horndesdi Lagrangian in which we have not introduced a cosmological constant or a matter sector, we obtain an effective unified cosmic fluid whose equation of state $w_U$ is zero during the whole matter era, namely from redshifts $z\sim3000$ up to $z\sim2-3$. Then at smaller redshifts it starts decreasing, passing the bound $w_U=-1/3$, which marks the onset of acceleration, at around $z\sim0. Read More

We investigate the entanglement entropy and the information flow of two-dimensional moving mirrors. Here we point out that various mirror trajectories can help to mimic different candidate resolutions to the information loss paradox following the semi-classical quantum field theory: (i) a suddenly stopping mirror corresponds to the assertion that all information is attached to the last burst, (ii) a slowly stopping mirror corresponds to the assertion that thermal Hawking radiation carries information, and (iii) a long propagating mirror corresponds to the remnant scenario. Based on such analogy, we find that the last burst of a black hole cannot contain enough information, while slowly emitting radiation can restore unitarity. Read More

The presence of phantom dark energy in brane world cosmology generates important new effects, causing a premature Big Rip singularity when we increase the presence of extra dimension and considerably competing with the other components of our Universe. The idea is based first, in only consider a field with the characteristic equation $\omega<-1$ and after that, consider the explicit form of the scalar field with a potential with a maximum (with the aim of avoid a Big Rip singularity). In both cases we study the dynamic in a robust form through the dynamical analysis theory, detailing in parameters like the deceleration $q$ and the vector field associated to the dynamical system. Read More

Using the metric formalism, we study the derivative mixings of spin-2 fields in massive bi-Gravity. Necessary (but not sufficient) criteria are given for such mixings to be ghost free. Examples satisfying those criteria are studied and it is shown that in the decoupling limit they host a ghost. Read More

Laser interferometers with high circulating power and suspended optics, such as the LIGO gravitational wave detectors, experience an optomechanical coupling effect known as a parametric instability: the runaway excitation of a mechanical resonance in a mirror driven by the optical field. This can saturate the interferometer sensing and control systems and limit the observation time of the detector. Current mitigation techniques at the LIGO sites are successfully suppressing all observed parametric instabilities, and focus on the behaviour of the instabilities in the Fabry-Perot arm cavities of the interferometer, where the instabilities are first generated. Read More

We generalize the classical junction conditions for constructing impulsive gravitational waves by the Penrose "cut and paste" method. Specifically, we study nonexpanding impulses which propagate in spaces of constant curvature with any value of the cosmological constant (that is Minkowski, de Sitter, or anti-de Sitter universes) when additional off-diagonal metric components are present. Such components encode a possible angular momentum of the ultra-relativistic source of the impulsive wave - the so called gyraton. Read More