Expected signatures from hadronic emission processes in the TeV spectra of BL Lac objects

The wealth of recent data from imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), ultra-high energy cosmic-ray experiments and neutrino telescopes have fuelled a renewed interest in hadronic emission models for gamma-loud blazars. We explore physically plausible solutions for a lepto-hadronic interpretation of the stationary emission from high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs). The modelled spectral energy distributions are then searched for specific signatures at very high energies that could help to distinguish the hadronic origin of the emission from a standard leptonic scenario. By introducing a few basic constraints on parameters of the model, such as assuming the co-acceleration of electrons and protons, we significantly reduced the number of free parameters. We then systematically explored the parameter space of the size of the emission region and its magnetic field for two bright gamma-loud HBLs, PKS 2155-304 and Mrk 421. For all solutions with acceptable jet power and light-crossing timescales and that are close to equipartition between the energy densities of protons and of the magnetic field, we inspected the spectral hardening in the multi-TeV domain from proton-photon induced cascades and muon-synchrotron emission inside the source. Very-high-energy spectra simulated with the available instrument functions from the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) were evaluated for detectable features as a function of exposure time, source redshift, and flux level. Over a large range of model parameters, the spectral hardening due to internal synchrotron-pair cascades, the "cascade bump", should be detectable for acceptable exposure times with the future CTA for a few nearby and bright HBLs.

Comments: 18 pages, 20 figures, plus appendix; accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics

Similar Publications

Clustering methods are an important tool to enumerate and describe the different coherent kinds of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). But their performance can be affected by a number of factors such as the choice of clustering algorithm and inherent associated assumptions, the inclusion of variables in clustering, nature of initialization methods used or the iterative algorithm or the criterion used to judge the optimal number of groups supported by the data. We analyzed GRBs from the BATSE 4Br catalog using $k$-means and Gaussian Mixture Models-based clustering methods and found that after accounting for all the above factors, all six variables -- different subsets of which have been used in the literature -- and that are, namely, the flux duration variables ($T_{50}$, $T_{90}$), the peak flux ($P_{256}$) measured in 256-millisecond bins, the total fluence ($F_t$) and the spectral hardness ratios ($H_{32}$ and $H_{321}$) contain information on clustering. Read More

We report the identification of a bright hard X-ray source dominating the M31 bulge above 25 keV from a simultaneous NuSTAR-Swift observation. We find that this source is the counterpart to Swift J0042.6+4112, which was previously detected in the Swift BAT All-sky Hard X-ray Survey. Read More

Large-scale extragalactic magnetic fields may induce conversions between very-high-energy photons and axion-like particles (ALPs), thereby shielding the photons from absorption on the extragalactic background light. However, in simplified "cell" models, used so far to represent extragalactic magnetic fields, this mechanism would be strongly suppressed by current astrophysical bounds. Here we consider realistic models of extragalactic magnetic fields obtained from large-scale cosmological simulations. Read More

Affiliations: 1SRON, 2SRON, 3Leiden University, 4Leiden University, 5Monash University, 6UvA, 7UvA, 8MIT

We observed the Rapid Burster with Chandra when it was in the 'banana' state that usually precedes the type-II X-ray bursting 'island' state for which the source is particularly known. We employed the High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer in combination with the ACIS-S detector in continuous clocking mode. The observation yielded 20 thermonuclear type-I X-ray bursts emitted from the neutron star surface with recurrence times between 0. Read More

In the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0707-495, recently a transient quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) signal has been detected at a high statistical significance. Here, we reanalyze the same set of XMM-Newton data measured on 2008 February 4 with the Weighted-Wavelet Z-transform (WWZ) method. In addition to confirm the previous finding we find the other QPO signal in a separated X-ray emission phase at a confidence level of $\sim 4. Read More

We present the results of a multi-epoch and multi-instrument study of the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy MCG-05-23-16 aiming at the determination of its spin. We have analyzed high quality X-ray data of MCG-05-23-16 from XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR obtained over a period of about 10~years. We have built a double-reflection spectral model that well describes the observed spectrum based on prior results suggesting that the iron K$\alpha$ line includes both a broad component from the disk's reflection spectrum and a narrow component due to fluorescence and scattering off material by more distant matter. Read More

We report the results from a recent 133 ks XMM-Newton observation of a highly super-Eddington narrow-line Type-1 QSO RX J0439.6-5311. This source has one of the steepest AGN hard X-ray slopes, in addition to a prominent and smooth soft X-ray excess. Read More

In this work, we simulate a set of realizations of local volume dark matter subhalo population based on the distributions and relations derived from Via Lactea II N-body simulation. We calculate the J-factors of these subhalos, and find that the low mass subhalos contribute a lot to the total J-factors. Combining with 91 months of the Fermi LAT observation, we constrain on the cross section of dark matter annihilating directly to two gamma rays. Read More

We carried out the first multi-wavelength (optical/UV and X-ray) photometric reverberation mapping of a tidal disruption flare (TDF) ASASSN-14li. We find that its X-ray variations are correlated with and lag the optical/UV fluctuations by 32$\pm$4 days. Based on the direction and the magnitude of the X-ray time lag, we rule out X-ray reprocessing and direct emission from a standard circular thin disk as the dominant source of its optical/UV emission. Read More

Most of ultraluminous X-ray sources are thought to be objects accreting above their Eddington limits. In the recently identified class of ultraluminous X-ray pulsars, accretor is a neutron star and thus has a fairly small mass with a small Eddington limit. The accretion disc structure around such an object affects important observables such as equilibrium period, period derivative and the size of the magnetosphere. Read More