Modelling Jets, Tori and Flares in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

In this contribution we review the recent progress in the modeling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN). We start with a brief overview of the relevant physical processes in the magnetosphere, the wind-zone and the inflated nebula bubble. Radiative signatures and particle transport processes obtained from 3D simulations of PWN are discussed in the context of optical and X-ray observations. We then proceed to consider particle acceleration in PWN and elaborate on what can be learned about the particle acceleration from the dynamical structures called "wisps" observed in the Crab nebula. We also discuss recent observational and theoretical results of gamma-ray flares and the inner knot of the Crab nebula, which had been proposed as the emission site of the flares. We extend the discussion to GeV flares from binary systems in which the pulsar wind interacts with the stellar wind from a companion star. The chapter concludes with a discussion of solved and unsolved problems posed by PWN.

Comments: To appear in "Jets and Winds in Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Gamma-ray Bursts and Blazars: Physics of Extreme Energy Release" of the Space Science Reviews series. The final publication is available at Springer via

Similar Publications

We present analysis of NuSTAR X-ray observations in the 3-79 keV energy band of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388, taken in 2013. The broadband sensitivity of NuSTAR, covering the Fe K$\alpha$ line and Compton reflection hump, enables tight constraints to be placed on reflection features in AGN X-ray spectra, thereby providing insight into the geometry of the circumnuclear material. In this observation, we found the X-ray spectrum of NGC 4388 to be well described by a moderately absorbed power law with non-relativistic reflection. Read More

Polarisation of radio pulsar profiles involves a number of poorly understood, intriguing phenomena, such as the existence of comparable amounts of orthogonal polarisation modes (OPMs), strong distortions of polarisation angle (PA) curves into shapes inconsistent with the rotating vector model (RVM), and the strong circular polarisation V which can be maximum (instead of zero) at the OPM jumps. It is shown that the existence of comparable OPMs and of the large V results from a coherent addition of phase-delayed waves in natural propagation modes, which are produced by an incident linearly polarised signal. The coherent mode summation implies opposite polarisation properties to those known from the incoherent case, in particular, the OPM jumps occur at peaks of V , whereas V changes sign at a maximum of the linear polarisation fraction L/I. Read More

We show that the jet power $P_j$ and geometrically corrected $\gamma$-ray luminosity $L_\gamma$ for the X-ray binaries (XRBs) Cygnus X-1, Cygnus X-3, and V404 Cygni, and $\gamma$-ray upper limits for GRS 1915+105 and GX339-4, follow the universal scaling for the energetics of relativistic jets from black hole (BH) systems found by Nemmen et al. (2012) for blazars and GRBs. The observed peak $\gamma$-ray luminosity for XRBs is geometrically corrected; and the minimum jet power is estimated from the peak flux density of radio flares and the flare rise time. Read More

Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) are charged particles of energies above $10^{18}$ eV that originate outside of the Galaxy. Because the flux of the UHECRs at Earth is very small, the only practical way of observing UHECRs is by measuring the extensive air showers (EAS) produced by UHECRs in the atmosphere. This is done by using air fluorescence detectors and giant arrays of particle detectors on the ground. Read More

Thermal-diffusional pulsation behaviors in planar as well as outwardly and inwardly propagating white dwarf carbon flames are systematically studied. In the 1D numerical simulation, the asymptotic degenerate equation of state and simplified one-step reaction rates for nuclear reactions are used to study the flame propagation and pulsation in white dwarfs. The numerical critical Zel'dovich numbers of planar flames at different densities ($\rho=2$, 3 and 4$\times 10^7$~g/cm$^3$) and of spherical flames (with curvature $c=$-0. Read More

We present a method to classify initial conditions of a Long Gamma Ray Bursts model sourced by a single relativistic shock. It is based on the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) that are trained with Light Curves (LC) generated with Radiation Relativistic Hydrodynamics simulations. The model we use consists in a single shock with a highly relativistic injected beam into a stratified surrounding medium with profile 1/r2. Read More

We discuss neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with the injection of nuclei, where we take into account that a nuclear cascade from photo-disintegration can fully develop in the source. One of our main objectives is to test if recent results from the IceCube and the Pierre Auger Observatory can be accommodated with the paradigm that GRBs are the sources of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). While our key results are obtained using an internal shock model, we discuss how the secondary emission from a GRB shell can be interpreted in terms of other astrophysical models. Read More

If a black hole has hair, how short can this hair be? A partial answer to this intriguing question was recently provided by the 'no-short hair' theorem which asserts that the external fields of a spherically-symmetric electrically neutral hairy black-hole configuration must extend beyond the null circular geodesic which characterizes the corresponding black-hole spacetime. One naturally wonders whether the no-short hair inequality $r_{\text{hair}}>r_{\text{null}}$ is a generic property of all electrically neutral hairy black-hole spacetimes? In this paper we provide evidence that the answer to this interesting question may be positive. In particular, we prove that the recently discovered cloudy Kerr black-hole spacetimes -- non-spherically symmetric non-static black holes which support linearized massive scalar fields in their exterior regions -- also respect this no-short hair lower bound. Read More

IGR J18214-1318, a Galactic source discovered by the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, is a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) with a supergiant O-type stellar donor. We report on the XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations that were undertaken to determine the nature of the compact object in this system. This source exhibits high levels of aperiodic variability, but no periodic pulsations are detected with a 90% confidence upper limit of 2% fractional rms between 0. Read More

We review observations of several classes of neutron-star-powered outflows: pulsar-wind nebulae (PWNe) inside shell supernova remnants (SNRs), PWNe interacting directly with interstellar medium (ISM), and magnetar-powered outflows. We describe radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations of PWNe, focusing first on integrated spectral-energy distributions (SEDs) and global spectral properties. High-resolution X-ray imaging of PWNe shows a bewildering array of morphologies, with jets, trails, and other structures. Read More