# A Very Large ($θ_{E} \gtrsim40$") Strong Gravitational Lens Selected with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect: PLCK G287.0+32.9 (z = 0.38)

Since galaxy clusters sit at the high-end of the mass function, the number of galaxy clusters both massive and concentrated enough to yield particularly large Einstein radii poses useful constraints on cosmological and structure formation models. To date, less than a handful of clusters are known to have Einstein radii exceeding $\sim40$" (for a source at $z_{s}\simeq2$, nominally). Here, we report an addition to that list of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) selected cluster, PLCK G287.0+32.9 ($z = 0.38$), the second-highest SZ-mass ($M_{500}$) cluster from the Planck catalog. We present the first strong lensing analysis of the cluster, identifying 20 sets of multiply-imaged galaxies and candidates in new Hubble Space Telescope data, including a long, $l\sim22$" giant arc, as well as a quadruply-imaged, apparently bright (magnified to J$_{F110W}=$25.3 AB), likely high-redshift dropout galaxy at $z_{phot}=6.90$ [6.13--8.43] (95% C.I.). Our analysis reveals a very large critical area (1.55 arcmin$^{2}$, $z_{s}\simeq2$), corresponding to an effective Einstein radius of $\theta_{E}\sim42$". The model suggests the critical area will expand to 2.58 arcmin$^{2}$ (effective $\theta_{E}\sim54$") for sources at $z_{s}\sim10$. Our work adds to recent efforts to model very massive clusters towards the approaching launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, in order to identify the most useful cosmic lenses for studying the early Universe. Spectroscopic redshifts for the multiply-imaged galaxies and additional HST data will be useful for refining the lens model and verifying the nature of the $z\sim7$ dropout.

**Comments:**Submitted; 8 pages, 5 figures, 1 table; comments welcome

## Similar Publications

In this work we have used the recent cosmic chronometers data along with the latest estimation of the local Hubble parameter value, $H_0$ at 2.4\% precision as well as the standard dark energy probes, such as the Supernovae Type Ia, baryon acoustic oscillation distance measurements, and cosmic microwave background measurements (PlanckTT $+$ lowP) to constrain a dark energy model where the dark energy is allowed to interact with the dark matter. A general equation of state of dark energy parametrized by a dimensionless parameter `$\beta$' is utilized. Read More

Effective supergravity inflationary models induced by anti-D3 brane interaction with the moduli fields in the bulk geometry have a geometric description. The K\"ahler function carries the complete geometric information on the theory. The non-vanishing bisectional curvature plays an important role in the construction. Read More

Primordial black holes (PBHs) have long been suggested as a candidate for making up some or all of the dark matter in the Universe. Most of the theoretically possible mass range for PBH dark matter has been ruled out with various null observations of expected signatures of their interaction with standard astrophysical objects. However, current constraints are significantly less robust in the 20 M_sun < M_PBH < 100 M_sun mass window, which has received much attention recently, following the detection of merging black holes with estimated masses of ~30 M_sun by LIGO and the suggestion that these could be black holes formed in the early Universe. Read More

We extend our previous redshift space power spectrum code to the redshift space correlation function. Here we focus on the Gaussian Streaming Model (GSM). Again, the code accommodates a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models. Read More

The absence of a true thermodynamical equilibrium for an observer located in the causal area of a Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime has repeatedly raised the question of the correct definition of its temperature. In this work, we consider five different temperatures for a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: the bare $T_0$, the normalised $T_{BH}$ and three effective ones given in terms of both the black hole and cosmological horizon temperatures. We find that these five temperatures exhibit similarities but also significant differences in their behaviour as the number of extra dimensions and the value of the cosmological constant are varied. Read More

Theories with more than one vacuum allow quantum transitions between them, which may proceed via bubble nucleation; theories with more than two vacua posses additional decay modes in which the wall of a bubble may further decay. The instantons which mediate such a process have $O(3)$ symmetry (in four dimensions, rather than the usual $O(4)$ symmetry of homogeneous vacuum decay), and have been called `barnacles'; previously they have been studied in flat space, in the thin wall limit, and this paper extends the analysis to include gravity. It is found that there are regions of parameter space in which, given an initial bubble, barnacles are the favoured subsequent decay process, and that the inclusion of gravity can enlarge this region. Read More

Secondary CMB polarization is induced by the late-time scattering of CMB photons by free electrons on our past light cone. This polarized Sunyaev Zel'dovich (pSZ) effect is sensitive to the electrons' locally observed CMB quadrupole, which is sourced primarily by long wavelength inhomogeneities. By combining the remote quadrupoles measured by free electrons throughout the universe after reionization, the pSZ effect allows us to obtain additional information about large scale modes beyond what can be learned from our own last scattering surface. Read More

I describe two novel techniques originally devised to select strongly lensed quasar candidates in wide-field surveys. The first relies on outlier selection in optical and mid-infrared magnitude space; the second combines mid-infrared colour selection with GAIA spatial resolution, to identify multiplets of objects with quasar-like colours. Both methods have already been applied successfully to the SDSS, ATLAS and DES footprints: besides recovering known lenses from previous searches, they have led to new discoveries, including quadruply lensed quasars, which are rare within the rare-object class of quasar lenses. Read More

Starting from a very accurate model for density-in-cells statistics of dark matter based on large deviation theory, a bias model for the tracer density in spheres is formulated. It adopts a mean bias relation based on a quadratic bias model to relate the log-densities of dark matter to those of mass-weighted dark haloes in real and redshift space. The validity of the parametrised bias model is established using a parametrisation-independent extraction of the bias function. Read More

The amplitude of large-scale matter fluctuations inferred from the observed Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster mass function and from weak gravitational lensing studies, when taken at face value, is in tension with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). In this work, we revisit whether this possible discrepancy can be attributed to new interactions in the dark matter sector. Focusing on a cosmological model where dark matter interacts with a dark radiation species until the epoch of matter-radiation equality, we find that measurements of the Lyman-alpha flux power spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provides no support to the hypothesis that new dark matter interactions can resolve the possible tension between CMB and large-scale structure (LSS). Read More