IN-SYNC. V. Stellar kinematics and dynamics in the Orion A Molecular Cloud

Affiliations: 1Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 2Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 3Western Washington University, 4University of Oxford, 5Yale, 6Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 7Leiden Observatory, 8Steward Observatory, 9University of Michigan, 10University of Michigan, 11Vanderbilt University, 12University of Virginia, 13Wesleyan University, 14University of Virginia, 15University of Virginia, 16University of Virginia

The kinematics and dynamics of young stellar populations tests theories of their formation. With this aim, we continue our analysis of the SDSS-III/APOGEE INfrared Spectra of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC) survey, a high resolution near infrared spectroscopic survey of young clusters. We focus on the Orion A star-forming region, for which IN-SYNC obtained spectra of ~2700 stars. In Paper IV we used these data to study the young stellar population, through measurement of stellar parameters to study age spread and assign new memberships. Here we study the kinematic properties through radial velocities ($v_r$). The young stellar population remains kinematically associated with the molecular gas, following a ~10km/s $v_r$ gradient along the 40pc long filament. However, near the center of the region stars appear ~1km/s blue-shifted with respect to the gas and show an asymmetric $v_r$ distribution. This region is slightly older and less embedded than average, suggesting that the remaining gas is mostly behind the population along the line of sight. We find evidence for kinematic subclustering, detecting statistically significant groupings of co-located stars with coherent motions. These are mostly in the lower-density, dispersed filament south of the ONC, which, on the other hand, appears dynamically evolved. The 1-D velocity dispersion is roughly constant throughout the region (2-2.5km/s). The ONC has a virial parameter $\alpha$~1.8, i.e., near the limit for the cluster to remain bound. In the ONC we also find some evidence for on-going expansion, from a correlation between $v_r$ and extinction. In the lower-density region south of the ONC, the velocity dispersion is ~3 times larger than expected from virial equilibrium, i.e., unbound. The origin of these high stellar velocities remains somewhat unclear, especially since the velocity dispersion of the gas is consistent a virial state.

Comments: 13 pages, 12 figures, submitted to ApJ. The animation in Figure 2 can be found here:

Similar Publications

The recent observations of rippled structures on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud (Bern\'{e} et al. 2010), have been attributed to the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. The wavelike structures which have mainly seen near star-forming regions taking place at the interface between the hot diffuse gas, which is ionized by massive stars, and the cold dense molecular clouds. Read More

We perform controlled N-body simulations of disc galaxies growing within live dark matter (DM) haloes to present-day galaxies that contain both thin and thick discs. We consider two types of models: a) thick disc initial conditions to which stars on near-circular orbits are continuously added over ~10 Gyr and b) models in which the birth velocity dispersion of stars decreases continuously over the same timescale. We show that both schemes produce double-exponential vertical profiles similar to that of the Milky Way (MW). Read More

This study focuses on the formation of two molecules of astrobiological importance - glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (H2C(OH)CH2OH) - by surface hydrogenation of CO molecules. Our experiments aim at simulating the CO freeze-out stage in interstellar dark cloud regions, well before thermal and energetic processing become dominant. It is shown that along with the formation of H2CO and CH3OH - two well established products of CO hydrogenation - also molecules with more than one carbon atom form. Read More

We have identified several tens of extremely metal-poor star candidates from SDSS and LAMOST, which we follow-up with the 4.2m WHT telescope to confirm their metallicity.We follow a robust two-step methodology. Read More

The surface formation of NH3 and its deuterated isotopologues - NH2D, NHD2, and ND3 - is investigated at low temperatures through the simultaneous addition of hydrogen and deuterium atoms to nitrogen atoms in CO-rich interstellar ice analogues. The formation of all four ammonia isotopologues is only observed up to 15 K, and drops below the detection limit for higher temperatures. Differences between hydrogenation and deuteration yields result in a clear deviation from a statistical distribution in favour of deuterium enriched species. Read More

Solid state astrochemical reaction pathways have the potential to link the formation of small nitrogen-bearing species, like NH3 and HNCO, and prebiotic molecules, specifically amino acids. To date, the chemical origin of such small nitrogen containing species is still not well understood, despite the fact that ammonia is an abundant constituent of interstellar ices toward young stellar objects and quiescent molecular clouds. This is mainly because of the lack of dedicated laboratory studies. Read More

Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) is one of the potential precursors of complex pre-biotic species in space. Here we present a detailed experimental study of hydroxylamine formation through nitric oxide (NO) surface hydrogenation for astronomically relevant conditions. The aim of this work is to investigate hydroxylamine formation efficiencies in polar (water-rich) and non-polar (carbon monoxide-rich) interstellar ice analogues. Read More

Stationary stellar systems with radially elongated orbits are subject to radial orbit instability -- an important phenomenon that structures galaxies. Antonov (1973) presented a formal proof of the instability for spherical systems in the limit of purely radial orbits. However, such spheres have highly inhomogeneous density distributions with singularity $\sim 1/r^2$, resulting in an inconsistency in the proof. Read More

Recently, a deviation of the Gaia TGAS parallaxes from the asteroseismic ones for giants was found. We show that for parallaxes $\varpi<1.5$ mas it can be explained by a selection effect in favour of bright and luminous giants in the Tycho-2 and TGAS catalogues. Read More

Chemical abundances are presented for 19 elements in a sample of 63 red giants in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph), based on homogeneous 1D/LTE model atmosphere analyses of our own observations (32 stars) and data available in the literature (a further 31 independent stars). The (Fe) metallicity and [$\alpha$/Fe] distribution functions have mean values and dispersions of -1.59 and 0. Read More