Measurements of Solar Differential Rotation and Meridional Circulation from Tracking of Photospheric Magnetic Features

Long-lived rotational and meridional flows are important ingredients of the solar cycle. Magnetic field images have typically been used to measure these flows on the solar surface by cross-correlating thin longitudinal strips or square patches across sufficiently long time gaps. Here, I use one month of SDO/HMI line-of-sight magnetic field observations, combined with the SWAMIS magnetic feature tracking algorithm to measure the motion of individual features in these magnetograms. By controlling for perturbations due to short-lived flows and due to false motions from feature interactions, I effectively isolate the long-lived flows traced by the magnetic features. This allows me to produce high-fidelity differential rotation measurements with well-characterized variances and covariances of the fit parameters.I find a sidereal rotational profile of $(14.296\pm0.006)+(-1.847\pm0.056)\sin^{2}b+(-2.615\pm0.093)\sin^{4}b$, with units of $\textrm{ deg d}^{-1}$, and a large covariance $\sigma_{BC}^{2}=-4.87\times10^{-3}(\textrm{ deg d}^{-1})^{2}$. I also produce medium-fidelity measurements of the much weaker meridional flow that is broadly consistent with previous results. This measurement shows a peak flow of $16.7\pm0.6\text{ m s}^{-1}$ at latitude $b=45^\circ$ but is insufficiently characterized at higher latitudes to ascertain whether the chosen functional form $2\cos b\sin b$ is appropriate. This work shows that measuring the motions of individual features in photospheric magnetograms can produce high precision results in relatively short time spans, and suggests that high resolution non-longitudinally averaged photospheric velocity residual measurements could be produced to compare with coronal results, and to provide other diagnostics of the solar dynamo.

Comments: Accepted by ApJ. 24 pages, 9 figures

Similar Publications

Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. Read More


Relying on multifractal behavior of pulsar timing residuals ({\it PTR}s), we examine the capability of Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) and Multifractal Detrending Moving Average Analysis (MF-DMA) modified by Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Adaptive Detrending (AD), to detect footprint of gravitational waves (GWs) superimposed on {\it PTR}s. Mentioned methods enable us to clarify the type of GWs which is related to the value of Hurst exponent. We introduce three strategies based on generalized Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum, to determine the dimensionless amplitude of GWs. Read More


We present examples of the both types of bursts and show their similarities and differences. Then for chains of type I bursts a similar model as for drifting pulsation structures (DPSs) is proposed. We show that similarly as in the DPS, the chains of type I bursts can be generated by the fragmented magnetic reconnection associated with plasmoids interactions. Read More


Be/X-ray binaries are the most populous class of High Mass X-ray Binaries. Their X-ray duty cycle is tightly related to the optical companion wind activity, which in turn can be studied through optical spectroscopical dedicated observations. We study optical spectral features of the Be circumstellar disk to test their long-term variability and their relation with the X-ray activity. Read More


The discovery of Proxima b, a terrestrial temperate planet, presents the opportunity of studying a potentially habitable world in optimal conditions. A key aspect to model its habitability is to understand the radiation environment of the planet in the full spectral domain. We characterize the X-rays to mid-IR radiative properties of Proxima with the goal of providing the top-of-atmosphere fluxes on the planet. Read More


Fragmentation of filaments into dense cores is thought to be an important step in forming stars. The bar-mode instability of spherically collapsing cores found in previous linear analysis invokes a possibility of re-fragmentation of the cores due to their ellipsoidal (prolate or oblate) deformation. To investigate this possibility, here we perform three-dimensional self-gravitational hydrodynamics simulations that follow all the way from filament fragmentation to subsequent core collapse. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1Technion, Israel, 2Technion, Israel, 3Technion, Israel

We conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of energy deposition into the envelope of a red giant star as a result of the merger of two close main sequence stars or brown dwarfs, and show that the outcome is a highly non-spherical outflow. Such a violent interaction of a triple stellar system can explain the formation of `messy', i.e. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1University of Michigan, USA, 2University of Michigan, USA, 3Carnegie Mellon University, USA, 4University of Michigan, USA

We report new spectroscopic observations obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System of 308 red giants (RGs) located in two fields near the photometric center of the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud. This sample consists of 131 stars observed in previous studies (in one field) and 177 newly-observed stars (in the second field) selected specifically to more reliably establish the metallicity and age distributions of the bar. For each star, we measure its heliocentric line-of-sight velocity, surface gravity and metallicity from its high-resolution spectrum (effective temperatures come from photometric colors). Read More


We investigate the properties of magnetized stars in the propeller regime using axisymmetric numerical simulations. We modelled the propeller regime for stars with realistically large magnetospheres (5-7 stellar radii), so that our results could be applied to different types of magnetized stars, including Classical T Tauri stars, cataclysmic variables, and accreting millisecond pulsars. A wide range of propeller strengths has been studied, from very strong propellers (where the magnetosphere rotates much more rapidly than the inner disk) to very weak propellers (where the magnetosphere rotates only slightly faster than the inner disc. Read More


Light curve modeling for the newly discovered system 1SWASP J092328.76+435044 was carried out by using a new BVR complete light curves. A spotted model was applied to treat the asymmetry of the light curves. Read More