# A note on split extensions of bialgebras

We prove a universal characterization of Hopf algebras among cocommutative bialgebras over a field: a cocommutative bialgebra is a Hopf algebra precisely when every split extension over it admits a join decomposition. We also explain why this result cannot be extended to a non-cocommutative setting.

## Similar Publications

An exponent matrix is an $n\times n$ matrix $A=(a_{ij})$ over ${\mathbb N}^0$ satisfying (1) $a_{ii}=0$ for all $i=1,\ldots, n$ and (2) $a_{ij}+a_{jk}\geq a_{ik}$ for all pairwise distinct $i,j,k\in\{1,\dots, n\}$. In the present paper we study the set ${\mathcal E}_n$ of all non-negative $n\times n$ exponent matrices as an algebra with the operations $\oplus$ of component-wise maximum and $\odot$ of component-wise addition. We provide a basis of the algebra $({\mathcal E}_n, \oplus, \odot,0)$ and give a row and a column decompositions of a matrix $A\in {\mathcal E}_n$ with respect to this basis. Read More

Let $A$ be a finite-dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field $\Bbbk$. For any finite-dimensional $A$-module $M$ we give a general formula that computes the indecomposable decomposition of $M$ without decomposing it, for which we use the knowledge of AR-quivers that are already computed in many cases. The proof of the formula here is much simpler than that in a prior literature by Dowbor and Mr\'oz. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}JAD,

^{2}JAD

In recent years, the usual BPHZ algorithm for renormalization in perturbative quantum field theory has been interpreted, after dimensional regularization, as a Birkhoff decomposition of characters on the Hopf algebra of Feynman graphs, with values in a Rota-Baxter algebra of amplitudes. We associate in this paper to any such algebra a universal semi-group (different in nature from the Connes-Marcolli "cosmical Galois group"). Its action on the physical amplitudes associated to Feynman graphs produces the expected operations: Bogoliubov's preparation map, extraction of divergences, renormalization. Read More

The "unit theorem" to which the present mini-course is devoted is a theorem from algebra that has a combinatorial flavour, and that originated in fact from algebraic combinatorics. Beyond a proof, the course also addresses applications, one of which is a proof of the normal basis theorem from Galois theory. Read More

Let q be a power of a prime and let V be a vector space of finite dimension n over the field of order q. Let Bil(V) denote the set of all bilinear forms defined on V x V, let Symm(V) denote the subspace of Bil(V) consisting of symmetric bilinear forms, and Alt(V) denote the subspace of alternating bilinear forms. Let M denote a subspace of any of the spaces Bil(V), Symm(V), or Alt(V). Read More

Zero-curvature representations (ZCRs) are one of the main tools in the theory of integrable $(1+1)$-dimensional PDEs. According to the preprint arXiv:1212.2199, for any given $(1+1)$-dimensional evolution PDE one can define a sequence of Lie algebras $F^p$, $p=0,1,2,3,\dots$, such that representations of these algebras classify all ZCRs of the PDE up to local gauge equivalence. Read More

For a free presentation $0 \to R \to F \to G \to 0$ of a Leibniz algebra $G$, the Baer invariant ${\cal M}^{\sf Lie}(G) = \frac{R \cap [F, F]_{Lie}}{[F, R]_{Lie}}$ is called the Schur multiplier of $G$ relative to the Liezation functor or Schur Lie-multiplier. For a two-sided ideal $N$ of a Leibniz algebra $G$, we construct a four-term exact sequence relating the Schur Lie-multiplier of $G$ and $G/N$, which is applied to study and characterize Lie-nilpotency, Lie-stem covers and Lie-capability of Leibniz algebras. Read More

For a commutative ring $R$, a polynomial $f\in R[x]$ is called separable if $R[x]/f$ is a separable $R$-algebra. We derive formulae for the number of separable polynomials when $R = \mathbb{Z}/n$, extending a result of L. Carlitz. Read More

We derive some Positivstellensatz\"e for noncommutative rational expressions from the Positivstellensatz\"e for noncommutative polynomials. Specifically, we show that if a noncommutative rational expression is positive on a polynomially convex set, then there is an algebraic certificate witnessing that fact. As in the case of noncommutative polynomials, our results are nicer when we additionally assume positivity on a convex set-- that is, we obtain a so-called "perfect Positivstellensatz" on convex sets. Read More

We give a category theoretic approach to several known equivalences from tilting theory and commutative algebra. Furthermore we apply our main results to study the category of relative Cohen-Macaulay modules. Read More