Braiding Statistics and Link Invariants of Bosonic/Fermionic Topological Quantum Matter in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions

Topological Quantum Field Theories (TQFTs) pertinent to some emergent low energy phenomena of condensed matter lattice models in 2+1 and 3+1D are explored. Many of our field theories are highly-interacting without free quadratic analogs. Some of our bosonic TQFTs can be regarded as the continuum field theory formulation of Dijkgraaf-Witten twisted discrete gauge theories. Other bosonic TQFTs beyond the Dijkgraaf-Witten description and all fermionic spin TQFTs are either higher-form gauge theories where particles must have strings attached, or fermionic discrete gauge theories obtained by gauging the fermionic Symmetry-Protected Topological states (SPTs). We calculate both Abelian and non-Abelian braiding statistics data of anyon particle and string excitations, where the statistics data can one-to-one characterize the underlying topological orders of TQFTs. We calculate path integral expectation values of links formed by line and surface operators in the TQFTs. The acquired link invariants include not only the Aharonov-Bohm linking number, but also Milnor triple linking number in 2+1D, triple and quadruple linking numbers of surfaces, and intersection number of surfaces in 3+1D. We also construct new spin TQFTs with the corresponding knot/link invariants of Arf(-Brown-Kervaire), Sato-Levine and others. We propose a new relation between the fermionic SPT partition function and Rokhlin invariant. We can use these invariants and other observables, including ground state degeneracy, reduced modular $\mathcal{S}^{xy}$ and $\mathcal{T}^{xy}$ matrices, and the partition function on $\mathbb{RP}^3$ manifold, to identify all $\mathbb{Z}_8$ classes of 2+1D gauged $\mathbb{Z}_2$-Ising-symmetric $\mathbb{Z}_2^f$-fermionic Topological Superconductors (TSC, realized by stacking layers of a pair of $p+ip$ and $p-ip$ SC, where boundary supports non-chiral Majorana-Weyl modes) with continuum spin-TQFTs.

Comments: 36 pages, 8 figures, 3 tables. On 2+1D and 3+1D TQFTs / spin TQFTs. v2: Misprints corrected, clarifications and Refs added

Similar Publications

We study the classification of symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases with crystalline symmetry (cSPT phases). Focusing on bosonic cSPT phases in two and three dimensions, we introduce a simple family of cSPT states, where the system is comprised of decoupled lower-dimensional building blocks that are themselves SPT states. We introduce a procedure to classify these block states, which surprisingly reproduces a classification of cSPT phases recently obtained by Thorngren and Else using very different methods, for all wallpaper and space groups. Read More


The ground state of the diatomic molecules in nature is inevitably bonding and its first excited state is antibonding. We demonstrate theoretically that for a pair of distant adatoms placed buried in 3D-Dirac semimetals, this natural order of the states can be reversed and antibonding ground state occurs at the lowest energy of the so-called bound states in the continuum. We propose experimental protocol with use of STM-tip to visualize the topographic map of the local density of states on the surface of the system to reveal the emerging Physics. Read More


We report discovery of a topological Mott insulator in strongly-correlated Dirac semimetals. Such an interaction-driven topological state has been theoretically proposed but not yet observed with unbiased large scale numerical simulations. In our model, interactions between electrons are mediated by Ising spins in a transverse field. Read More


We develop a no-go theorem for two-dimensional bosonic systems with crystal symmetries: if there is a half-integer spin at a rotation center, where the point-group symmetry is $\mathbb D_{2,4,6}$, such a system must have a ground-state degeneracy protected by the crystal symmetry. Such a degeneracy indicates either a broken-symmetry state or a unconventional state of matter. Comparing to the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis Theorem, our result counts the spin at each rotation center, instead of the total spin per unit cell, and therefore also applies to certain systems with an even number of half-integer spins per unit cell. Read More


We study the time evolution after a quantum quench in a family of models whose degrees of freedom are fermions coupled to spins, where quenched disorder appears neither in the Hamiltonian parameters nor in the initial state. Focussing on the behaviour of entanglement, both spatial and between subsystems, we show that the model supports a state exhibiting combined area/volume law entanglement, being characteristic of the quantum disentangled liquid. This behaviour appears for one set of variables, which is related via a duality mapping to another set, where this structure is absent. Read More


FeSe has a unique ground state in which superconductivity coexists with a nematic order without long-range magnetic ordering at ambient pressure. Here, to study how the pairing interaction evolves with nematicity, we measured the thermal conductivity and specific heat of FeSe$_{1-x}$S$_x$, where the nematicity is suppressed by isoelectronic sulfur substitution. We find that in the whole nematic ($0\leq x \leq 0. Read More


We comparatively study the excitonic insulator state in the extended Falicov-Kimball model (EFKM, a spinless two-band model) on the two-dimensional square lattice using the variational cluster approximation (VCA) and the cluster dynamical impurity approximation (CDIA). In the latter, the particle-bath sites are included in the reference cluster to take into account the particle-number fluctuations in the correlation sites. We thus calculate the particle-number distribution, order parameter, ground-state phase diagram, anomalous Green's function, and pair coherence length, thereby demonstrating the usefulness of the CDIA in the discussion of the excitonic condensation in the EFKM. Read More


The subject of topological materials has attracted immense attention in condensed-matter physics, because they host new quantum states of matter containing Dirac, Majorana, or Weyl fermions. Although Majorana fermions can only exist on the surface of topological superconductors, Dirac and Weyl fermions can be realized in both 2D and 3D materials. The latter are semimetals with Dirac/Weyl cones either not tilted (type I) or tilted (type II). Read More


Higgs resonance modes in condensed matter systems are generally broad; meaning large decay widths or short relaxation times. This common feature has obscured and limited their observation to a select few systems. Contrary to this, the present work predicts that Higgs resonances in magnetic field induced, three-dimensional magnon Bose-condensates have vanishingly small decay widths. Read More


Propagation character of spin wave was investigated for chiral magnets FeGe and Co-Zn-Mn alloys, which can host magnetic skyrmions near room temperature. On the basis of the frequency shift between counter-propagating spin waves, the magnitude and sign of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction were directly evaluated. The obtained magnetic parameters quantitatively account for the size and helicity of skyrmions as well as their materials variation, proving that the DM interaction plays a decisive role in the skyrmion formation in this class of room-temperature chiral magnets. Read More