Fragmentation of Kozai-Lidov Disks

We analyze the gravitational instability (GI) of a locally isothermal inclined disk around one component of a binary system. Such a disk can undergo global Kozai-Lidov (KL) cycles if the initial disk tilt is above the critical KL angle (of about 40 degrees). During these cycles, an initially circular disk exchanges its inclination for eccentricity, and vice versa. Self-gravity may suppress the cycles under some circumstances. However, with hydrodynamic simulations including self-gravity we show that for a sufficiently high initial disk tilts and for certain disk masses, disks can undergo KL oscillations and fragment due to GI, even when the Toomre Q value for an equivalent undisturbed disk is well within the stable regime (Q > 2). We suggest that KL triggered disk fragmentation provides a mechanism for the efficient formation of giant planets in binary systems and may enhance fragmentation of disks in massive black hole binaries.

Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJL

Similar Publications

We have detected and performed signal measurements on 78 individual bolide events as recorded at 179 infrasound stations between 2006 and 2015. We compared period-yield relations with AFTAC nuclear period-yield data, finding these to be similar with a slight offset. Scatter in period measurements for individual bolide is found to be caused in part by station noise levels and by attenuation effects with range. Read More

Hamiltonian systems such as the gravitational N-body problem have time-reversal symmetry. However, all numerical N-body integration schemes, including symplectic ones, respect this property only approximately. In this paper, we present the new N-body integrator JANUS, for which we achieve exact time-reversal symmetry by combining integer and floating point arithmetic. Read More

The aim of my dissertation is to investigate habitability in extra-Solar Systems. Most of the time, only planets are considered as possible places where extraterrestrial life can emerge and evolve, however, their moons could be inhabited, too. I present a comprehensive study, which considers habitability not only on planets, but on satellites, as well. Read More

The present infrared brightness of a planet originates partly from the accretion energy that the planet gained during its formation and hence provides important constraints to the planet formation process. A planet cools down from a hot initial state to the present state by losing energy through radiative emission from its atmosphere. Thus, the atmospheric properties affect the planetary cooling rate. Read More

Recent results by Martin et al. (2014) showed in 3D SPH simulations that tilted discs in binary systems can be unstable to the development of global, damped Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations in which the discs exchange tilt for eccentricity. We investigate the linear stability of KL modes for tilted inviscid discs under the approximations that the disc eccentricity is small and the disc remains flat. Read More

Investigating the overall brightness of planets (and moons) provides insight into their envelopes and energy budgets [1, 2, 3, 4]. Titan phase curves (a representation of overall brightness vs. Sun-object-observer phase angle) have been published over a limited range of phase angles and spectral passbands [5, 6]. Read More

Observations of the Earth's exosphere have unveiled an extended envelope of hydrogen reaching further than 10 Earth radii (R$_E$) composed of atoms orbiting around the Earth. This large envelope increases significantly the opacity of the Earth to Lyman-alpha (Lya) photons coming from the Sun, to the point of making feasible to detect the Earth's transit signature from 1.35 pc with an 8~meter primary mirror space telescope, as we show. Read More

Thanks to the detections of more than 3000 exoplanets these last 20 years, statistical studies have already highlighted some properties in the distribution of the planet parameters. Nevertheless, few studies have yet investigated the planet populations from short to large separations around the same star since this requires the use of different detection techniques that usually target different types of stars. We wish to develop a tool that combines direct and indirect methods so as to correctly investigate the giant planet populations at all separations. Read More

We present observations of WASP-63b by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as part of "A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science". WASP-63b is one of the community targets under consideration for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. We present a spectrum derived from a single observation by HST Wide Field Camera 3 in the near infrared. Read More