Spectral and Polarization Signatures of Relativistic Shocks in Blazars

Relativistic shocks are one of the most plausible sites of the emission of strongly variable, polarized multi-wavelength emission from relativistic jet sources such as blazars, via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of relativistic particles. This paper summarizes recent results on a self-consistent coupling of diffusive shock acceleration and radiation transfer in blazar jets. We demonstrate that the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of blazars strongly constrain the nature of hydromagnetic turbulence responsible for pitch-angle scattering by requiring a strongly energy-dependent pitch-angle mean free path. The prominent soft X-ray excess ("Big Blue Bump") in the SED of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 can be modelled as the signature of bulk Compton scattering of external radiation fields by the thermal electron population, which places additional constraints on the level of hydromagnetic turbulence. It has further been demonstrated that internal shocks propagating in a jet pervaded by a helical magnetic field naturally produce polarization-angle swings by 180$^o$, in tandem with multi-wavelength flaring activity, without requiring any helical motion paths or other asymmetric jet structures. The specific application of this model to 3C279 presents the first consistent, simultaneous modeling of snap-shot SEDs, multi-wavelength light curves and time-dependent polarization signatures of a blazar during a polarization-angle (PA) rotation. This model has recently been generalized to a lepto-hadronic model, in which the high-energy emission is dominated by proton synchrotron radiation. It is shown that in this case, the high-energy (X-ray and $\gamma$-ray) polarization signatures are expected to be significantly more stable (not showing PA rotations) than the low-energy (electron-synchrotron) signatures.

Comments: Accepted for Proceedings of "Blazars through Sharp Multi-Wavelength Eyes", Malaga, Spain, May 30 - June 3, 2016, published in "Galaxies" (MDPI AG, Switzerland)

Similar Publications

Starting from the semi-analytic construction of a equation of state (EoS) which takes into account nuclear and quark matter at finite temperature, we study the possibility that proto-neutron stars, be proto-hybrid stars whose cores are composed of quark matter. We obtain the mass-radius relationship and discuss the latest constraints on masses and radii of neutron stars, considering the pulsars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348 + 0432. Read More

We study the possibility of a hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of neutron stars, taking into account different schematic evolutionary stages at finite temperature. Furthermore, we analyze the astrophysical properties of hot and cold hybrid stars, considering the constraint on maximum mass given by the pulsars J1614-2230 and J1614-2230. We obtain cold hybrid stars with maximum masses $\geq 2$ M$_{\odot}$. Read More

Timing properties of black hole X-ray binaries in outburst can be modeled with mass accretion rate fluctuations propagating towards the black hole. Such models predict time lags between energy bands due to propagation delays. First application of a propagating fluctuations model to black hole power spectra showed good agreement with the data. Read More

This letter complements a formation scenario of the progenitor of the supernova iPTF13bvn proposed in Hirai (2017). Although the scenario was successful in reproducing various observational features of the explosion and pre-explosion photometry by assuming that the progenitor had a relatively large black hole companion, it lacked an explanation for the origin of the black hole itself. We now explore the possible evolutionary paths towards this binary with a relatively large black hole companion. Read More

Context. About 120 Be/X-ray binaries (BeXBs) are known in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC); about half of them are pulsating with periods from a few to hundreds of seconds. SXP 1323 is one of the longest-period pulsars known in this galaxy. Read More

Pulsar timing and laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors are superb laboratories to study gravity theories in the strong-field regime. Here we combine those tools to test the mono-scalar-tensor theory of Damour and Esposito-Far\`ese (DEF), which predicts nonperturbative scalarization phenomena for neutron stars (NSs). First, applying Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques, we use the absence of dipolar radiation in the pulsar-timing observations of five binary systems composed of a NS and a white dwarf, and eleven equations of state (EOS) for NSs, to derive the most stringent constraints on the two free parameters of the DEF scalar-tensor theory. Read More

The propagation of charged cosmic rays through the Galactic environment influences all aspects of the observation at Earth. Energy spectrum, composition and arrival directions are changed due to deflections in magnetic fields and interactions with the interstellar medium. Today the transport is simulated with different simulation methods either based on the solution of a transport equation (multi-particle picture) or a solution of an equation of motion (single-particle picture). Read More

Authors: A. U. Abeysekara, R. Alfaro, C. Alvarez, J. D. Álvarez, R. Arceo, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, D. Avila Rojas, H. A. Ayala Solares, A. S. Barber, N. Bautista-Elivar, J. Becerra Gonzalez, A. Becerril, E. Belmont-Moreno, S. Y. BenZvi, A. Bernal, J. Braun, C. Brisbois, K. S. Caballero-Mora, T. Capistrán, A. Carramiñana, S. Casanova, M. Castillo, U. Cotti, J. Cotzomi, S. Coutiño de León, E. De la Fuente, C. De León, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, B. L. Dingus, M. A. DuVernois, R. W. Ellsworth, K. Engel, D. W. Fiorino, N. Fraija, J. A. García-González, F. Garfias, M. Gerhardt, M. M. González, A. González Muñoz, J. A. Goodman, Z. Hampel-Arias, J. P. Harding, S. Hernandez, A. Hernandez-Almada, B. Hona, C. M. Hui, P. Hüntemeyer, A. Iriarte, A. Jardin-Blicq, V. Joshi, S. Kaufmann, D. Kieda, R. J. Lauer, W. H. Lee, D. Lennarz, H. León Vargas, J. T. Linnemann, A. L. Longinotti, D. López-Cámara, R. López-Coto, G. Luis Raya, R. Luna-García, K. Malone, S. S. Marinelli, O. Martinez, I. Martinez-Castellanos, J. Martínez-Castro, H. Martínez-Huerta, J. A. Matthews, P. Miranda-Romagnoli, E. Moreno, M. Mostafá, L. Nellen, M. Newbold, M. U. Nisa, R. Noriega-Papaqui, R. Pelayo, E. G. Pérez-Pérez, J. Pretz, Z. Ren, C. D. Rho, C. Rivière, D. Rosa-González, M. Rosenberg, E. Ruiz-Velasco, H. Salazar, F. Salesa Greus, A. Sandoval, M. Schneider, H. Schoorlemmer, G. Sinnis, A. J. Smith, R. W. Springer, P. Surajbali, I. Taboada, O. Tibolla, K. Tollefson, I. Torres, T. N. Ukwatta, G. Vianello, T. Weisgarber, S. Westerhoff, I. G. Wisher, J. Wood, T. Yapici, P. W. Younk, A. Zepeda, H. Zhou

We present the development of a real-time flare monitor for the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory. The flare monitor has been fully operational since 2017 January and is designed to detect very high energy (VHE; $E\gtrsim100$ GeV) transient events from blazars on time scales lasting from 2 minutes to 10 hours in order to facilitate multiwavelength and multimessenger studies. These flares provide information for investigations into the mechanisms that power the blazars' relativistic jets and accelerate particles within them, and they may also serve as probes of the populations of particles and fields in intergalactic space. Read More

We report the results of three Chandra observations covering most of the extent of the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1616-508 and a search for a lower energy counterpart to this source. We detect 56 X-ray sources, of which 37 have counterparts at lower frequencies, including a young massive star cluster, but none of them appears to be a particularly promising counterpart to the TeV source. The brightest X-ray source, CXOU J161423. Read More

Considering gravitational waves propagating on the most general 4+N-dimensional space-time, we investigate the effects due to the N extra dimensions on the four-dimensional waves. All wave equations are derived in general and discussed. On Minkowski4 times an arbitrary Ricci-flat compact manifold, we find: a massless wave with an additional polarization, the breathing mode, and extra waves with high frequencies fixed by Kaluza-Klein masses. Read More