Measurement of the Radiation Energy in the Radio Signal of Extensive Air Showers as a Universal Estimator of Cosmic-Ray Energy

2016May
Authors: The Pierre Auger Collaboration, Alexander Aab, Pedro Abreu, Marco Aglietta, Eun-Joo Ahn, Imen Al Samarai, Ivone Albuquerque, Ingomar Allekotte, Patrick Allison, Alejandro Almela, Jesus Alvarez Castillo, Jaime Alvarez-Muñiz, Rafael Alves Batista, Michelangelo Ambrosio, Amin Aminaei, Gioacchino Alex Anastasi, Luis Anchordoqui, Sofia Andringa, Carla Aramo, Fernando Arqueros, Nicusor Arsene, Hernán Gonzalo Asorey, Pedro Assis, Julien Aublin, Gualberto Avila, Nafiun Awal, Alina Mihaela Badescu, Colin Baus, Jim Beatty, Karl Heinz Becker, Jose A. Bellido, Corinne Berat, Mario Edoardo Bertaina, Xavier Bertou, Peter Biermann, Pierre Billoir, Simon G. Blaess, Alberto Blanco, Miguel Blanco, Jiri Blazek, Carla Bleve, Hans Blümer, Martina Boháčová, Denise Boncioli, Carla Bonifazi, Nataliia Borodai, Jeffrey Brack, Iliana Brancus, Thomas Bretz, Ariel Bridgeman, Pedro Brogueira, Peter Buchholz, Antonio Bueno, Stijn Buitink, Mario Buscemi, Karen S. Caballero-Mora, Barbara Caccianiga, Lorenzo Caccianiga, Marina Candusso, Laurentiu Caramete, Rossella Caruso, Antonella Castellina, Gabriella Cataldi, Lorenzo Cazon, Rosanna Cester, Alan G. Chavez, Andrea Chiavassa, Jose Augusto Chinellato, Jiri Chudoba, Marco Cilmo, Roger W Clay, Giuseppe Cocciolo, Roberta Colalillo, Alan Coleman, Laura Collica, Maria Rita Coluccia, Ruben Conceição, Fernando Contreras, Mathew J. Cooper, Alain Cordier, Stephane Coutu, Corbin Covault, James Cronin, Richard Dallier, Bruno Daniel, Sergio Dasso, Kai Daumiller, Bruce R. Dawson, Rogerio M. de Almeida, Sijbrand J. de Jong, Giuseppe De Mauro, Joao de Mello Neto, Ivan De Mitri, Jaime de Oliveira, Vitor de Souza, Luis del Peral, Olivier Deligny, Niraj Dhital, Claudio Di Giulio, Armando Di Matteo, Johana Chirinos Diaz, Mary Lucia Díaz Castro, Francisco Diogo, Carola Dobrigkeit, Wendy Docters, Juan Carlos D'Olivo, Alexei Dorofeev, Qader Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Rita dos Anjos, Maria Teresa Dova, Jan Ebr, Ralph Engel, Martin Erdmann, Mona Erfani, Carlos O. Escobar, Joao Espadanal, Alberto Etchegoyen, Heino Falcke, Ke Fang, Glennys Farrar, Anderson Fauth, Norberto Fazzini, Andrew P. Ferguson, Brian Fick, Juan Manuel Figueira, Alberto Filevich, Andrej Filipčič, Octavian Fratu, Martín Miguel Freire, Toshihiro Fujii, Beatriz García, Diego Garcia-Gamez, Diego Garcia-Pinto, Florian Gate, Hartmut Gemmeke, Alexandru Gherghel-Lascu, Piera Luisa Ghia, Ugo Giaccari, Marco Giammarchi, Maria Giller, Dariusz Głas, Christian Glaser, Henry Glass, Geraldina Golup, Mariano Gómez Berisso, Primo F. Gómez Vitale, Nicolás González, Ben Gookin, Jacob Gordon, Alessio Gorgi, Peter Gorham, Philippe Gouffon, Nathan Griffith, Aurelio Grillo, Trent D. Grubb, Fausto Guarino, Germano Guedes, Matías Rolf Hampel, Patricia Hansen, Diego Harari, Thomas A. Harrison, Sebastian Hartmann, John Harton, Andreas Haungs, Thomas Hebbeker, Dieter Heck, Philipp Heimann, Alexander E. Herve, Gary C. Hill, Carlos Hojvat, Nicholas Hollon, Ewa Holt, Piotr Homola, Jörg Hörandel, Pavel Horvath, Miroslav Hrabovský, Daniel Huber, Tim Huege, Antonio Insolia, Paula Gina Isar, Ingolf Jandt, Stefan Jansen, Cecilia Jarne, Jeffrey A. Johnsen, Mariela Josebachuili, Alex Kääpä, Olga Kambeitz, Karl Heinz Kampert, Peter Kasper, Igor Katkov, Bianca Keilhauer, Ernesto Kemp, Roger Kieckhafer, Hans Klages, Matthias Kleifges, Jonny Kleinfeller, Raphael Krause, Nicole Krohm, Daniel Kuempel, Gasper Kukec Mezek, Norbert Kunka, Alaa Metwaly Kuotb Awad, Danielle LaHurd, Luca Latronico, Robert Lauer, Markus Lauscher, Pascal Lautridou, Sandra Le Coz, Didier Lebrun, Paul Lebrun, Marcelo Augusto Leigui de Oliveira, Antoine Letessier-Selvon, Isabelle Lhenry-Yvon, Katrin Link, Luis Lopes, Rebeca López, Aida López Casado, Karim Louedec, Agustin Lucero, Max Malacari, Manuela Mallamaci, Jennifer Maller, Dusan Mandat, Paul Mantsch, Analisa Mariazzi, Vincent Marin, Ioana Mariş, Giovanni Marsella, Daniele Martello, Humberto Martinez, Oscar Martínez Bravo, Diane Martraire, Jimmy Masías Meza, Hermann-Josef Mathes, Sebastian Mathys, James Matthews, John Matthews, Giorgio Matthiae, Daniela Maurizio, Eric Mayotte, Peter Mazur, Carlos Medina, Gustavo Medina-Tanco, Rebecca Meissner, Victor Mello, Diego Melo, Alexander Menshikov, Stefano Messina, Maria Isabel Micheletti, Lukas Middendorf, Ignacio A. Minaya, Lino Miramonti, Bogdan Mitrica, Laura Molina-Bueno, Silvia Mollerach, François Montanet, Carlo Morello, Miguel Mostafá, Celio A. Moura, Marcio Aparecido Muller, Gero Müller, Sarah Müller, Sergio Navas, Petr Necesal, Lukas Nellen, Anna Nelles, Jens Neuser, Phong H. Nguyen, Mihai Niculescu-Oglinzanu, Marcus Niechciol, Lukas Niemietz, Tim Niggemann, Dave Nitz, Dalibor Nosek, Vladimir Novotny, Lyberis Nožka, Luis Núñez, Livingstone Ochilo, Foteini Oikonomou, Angela Olinto, Noelia Pacheco, Daniel Pakk Selmi-Dei, Miroslav Palatka, Juan Pallotta, Philipp Papenbreer, Gonzalo Parente, Alejandra Parra, Thomas Paul, Miroslav Pech, Jan Pękala, Rodrigo Pelayo, Iuri Pepe, Lorenzo Perrone, Emily Petermann, Christine Peters, Sergio Petrera, Yevgeniy Petrov, Jamyang Phuntsok, Ricardo Piegaia, Tanguy Pierog, Pablo Pieroni, Mário Pimenta, Valerio Pirronello, Manuel Platino, Matthias Plum, Alessio Porcelli, Czeslaw Porowski, Raul Ribeiro Prado, Paolo Privitera, Michael Prouza, Eduardo J Quel, Sven Querchfeld, Sean Quinn, Julian Rautenberg, Olivier Ravel, Diego Ravignani, Darius Reinert, Benoît Revenu, Jan Ridky, Markus Risse, Pablo Ristori, Vincenzo Rizi, Washington Rodrigues de Carvalho, Jorge Rubén Rodriguez Rojo, Maria Dolores Rodríguez-Frías, Dmytro Rogozin, Jaime Rosado, Markus Roth, Esteban Roulet, Adrian Rovero, Steven J. Saffi, Alexandra Saftoiu, Humberto Salazar, Ahmed Saleh, Francisco Salesa Greus, Gaetano Salina, Jose Sanabria Gomez, Federico Sánchez, Patricia Sanchez-Lucas, Edivaldo Moura Santos, Eva Santos, Fred Sarazin, Biswaijt Sarkar, Raul Sarmento, Christian Sarmiento-Cano, Ricardo Sato, Carlos Scarso, Markus Schauer, Viviana Scherini, Harald Schieler, David Schmidt, Olaf Scholten, Harm Schoorlemmer, Petr Schovánek, Frank G. Schröder, Alexander Schulz, Johannes Schulz, Johannes Schumacher, Sergio Sciutto, Alberto Segreto, Mariangela Settimo, Amir Shadkam, Ronald C. Shellard, Guenter Sigl, Octavian Sima, Andrzej Śmiałkowski, Radomir Šmída, Gregory Snow, Paul Sommers, Sebastian Sonntag, J. Sorokin, Ruben Squartini, Yogendra N. Srivastava, Denis Stanca, Samo Stanič, James Stapleton, Jaroslaw Stasielak, Maurice Stephan, Anne Stutz, Federico Suarez, Mauricio Suarez Durán, Tiina Suomijärvi, A. Daniel Supanitsky, Michael Sutherland, John Swain, Zbigniew Szadkowski, Oscar Alejandro Taborda, Alex Tapia, Andreas Tepe, Vanessa Menezes Theodoro, Charles Timmermans, Carlos J. Todero Peixoto, Gabriel Toma, Lenka Tomankova, Bernardo Tomé, Aurelio Tonachini, Guillermo Torralba Elipe, Diego Torres Machado, Petr Travnicek, Marta Trini, Ralf Ulrich, Michael Unger, Martin Urban, Jose F. Valdés Galicia, Ines Valiño, Laura Valore, Guus van Aar, Patrick van Bodegom, Ad M. van den Berg, Sjoert van Velzen, Arjen van Vliet, Enrique Varela, Bernardo Vargas Cárdenas, Gary Varner, Rafael Vasquez, Jose R. Vázquez, Ricardo Vázquez, Darko Veberič, Valerio Verzi, Jakub Vicha, Mariela Videla, Luis Villaseñor, Brian Vlcek, Serguei Vorobiov, Hernan Wahlberg, Oscar Wainberg, David Walz, Alan Watson, Marc Weber, Klaus Weidenhaupt, Andreas Weindl, Christoph Welling, Felix Werner, Allan Widom, Lawrence Wiencke, Henryk Wilczyński, Tobias Winchen, David Wittkowski, Brian Wundheiler, Sarka Wykes, Lili Yang, Tolga Yapici, Alexey Yushkov, Enrique Zas, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Arnulfo Zepeda, Benedikt Zimmermann, Michael Ziolkowski, Francesca Zuccarello

We measure the energy emitted by extensive air showers in the form of radio emission in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. Exploiting the accurate energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we obtain a radiation energy of 15.8 \pm 0.7 (stat) \pm 6.7 (sys) MeV for cosmic rays with an energy of 1 EeV arriving perpendicularly to a geomagnetic field of 0.24 G, scaling quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy. A comparison with predictions from state-of-the-art first-principle calculations shows agreement with our measurement. The radiation energy provides direct access to the calorimetric energy in the electromagnetic cascade of extensive air showers. Comparison with our result thus allows the direct calibration of any cosmic-ray radio detector against the well-established energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

Comments: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DOI. Supplemental material in the ancillary files

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Authors: MAGIC Collaboration, M. L. Ahnen1, S. Ansoldi2, L. A. Antonelli3, P. Antoranz4, C. Arcaro5, A. Babic6, B. Banerjee7, P. Bangale8, U. Barres de Almeida9, J. A. Barrio10, J. Becerra González11, W. Bednarek12, E. Bernardini13, A. Berti14, B. Biasuzzi15, A. Biland16, O. Blanch17, S. Bonnefoy18, G. Bonnoli19, F. Borracci20, T. Bretz21, R. Carosi22, A. Carosi23, A. Chatterjee24, P. Colin25, E. Colombo26, J. L. Contreras27, J. Cortina28, S. Covino29, P. Cumani30, P. Da Vela31, F. Dazzi32, A. De Angelis33, B. De Lotto34, E. de Oña Wilhelmi35, F. Di Pierro36, M. Doert37, A. Domínguez38, D. Dominis Prester39, D. Dorner40, M. Doro41, S. Einecke42, D. Eisenacher Glawion43, D. Elsaesser44, M. Engelkemeier45, V. Fallah Ramazani46, A. Fernández-Barral47, D. Fidalgo48, M. V. Fonseca49, L. Font50, K. Frantzen51, C. Fruck52, D. Galindo53, R. J. García López54, M. Garczarczyk55, D. Garrido Terrats56, M. Gaug57, P. Giammaria58, N. Godinović59, D. Gora60, D. Guberman61, D. Hadasch62, A. Hahn63, M. Hayashida64, J. Herrera65, J. Hose66, D. Hrupec67, G. Hughes68, W. Idec69, K. Kodani70, Y. Konno71, H. Kubo72, J. Kushida73, A. La Barbera74, D. Lelas75, E. Lindfors76, S. Lombardi77, F. Longo78, M. López79, R. López-Coto80, P. Majumdar81, M. Makariev82, K. Mallot83, G. Maneva84, M. Manganaro85, K. Mannheim86, L. Maraschi87, B. Marcote88, M. Mariotti89, M. Martínez90, D. Mazin91, U. Menzel92, J. M. Miranda93, R. Mirzoyan94, A. Moralejo95, E. Moretti96, D. Nakajima97, V. Neustroev98, A. Niedzwiecki99, M. Nievas Rosillo100, K. Nilsson101, K. Nishijima102, K. Noda103, L. Nogués104, S. Paiano105, J. Palacio106, M. Palatiello107, D. Paneque108, R. Paoletti109, J. M. Paredes110, X. Paredes-Fortuny111, G. Pedaletti112, M. Peresano113, L. Perri114, M. Persic115, J. Poutanen116, P. G. Prada Moroni117, E. Prandini118, I. Puljak119, J. R. Garcia120, I. Reichardt121, W. Rhode122, M. Ribó123, J. Rico124, T. Saito125, K. Satalecka126, S. Schroeder127, T. Schweizer128, A. Sillanpää129, J. Sitarek130, I. Snidaric131, D. Sobczynska132, A. Stamerra133, M. Strzys134, T. Surić135, L. Takalo136, F. Tavecchio137, P. Temnikov138, T. Terzić139, D. Tescaro140, M. Teshima141, D. F. Torres142, T. Toyama143, A. Treves144, G. Vanzo145, M. Vazquez Acosta146, I. Vovk147, J. E. Ward148, M. Will149, M. H. Wu150, R. Zanin151
Affiliations: 1ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland, 2Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy, 3INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 4Università di Siena, and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy, 5Università di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova, Italy, 6Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb, Croatia, 7Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Salt Lake, Sector-1, Kolkata 700064, India, 8Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 9Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 10Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain, 11Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, 12University of Łódź, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland, 13Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 14Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy, 15Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy, 16ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland, 17Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 18Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain, 19Università di Siena, and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy, 20Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 21Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany, 22Università di Siena, and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy, 23INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 24Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Salt Lake, Sector-1, Kolkata 700064, India, 25Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 26Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, 27Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain, 28Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 29INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 30Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 31Università di Siena, and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy, 32Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 33Università di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova, Italy, 34Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy, 35Institute for Space Sciences, 36INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 37Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany, 38Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain, 39Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb, Croatia, 40Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany, 41Università di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova, Italy, 42Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany, 43Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany, 44Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany, 45Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany, 46Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku and Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, Finland, 47Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 48Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain, 49Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain, 50Unitat de Física de les Radiacions, Departament de Física, and CERES-IEEC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain, 51Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany, 52Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 53Universitat de Barcelona, ICC, IEEC-UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain, 54Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, 55Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 56Unitat de Física de les Radiacions, Departament de Física, and CERES-IEEC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain, 57Unitat de Física de les Radiacions, Departament de Física, and CERES-IEEC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain, 58INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 59Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb, Croatia, 60Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 61Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 62Japanese MAGIC Consortium, ICRR, The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics and Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Tokai University, The University of Tokushima, Japan, 63Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 64Japanese MAGIC Consortium, ICRR, The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics and Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Tokai University, The University of Tokushima, Japan, 65Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, 66Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 67Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb, Croatia, 68ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland, 69University of Łódź, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland, 70Japanese MAGIC Consortium, ICRR, The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics and Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Tokai University, The University of Tokushima, Japan, 71Japanese MAGIC Consortium, ICRR, The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics and Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Tokai University, The University of Tokushima, Japan, 72Japanese MAGIC Consortium, ICRR, The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics and Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Tokai University, The University of Tokushima, Japan, 73Japanese MAGIC Consortium, ICRR, The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics and Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Tokai University, The University of Tokushima, Japan, 74INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 75Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb, Croatia, 76Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku and Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, Finland, 77INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 78Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy, 79Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain, 80Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 81Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Salt Lake, Sector-1, Kolkata 700064, India, 82Inst. for Nucl. Research and Nucl. Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria, 83Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 84Inst. for Nucl. Research and Nucl. Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria, 85Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, 86Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany, 87INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 88Universitat de Barcelona, ICC, IEEC-UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain, 89Università di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova, Italy, 90Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 91Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 92Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 93Università di Siena, and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy, 94Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 95Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 96Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 97Japanese MAGIC Consortium, ICRR, The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics and Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Tokai University, The University of Tokushima, Japan, 98Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku and Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, Finland, 99University of Łódź, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland, 100Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain, 101Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku and Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, Finland, 102Japanese MAGIC Consortium, ICRR, The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics and Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Tokai University, The University of Tokushima, Japan, 103Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 104Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 105Università di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova, Italy, 106Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 107Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy, 108Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 109Università di Siena, and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy, 110Universitat de Barcelona, ICC, IEEC-UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain, 111Universitat de Barcelona, ICC, IEEC-UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain, 112Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 113Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy, 114INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 115Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy, 116Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku and Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, Finland, 117Università di Pisa, and INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy, 118ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland, 119Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb, Croatia, 120Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 121Università di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova, Italy, 122Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany, 123Universitat de Barcelona, ICC, IEEC-UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain, 124Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 125Japanese MAGIC Consortium, ICRR, The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics and Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Tokai University, The University of Tokushima, Japan, 126Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 127Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany, 128Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 129Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku and Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, Finland, 130University of Łódź, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland, 131Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb, Croatia, 132University of Łódź, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland, 133INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 134Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 135Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb, Croatia, 136Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku and Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, Finland, 137INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy, 138Inst. for Nucl. Research and Nucl. Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria, 139Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb, Croatia, 140Università di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova, Italy, 141Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 142ICREA and Institute for Space Sciences, 143Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 144Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy, 145Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, 146Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, 147Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany, 148Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, 149Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, 150Institute for Space Sciences, 151Universitat de Barcelona, ICC, IEEC-UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain

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2017Feb
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The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with NANTEN2 and Mopra telescope toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composing of an arc-shaped cloud in one side of a TeV-ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) in another side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with interstellar neutral hydrogen (HI) clumps. Read More


In this paper we treat the pre-ionisation problem in shocks over the velocity range $10 < v_{\rm s} < 1500$\,km/s in a self-consistent manner. We identify four distinct classes of solution controlled by the value of the shock precursor parameter, $\Psi = {\cal Q}/v_s$, where ${\cal Q}$ is the ionization parameter of the UV photons escaping upstream. This parameter determines both the temperature and the degree of ionisation of the gas entering the shock. Read More


The radio evolution of, so far the youngest known, Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3 is investigated by using three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic modeling and non-linear kinetic theory of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in SNRs. Read More


(abridged) The dominant thermal mechanisms in the neutral interstellar medium, which acts as a star-forming gas reservoir, are uncertain in extremely metal-poor galaxies. Our objective is to identify the heating mechanisms in one such galaxy, IZw18, and assess the diagnostic value of fine-structure cooling lines. We also seek to constrain the mass of H$_2$, which, despite being an important catalyst and tracer of star formation, remains elusive in this object. Read More