# Electroexcitation of the $Δ^{+}(1232)$ at low momentum transfer

**Authors:**A. Blomberg, D. Anez, N. Sparveris, A. Sarty, M. Paolone, S. Gilad, D. Higinbotham, A. R. Abudureyimu, Z. Ahmed, H. Albataineh, K. Allada, B. Anderson, K. Aniol, J. Annand, T. Averett, H. Baghdasaryan, X. Bai, A. Beck, S. Beck, V. Bellini, F. Benmokhtar, W. Boeglin, C. M. Camacho, A. Camsonne, C. Chen, J. P. Chen, K. Chirapatpimol, E. Cisbani, M. Dalton, W. Deconinck, M. Defurne, R. De Leo, D. Flay, N. Fomin, M. Friend, S. Frullani, E. Fuchey, F. Garibaldi, R. Gilman, C. Gu, D. Hamilton, C. Hanretty, O. Hansen, M. Hashemi Shabestari, T. Holmstrom, M. Huang, S. Iqbal, N. Kalantarians, H. Kang, A. Kelleher, M. Khandaker, J. Leckey, J. LeRose, R. Lindgren, E. Long, J. Mammei, D. J. Margaziotis, A. Marti Jimenez-Arguello, Z. E. Meziani, M. Mihovilovic, N. Muangma, B. Norum, Nuruzzaman, K. Pan, S. Phillips, A. Polychronopoulou, I. Pomerantz, M. Posik, V. Punjabi, X. Qian, P. E. Reimer, S. Riordan, G. Ron, A. Saha, E. Schulte, L. Selvy, S. Sirca, J. Sjoegren, R. Subedi, V. Sulkosky, W. Tireman, D. Wang, J. Watson, L. Weinstein, B. Wojtsekhowski, W. Yan, I. Yaron, Z. Ye, X. Zhan, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. Zhao, X. Zheng, P. Zhu

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

We report on new p$(e,e^\prime p)\pi^\circ$ measurements at the $\Delta^{+}(1232)$ resonance at the low momentum transfer region. The mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing in this kinematic region offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the low $Q^2$ dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes while extending the measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached. The results disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The reported measurements suggest that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements.

## Similar Publications

We present an account of the current status of the theoretical treatment of inclusive $(d,p)$ reactions in the breakup--fusion formalism, pointing to some applications and making the connection with current experimental capabilities. Three independent implementations of the reaction formalism have been recently developed, making use of different numerical strategies. The codes also originally relied on two different but equivalent representations, namely the prior (Udagawa--Tamura, UT) and the post (Ichimura--Austern--Vincent, IAV) representations. Read More

Over the last two decades transfer reactions have seen a resurgence following developments in methods to use them with exotic beams. An important step in this evolution was the ability to perform the (d,p) reaction on fission fragment beams using the inverse kinematics technique, built on the experience with light beams. There has been renewed interest in using ($^9$Be, $^8$Be) and ($^{13}$C, $^{12}$C) reactions to selectively populate single-particle like states that can be studied via their subsequent decay. Read More

A scaling phenomenon in the cross section for fragments has been found in the projectile fragmentation reaction, and an empirical scaling formula is proposed by considering the dependence of cross section on the size and asymmetry of the reaction system and the fragment itself. Furthermore, the empirical scaling formula is used to predict the production of fragment in the $^{68}$Ni/$^{69}$Cu/$^{72}$Zn + $^9$Be reactions around 90$A$ MeV. Compared to the results calculated by the statistical abrasion ablation model and the {\sc epax3} parameterizations, the empirical scaling formula can better reproduce the measured fragments. Read More

We investigate structure of $^{13}_\Lambda{\rm C}$ and discuss the difference and similarity between the structures of $^{12}{\rm C}$ and $^{13}_\Lambda{\rm C}$ by answering the questions if the linear-chain and gaslike cluster states, which are proposed to appear in $^{12}{\rm C}$, survives, or new structure states appear or not. We introduce a microscopic cluster model called, Hyper-Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-R\"opke (H-THSR) wave function, which is an extended version of the THSR wave function so as to describe $\Lambda$ hypernuclei. We obtained two bound states and two resonance (quasi-bound) states for $J^\pi=0^+$ in $^{13}_\Lambda{\rm C}$, corresponding to the four $0^+$ states in $^{12}{\rm C}$. Read More

**Authors:**M. Dieterle, L. Witthauer, F. Cividini, S. Abt, P. Achenbach, P. Adlarson, F. Afzal, Z. Ahmed, C. S. Akondi, J. R. M. Annand, H. J. Arends, M. Bashkanov, R. Beck, M. Biroth, N. S. Borisov, A. Braghieri, W. J. Briscoe, S. Costanza, C. Collicott, A. Denig, E. J. Downie, P. Drexler, M. I. Ferretti-Bondy, S. Gardner, S. Garni, D. I. Glazier, D. Glowa, W. Gradl, M. Günther, G. M. Gurevich, D. Hamilton, D. Hornidge, G. M. Huber, A. Käser, V. L. Kashevarov, S. Kay, I. Keshelashvili, R. Kondratiev, M. Korolija, B. Krusche, A. B. Lazarev, J. M. Linturi, V. Lisin, K. Livingston, S. Lutterer, I. J. D. MacGregor, J. Mancell, D. M. Manley, P. P. Martel, V. Metag, W. Meyer, R. Miskimen, E. Mornacchi, A. Mushkarenkov, A. B. Neganov, A. Neiser, M. Oberle, M. Ostrick, P. B. Otte, D. Paudyal, P. Pedroni, A. Polonski, S. N. Prakhov, A. Rajabi, G. Reicherz, G. Ron, T. Rostomyan, A. Sarty, C. Sfienti, M. H. Sikora, V. Sokhoyan, K. Spieker, O. Steffen, I. I. Strakovsky, Th. Strub, I. Supek, A. Thiel, M. Thiel, A. Thomas, M. Unverzagt, Yu. A. Usov, S. Wagner, N. K. Walford D. P. Watts, D. Werthmüller, J. Wettig, M. Wolfes, L. Zana

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

The double-polarization observable $E$ and the helicity-dependent cross sections $\sigma_{1/2}$ and $\sigma_{3/2}$ have been measured for the first time for single $\pi^{0}$ photoproduction from protons and neutrons bound in the deuteron at the electron accelerator facility MAMI in Mainz, Germany. The experiment used a circularly polarized photon beam and a longitudinally polarized deuterated butanol target. The reaction products, recoil nucleons and decay photons from the $\pi^0$ meson were detected with the Crystal Ball and TAPS electromagnetic calorimeters. Read More

We give a precision analysis of the correlation coefficients of the electron-energy spectrum and angular distribution of the beta decay and radiative beta decay of the neutron with polarized neutron and electron to order 10^(-3). The calculation of correlation coefficients is carried out within the Standard model with contributions of order 10^(-3), caused by the weak magnetism and proton recoil, taken to next-to-leading order in the large proton mass expansion, and with radiative corrections of order "alpha/pi ~ 10^(-3", calculated to leading order in the large proton mass expansion. The obtained results can be used for the planning of experiments on the search for contributions of order 10^(-4) of interactions beyond the Standard model. Read More

We demonstrate that the microscopic Time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory provides an important approach to shed light on the nuclear dynamics leading to the formation of superheavy elements. In particular, we discuss studying quasifission dynamics and calculating ingredients for compound nucleus formation probability calculations. We also discuss possible extensions to TDHF to address the distribution of observables. Read More

**Authors:**A. Yoshimi, H. Hara, T. Hiraki, Y. Kasamatsu, S. Kitao, Y. Kobayashi, K. Konashi, R. Masuda, T. Masuda, Y. Miyamoto, K. Okai, S. Okubo, R. Ozaki, N. Sasao, O. Sato, M. Seto, T. Schumm, Y. Shigekawa, S. Stellmer, K. Suzuki, S. Uetake, M. Watanabe, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Yasuda, Y. Yoda, K. Yoshimura, M. Yoshimura

Nuclear resonant excitation of the 29.19-keV level in $^{229}$Th with high-brilliance synchrotron- radiation and detection of its decay signal, are proposed with the aim of populating the extremely low-energy isomeric state of $^{229}$Th.The proposed experiment, known as nuclear resonant scattering (NRS), has the merit of being free from uncertainties about the isomer level energy. Read More

The heavy-ion induced reactions on intermediate mass targets are complex in nature, even at the low energies. To understand those nuclear reaction phenomena in detail, more experimental studies are required in a wide range of energy. Heavy-ion reactions were investigated by measuring production cross sections of the residues produced in the $^{11}$B-induced reactions on $^{89}$Y and $^{93}$Nb at low energies, near and above the barrier, and to check the effectiveness of the different nuclear models to explain them. Read More

Formally, the cross section for producing a heavy evaporation residue, {\sigma}EVR, in a fusion reaction can be written as. \begin{equation} \sigma_{\rm EVR}(E)=\frac{\pi h^2}{2\mu E}\sum\limits_{\ell=0}^\infty (2\ell+1)T(E,\ell)P_{\rm CN}(E,\ell)W_{\rm sur}(E,\ell), \end{equation} where E is the center of mass energy, and T is the probability of the colliding nuclei to overcome the potential barrier in the entrance channel and reach the contact point. PCN is the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve from the contact point to the compound nucleus. Read More