Effects of dust feedback on vortices in protoplanetary disks

We carried out two-dimensional high-resolution simulations to study the effect of dust feedback on the evolution of vortices induced by massive planets in protoplanetary disks. Various initial dust to gas disk surface density ratios ($0.001$ -- $0.01$) and dust particle sizes (Stokes number $4\times10^{-4}$ -- $0.16$) are considered. We found that while dust particles migrate inwards, vortices are very effective in collecting them. When dust density becomes comparable to gas density within the vortex, a dynamical instability is excited and it alters the coherent vorticity pattern and destroys the vortex. This dust feedback effect is stronger with higher initial dust/gas density ratio and larger dust grain. Consequently, we found that the disk vortex lifetime can be reduced up to a factor of 10. We discuss the implications of our findings on the survivability of vortices in protoplanetary disks and planet formation.

Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

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