Yuval Grossman - Cornell University

Yuval Grossman
Are you Yuval Grossman?

Claim your profile, edit publications, add additional information:

Contact Details

Yuval Grossman
Cornell University
United States

Pubs By Year

Pub Categories

High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (50)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (7)
High Energy Physics - Theory (2)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1)

Publications Authored By Yuval Grossman

We discuss the very rare, exclusive hadronic decays of a Z boson into a meson and a photon. The QCD factorization approach allows to organize the decay amplitude as an expansion in powers of $\Lambda_{\rm QCD}/m_Z\,$, where the leading terms contain convolutions of perturbatively calculable hard functions with the leading-twist light-cone distribution amplitudes of the meson. We find that power corrections to these leading terms are negligible since they are suppressed by the small ratio $(\Lambda_{\rm QCD}/m_Z)^2\,$. Read More

Experimental measurements of the ratios $R(D^{(*)})\equiv\frac{\Gamma(B\to D^{(*)}\tau\nu)}{\Gamma(B\to D^{(*)}\ell\nu)}$ ($\ell=e,\mu$) show a $3.9\sigma$ deviation from the Standard Model prediction. In the absence of light right-handed neutrinos, a new physics contribution to $b\to c\tau\nu$ decays necessarily modifies also $b\bar b\to\tau^+\tau^-$ and/or $c\bar c\to\tau^+\tau^-$ transitions. Read More

We study several aspects of supersymmetric models with a $U(1)_R$ symmetry where the Higgs doublet is identified with the superpartner of a lepton. We derive new, stronger bounds on the gaugino masses based on current measurements, and also propose ways to probe the model up to scales of $\mathcal{O}(10\, \textrm{TeV})$ at future $e^+e^-$ colliders. Since the $U(1)_R$ symmetry cannot be exact, we analyze the effects of $R$-symmetry breaking on neutrino masses and proton decay. Read More

We study rare four-body decays of the Z-boson involving at least one neutrino and one charged lepton. Large destructive interferences make these decays very sensitive to the Z couplings to neutrinos. As the identified charged leptons can determine the neutrino flavors, these decays probe the universality of the Z couplings to neutrinos. Read More

We revisit the topic of triple-product asymmetries which probe CP violation through differential distributions. We construct distributions with well-defined discrete symmetry properties and characterize the asymmetries formed upon them. It is stressed that the simplest asymmetries may not be optimal. Read More

With the discovery of the Higgs boson the Standard Model has become a complete and comprehensive theory, which has been verified with unparalleled precision and in principle might be valid at all scales. However, several reasons remain why we firmly believe that there should be physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments such as the LHC, new $B$ factories, and earth- and space-based astro-particle experiments provide us with unique opportunities to discover a coherent framework for many of the long-standing puzzles of our field. Read More

In new-physics processes that produce b or c jets, a measurement of the initial b or c-quark polarization could provide crucial information about the structure of the new physics. In the heavy-quark limit, the b and c-quark polarizations are preserved in the lightest baryons they hadronize into, Lambda_b and Lambda_c, respectively. We revisit the prediction for the polarization retention after the hadronization process and extend it to the case of transverse polarization. Read More

We show that the parity of the $h Z\gamma$ vertex can be probed by interference between the gluon fusion Higgs production, $gg \to h \to \gamma Z \to \gamma \ell^+\ell^-$, and the background, $gg \to \gamma Z \to \gamma \ell^+\ell^-$, amplitudes. In the presence of a parity violating $hZ\gamma$ vertex, this interference alters the kinematic distribution of the leptons and photon compared to Standard Model (SM) expectations. For a Higgs with SM-sized width and couplings, we find that the size of the effect enters at most at the $10^{-2}$ level. Read More

We present a detailed theoretical analysis of very rare, exclusive hadronic decays of the electroweak gauge bosons V=W, Z from first principles of QCD. Our main focus is on the radiative decays V->M+gamma, in which M is a pseudoscalar or vector meson. At leading order in an expansion in powers of Lambda_{QCD}/m_V the decay amplitudes can be factorized into convolutions of calculable hard-scattering coefficients with the leading-twist light-cone distribution amplitude of the meson M. Read More

The simplest neutrino mass models based on $A_4$ symmetry predict $\theta_{13} = 0$ at tree level, a value that contradicts recent data. We study models that arise from the spontaneous breaking of an $SO(3)$ symmetry to its $A_4$ subgroup, and find that such models can naturally accommodate a nonzero $\theta_{13}$ at tree level. Standard Model charged leptons mix with additional heavy ones to generate a $\theta_{13}$ that scales with the ratio of the $A_4$-breaking to $SO(3)$-breaking scales. Read More

We study the generation of neutrino masses and mixing in supersymmetric R-parity violating models containing two pairs of Higgs doublets. In these models, new RPV terms $\hat H_{D_1} \hat H_{D_2} \hat E$ arise in the superpotential, as well as new soft terms. Such terms give new contributions to neutrino masses. Read More

A first measurement of time-reversal (T) asymmetries that are not also CP asymmetries has been recently achieved by the BaBar collaboration. We analyze the measured asymmetries in the presence of direct CP violation, CPT violation, wrong strangeness decays and wrong sign semileptonic decays. We note that the commonly used S_{\psi K} and C_{\psi K} parameters are CP-odd, but have a T-odd CPT-even part and a T-even CPT-odd part. Read More

We study Higgs diphoton decays, in which both photons undergo nuclear conversion to electron- positron pairs. The kinematic distribution of the two electron-positron pairs may be used to probe the CP violating (CPV) coupling of the Higgs to photons, that may be produced by new physics. Detecting CPV in this manner requires interference between the spin-polarized helicity amplitudes for both conversions. Read More

If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. Read More

The decay $B^{\pm}\to DK^{\pm}$ followed by the subsequent decay of the $D$ meson into final states involving a neutral kaon can be used to determine the CKM angle $\gamma$. We study CP violation effects due to mixing and decay of the final state kaon. We find that ignoring these effects produce a shift in $\gamma$ of order $\epsilon_{K}/r_{B}$, an enhancement of $1/r_B$ compared to the naive expectation. Read More

The recent LHCb measurements of the $B_s \to K^-\pi^+$ and $B_s \to K^+K^-$ rates and CP asymmetries are in agreement with U-spin expectations from $B_d \to K^+\pi^-$ and $B_d \to \pi^+\pi^-$ results. We derive the complete set of isospin, U-spin, and SU(3) relations among the CP asymmetries in two-body charmless $B \to PP$ and $B \to PV$ decays, some of which are novel. To go beyond the unbroken SU(3) limit, we present relations which are properly defined and normalized to allow incorporation of SU(3) breaking in the simplest manner. Read More

The Higgs-like signal observed at the LHC could be due to several mass degenerate resonances. We show that the number of resonances is related to the rank of a "production and decay" matrix, $R_{if}$. Each entry in this matrix contains the observed rate in a particular production mode $i$ and final state $f$. Read More

We present flavor SU(3) sum rules for $D \to PP$ and $D \to PV$ decay amplitudes, that are valid to second order in symmetry breaking by the strange quark mass spurion. Decay rate sum rules are also computed to this order. Particular attention is given to sum rules arising from the isospin and U-spin subgroups, the former providing sensitive tests for alternative sources of SU(3) breaking. Read More

We study a supersymmetric phenomenon that can give spectacular signals at the LHC: oscillations of neutralinos. Such oscillations can be naturally realised in R-symmetric models, where additional fields are introduced as Dirac mass partners of gauginos and Higgsinos. Majorana masses for gauginos, necessarily generated from anomaly mediation, can create tiny mass splittings between degenerate mass eigenstates, causing states produced at the LHC to oscillate between neutralinos and their Dirac partner fields. Read More

R-parity violating supersymmetry in a Minimal Flavor Violation paradigm can produce same-sign dilepton signals via direct sbottom-LSP pair production. Such signals arise when the sbottom hadronizes and the resulting mesino oscillates into an anti-mesino. The first bounds on the sbottom mass are placed in this scenario using current LHC results. Read More

Three body decays can exhibit CP violation that arises from interfering diagrams with different orderings of the final state particles. We construct several momentum asymmetry observables that are accessible in a hadron collider environment where some of the final state particles are not reconstructed and not all the kinematic information can be extracted. We discuss the complications that arise from the different possible production mechanisms of the decaying particle. Read More

We devise tests for a new physics origin of the recently measured direct CP violation in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays. The tests take the form of sum rules for the CP asymmetries in various D decays. They are based on the fact that within the standard model CP violation arises from interference of the dominant tree amplitudes with the Delta I=1/2 penguin amplitudes. Read More

A long-standing puzzle in charm physics is the large difference between the D0 -> K+ K- and D0 -> pi+ pi- decay rates. Recently, the LHCb and CDF collaborations reported a surprisingly large difference between the direct CP asymmetries, Delta A_CP, in these two modes. We show that the two puzzles are naturally related in the Standard Model via s- and d-quark "penguin contractions". Read More

In the supersymmetric framework, a higgsino asymmetry exists in the universe before the electroweak phase transition. We investigate whether the higgsino is a viable asymmetric dark matter candidate. We find that this is indeed possible. Read More

We present an alternative approach to low-energy supersymmetry. Instead of imposing R-parity we apply the minimal flavor violation (MFV) hypothesis to the R-parity violating MSSM. In this framework, which we call MFV SUSY, squarks can be light and the proton long lived without producing missing energy signals at the LHC. Read More

The $B$-factories have measured CP asymmetries in the $\tau\to\pi K_S\nu$ and $D\to K_S\pi$ modes. The $K_S$ state is identified by its decay to two pions at a time that is close to the $K_S$ lifetime. Within the Standard Model and many of its extensions, the asymmetries in these modes come from CP violation in $K^0-\bar{K}^0$ mixing. Read More

Kinematic edges in cascade decays provide a probe of the masses of new particles. In some new physics scenarios the decay chain involves intermediate particles of different flavors that can mix and oscillate. We discuss the implication of such oscillation, and in particular its interplay with the non-zero widths of the particles. Read More

We study the renormalization group equations (RGEs) of the neutrino parameters in models of Minimal Lepton Flavor Violation. In such models, the RGEs can be described in terms of flavor spurions, such that only the coefficients depend on the specific model. We explicitly demonstrate this method for the SM and MSSM for both Type-I and Type-III seesaw models. Read More

We study a new type of CP violating observable that arises in three body decays that are dominated by an intermediate resonance. If two interfering diagrams exist with different orderings of final state particles, the required CP-even phase arises due to the different virtualities of the resonance in each of the two diagrams. This method can be an important tool for accessing new CP phases at the LHC and future colliders. Read More

Neutrino oscillation experiments are known to be sensitive to Non-Standard Interactions (NSIs). We extend the NSI formalism to include one-loop effects. We discuss universal effects induced by corrections to the tree level W exchange, as well as non-universal effects that can arise from scalar charged current interactions. Read More

We present a mechanism that naturally produces light Dirac neutrinos. The basic idea is that the right-handed neutrinos are composite. Any realistic composite model must involve `hidden flavor' chiral symmetries. Read More

This set of lectures covers the very basics of flavor physics and are aimed to be an entry point to the subject. A lot of problems are provided in the hope of making the manuscript a self study guide. Read More

We present an analysis of the loop-induced magnetic dipole operator in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and an IR brane localized Higgs. These operators are finite at one-loop order and we explicitly calculate the branching ratio for mu to e gamma using the mixed position/momentum space formalism. The particular bound on the anarchic Yukawa and KK scales can depend on the flavor structure of the anarchic matrices. Read More

The lepton sector masses and mixing angles can be explained in models based on $A_4$ symmetry. $A_4$ is a non-Abelian discrete group. Therefore, one issue in constructing models based on it is explaining the origin of $A_4$. Read More

If Micro Black Holes (MBHs) can be produced at the LHC, they will decay very fast. We study hypothetical MBHs that do not decay; in particular, QCD effects on accretion by MBHs that are produced at rest. We explain why accretion of a nucleon by such MBHs is associated with pion emission. Read More

An impressive progress in measurements of the D-\bar D mixing parameters has been made in recent years. We explore the implications of these measurements to models of new physics, especially in view of recent upper bounds on the amount of CP violation. We update the constraints on non-renormalizable four-quark operators. Read More

In recent years, the CKM picture of flavor and CP violation has been confirmed, mainly due to B decay data. Yet, it is likely that there are small corrections to this picture. We expect to find new physics not much above the weak scale. Read More

If new CP violating physics contributes to neutral meson mixing, but its contribution to CP violation in decay amplitudes is negligible, then there is a model independent relation between four (generally independent) observables related to the mixing: The mass splitting (x), the width splitting (y), the CP violation in mixing (1-|q/p|), and the CP violation in the interference of decays with and without mixing (\phi). For the four neutral meson systems, this relation can be written in a simple approximate form: y tan\phi ~ x(|q/p|-1). This relation is already tested (successfully) in the neutral K system. Read More

New physics at high energy scale often contributes to K-\bar K and D-\bar D mixings in an approximately SU(2)_L invariant way. In such a case, the combination of measurements in these two systems is particularly powerful. The resulting constraints can be expressed in terms of misalignments and flavor splittings. Read More

Models with composite singlet neutrinos can give small Majorana or Dirac masses to the active neutrinos. The mechanism is based on the fact that conserved chiral symmetries give massless neutrinos at the renormalizable level. Thus, they acquire very small masses due to non-renormalizable terms. Read More

We present rules for determining the number of physical parameters in models with exact flavor symmetries. In such models the total number of parameters (physical and unphysical) needed to described a matrix is less than in a model without the symmetries. Several toy examples are studied in order to demonstrate the rules. Read More

Measurements of lifetimes can be done in two ways. For very short lived particles, the width can be measured. For long lived ones, the lifetime can be directly measured, for example, using a displaced vertex. Read More

If the LHC experiments discover new particles that couple to the Standard Model fermions, then measurements by ATLAS and CMS can contribute to our understanding of the flavor puzzles. We demonstrate this statement by investigating a scenario where extra SU(2)-singlet down-type quarks are within the LHC reach. By measuring masses, production cross sections and relative decay rates, minimal flavor violation (MFV) can in principle be excluded. Read More

We obtain model independent relations among neutrino masses and leptogenesis parameters. We find exact relations that involve the CP asymmetries $\epsilon_{N_\alpha}$, the washout parameters $\tilde m_\alpha$ and $\theta_{\alpha\beta}$, and the neutrino masses $m_i$ and $M_\alpha$, as well as powerful inequalities that involve just $\tilde m_\alpha$ and $m_i$. We prove that the Yukawa interactions of at least two of the heavy singlet neutrinos are in the strong washout region ($\tilde m_\alpha\gg10^{-3} eV$). Read More

The weak phase \gamma can be determined using untagged B^0\to DK_S or B_s\to D\phi, D\eta^{(')} decays. In the past, the small lifetime difference y\equiv \Delta\Gamma/(2\Gamma) has been neglected in B^0, while the CP violating parameter \epsilon\equiv 1-|q/p|^2 has been neglected in both B^0-\bar B^0 and B_s-\bar B_s mixing. We estimate the effect of neglecting y and \epsilon. Read More

We argue that fast interactions of the lightest singlet neutrino $N_1$ would project part of a preexisting lepton asymmetry $L_p$ onto a direction that is protected from $N_1$ washout effects, thus preventing it from being erased. In particular, we consider an asymmetry generated in $N_2$ decays, assuming that $N_1$ interactions are fast enough to bring $N_1$ into full thermal equilibrium. If $N_1$ decays occur at $T\gsim 10^9$ GeV, that is, before the muon Yukawa interactions enter into thermal equilibrium, then generically part of $L_p$ survives. Read More

We study a simple extension of the standard model where scalar singlets that mix with the Higgs doublet are added. This modification to the standard model could have a significant impact on Higgs searches at the LHC. The Higgs doublet is not a mass eigenstate and therefore the expected nice peak of the standard model Higgs disappears. Read More

We analyze various theoretical aspects of CP violation in singly Cabibbo suppressed (SCS) D-meson decays, such as $D \to K K,\pi \pi$. In particular, we explore the possibility that CP asymmetries will be measured close to the present level of experimental sensitivity of $O(10^{-2})$. Such measurements would signal new physics. Read More

New physics contributions to B_s-\bar{B}_s mixing can be parametrized by the size (r_s^2) and the phase (2\theta_s) of the total mixing amplitude relative to the Standard Model amplitude. The phase has so far been unconstrained. We first use the D0 measurement of the semileptonic CP asymmetry A_SL to obtain the first constraint on the semileptonic CP asymmetry in B_s decays, A_SL^s=-0. Read More

We investigate whether postulating the existence of Lorentz-violating, CPT-conserving interactions allows three-neutrino solutions to the LSND anomaly that are also consistent with all other neutrino data. We show that Lorentz-violating interactions that couple only to one of the active neutrinos have the right properties to explain all the data. The details of the data make this solution unattractive. Read More