# Yuri V. Kovchegov - Ohio State University

## Contact Details

NameYuri V. Kovchegov |
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AffiliationOhio State University |
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CityColumbus |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (48) Nuclear Theory (26) High Energy Physics - Theory (17) Nuclear Experiment (8) High Energy Physics - Experiment (4) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) High Energy Physics - Lattice (1) |

## Publications Authored By Yuri V. Kovchegov

In this Letter, we analytically solve the evolution equations for the small-$x$ asymptotic behavior of the (flavor singlet) quark helicity distribution in the large-$N_c$ limit. These evolution equations form a set of coupled integro-differential equations, which previously could only be solved numerically. This approximate numerical solution, however, revealed simplifying properties of the small-$x$ asymptotics, which we exploit here to obtain an analytic solution. Read More

We construct small-$x$ evolution equations which can be used to calculate quark and anti-quark helicity TMDs and PDFs, along with the $g_1$ structure function. These evolution equations resum powers of $\alpha_s \, \ln^2 (1/x)$ in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the powers of $\alpha_s \, \ln (1/x)$ in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects. The equations are written in an operator form in terms of polarization-dependent Wilson line-like operators. Read More

We construct a numerical solution of the small-$x$ evolution equations recently derived in \cite{Kovchegov:2015pbl} for the (anti)quark helicity TMDs and PDFs as well as the $g_1$ structure function. We focus on the case of large $N_c$ where one finds a closed set of equations. Employing the extracted intercept, we are able to predict directly from theory the behavior of the helicity PDFs at small $x$, which should have important phenomenological consequences. Read More

We extend our earlier results for the quark helicity evolution at small $x$ to derive the small-$x$ asymptotics of the flavor singlet and flavor non-singlet quark helicity TMDs and PDFs and of the $g_1$ structure function. In the flavor singlet case we re-derive the evolution equations obtained in our previous paper on the subject, performing additional cross-checks of our results. In the flavor non-singlet case we construct new small-$x$ evolution equations by employing the large-$N_c$ limit. Read More

**Authors:**Elke-Caroline Aschenauer

^{1}, Christine Aidala

^{2}, Alexander Bazilevsky

^{3}, Markus Diehl

^{4}, Renee Fatemi

^{5}, Carl Gagliardi

^{6}, Zhongbo Kang

^{7}, Yuri V. Kovchegov

^{8}, Jamal Jalilian-Marian

^{9}, John Lajoie

^{10}, Dennis V. Perepelitsa

^{11}, Ralf Seidl

^{12}, Rodolfo Sassot

^{13}, Ernst Sichter-mann

^{14}, Marco Stratmann

^{15}, Stephen Trentalange

^{16}, Werner Vogelsang

^{17}, Anselm Vossen

^{18}, Pia Zurita

^{19}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}BNL,

^{2}U. Michigan,

^{3}BNL,

^{4}DESY,

^{5}Kentucky U.,

^{6}Texas A&M,

^{7}Los Alamos,

^{8}Ohio State U.,

^{9}Baruch U.,

^{10}Iowa State U.,

^{11}BNL,

^{12}Riken,

^{13}Buenos Aires U.,

^{14}LBNL,

^{15}Univ. of Tuebingen,

^{16}UCLA,

^{17}Univ. of Tuebingen,

^{18}Indiana U.,

^{19}Univ. de Santiago de Compostela

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

The exploration of the fundamental structure of strongly interacting matter has always thrived on the complementarity of lepton scattering and purely hadronic probes. As the community eagerly anticipates a future electron ion collider (EIC) in the U.S. Read More

We construct small-x evolution equations which can be used to calculate quark and anti-quark helicity TMDs and PDFs, along with the $g_1$ structure function. These evolution equations resum powers of $\alpha_s \, \ln^2 (1/x)$ in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the powers of $\alpha_s \, \ln (1/x)$ in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects. The equations are written in an operator form in terms of polarization-dependent Wilson line-like operators. Read More

Perturbative QCD calculations in the light-cone gauge have long suffered from the ambiguity associated with the regularization of the poles in the gluon propagator. In this work we study sub-gauge conditions within the light-cone gauge corresponding to several known ways of regulating the gluon propagator. Using the functional integral calculation of the gluon propagator, we rederive the known sub-gauge conditions for the theta-function gauges and identify the sub-gauge condition for the principal value (PV) regularization of the gluon propagator's light-cone poles. Read More

We set up a formalism for calculating transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) using the tools of saturation physics. By generalizing the quasi-classical Glauber-Gribov-Mueller/McLerran-Venugopalan approximation to allow for the possibility of spin-orbit coupling, we show how any TMD can be calculated in the saturation framework. This can also be applied to the TMDs of a proton by modeling it as a large "nucleus. Read More

We calculate the classical single-gluon production amplitude in nucleus-nucleus collisions including the first saturation correction in one of the nuclei (the projectile) while keeping multiple-rescattering (saturation) corrections to all orders in the other nucleus (the target). In our approximation only two nucleons interact in the projectile nucleus: the single-gluon production amplitude we calculate is order-g^3 and is leading-order in the atomic number of the projectile, while resumming all order-one saturation corrections in the target nucleus. Our result is the first step towards obtaining an analytic expression for the first projectile saturation correction to the gluon production cross section in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Read More

**Authors:**Elke-Caroline Aschenauer

^{1}, Alexander Bazilevsky

^{2}, Markus Diehl

^{3}, James Drachenberg

^{4}, Kjeld Oleg Eyser

^{5}, Renee Fatemi

^{6}, Carl Gagliardi

^{7}, Zhongbo Kang

^{8}, Yuri V. Kovchegov

^{9}, John Lajoie

^{10}, Jeong-Hun Lee

^{11}, Emanuele-R. Nocera

^{12}, Daniel Pitonyak

^{13}, Alexei Prokudin

^{14}, Rodolfo Sassot

^{15}, Ralf Seidl

^{16}, Ernst Sichtermann

^{17}, Matt Sievert

^{18}, Bernd Surrow

^{19}, Marco Stratmann

^{20}, Werner Vogelsang

^{21}, Anselm Vossen

^{22}, Scott W. Wissink

^{23}, Feng Yuan

^{24}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}BNL,

^{2}BNL,

^{3}DESY,

^{4}Valparaiso U.,

^{5}BNL,

^{6}Kentucky U.,

^{7}Texas A&M,

^{8}Los Alamos,

^{9}Ohio State U.,

^{10}Iowa State U.,

^{11}BNL,

^{12}Milano U. & INFN,

^{13}BNL,

^{14}JLab,

^{15}Buenos Aires U.,

^{16}Riken,

^{17}LBNL,

^{18}BNL,

^{19}Temple U.,

^{20}Univ. of Tuebingen,

^{21}Univ. of Tuebingen,

^{22}Indiana U.,

^{23}Indiana U.,

^{24}LBNL

Time and again, spin has been a key element in the exploration of fundamental physics. Spin-dependent observables have often revealed deficits in the assumed theoretical framework and have led to novel developments and concepts. Spin is exploited in many parity-violating experiments searching for physics beyond the Standard Model or studying the nature of nucleon-nucleon forces. Read More

We present a short overview of saturation physics followed by a summary of the recent progress in our understanding of nonlinear small-$x$ evolution. Topics include McLerran-Venugopalan model, Glauber-Mueller approximation, nonlinear BK/JIMWLK evolution equations, along with the running-coupling and NLO corrections to these equations. We conclude with selected topics in saturation phenomenology. Read More

We obtain a simple analytic expression for the high energy $\gamma^* \gamma^*$ scattering cross section at the next-to-leading order in the logarithms-of-energy power counting. To this end we employ the eigenfunctions of the NLO BFKL equation constructed in our previous paper. We also construct the eigenfunctions of the NNLO BFKL kernel and obtain a general form of the solution for the NNLO BFKL equation, which confirms the ansatz proposed in our previous paper. Read More

We study the properties of the cross section for two-gluon production in heavy-light ion collisions derived in our previous paper on the subject in the saturation/Color Glass Condensate framework. Concentrating on the energy and geometry dependence of the corresponding correlation functions we find that the two-gluon correlator is a much slower function of the center-of-mass energy than the one- and two-gluon production cross sections. The geometry dependence of the correlation function leads to stronger azimuthal near- and away-side correlations in the tip-on-tip U+U collisions than in the side-on-side U+U collisions, an exactly opposite behavior from the correlations generated by the elliptic flow of the quark-gluon plasma: a study of azimuthal correlations in the U+U collisions may thus help to disentangle the two sources of correlations. Read More

We calculate the Sivers function in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and in the Drell-Yan process (DY) by employing the quasi-classical Glauber-Mueller/ McLerran-Venugopalan approximation. Modeling the hadron as a large "nucleus" with non-zero orbital angular momentum (OAM), we find that its Sivers function receives two dominant contributions: one contribution is due to the OAM, while another one is due to the local Sivers function density in the nucleus. While the latter mechanism, being due to the "lensing" interactions, dominates at large transverse momentum of the produced hadron in SIDIS or of the di-lepton pair in DY, the former (OAM) mechanism is leading in saturation power counting and dominates when the above transverse momenta become of the order of the saturation scale. Read More

We derive the solution of the NLO BFKL equation by constructing its eigenfunctions perturbatively, using an expansion around the LO BFKL (conformal) eigenfunctions. This method can be used to construct a solution of the BFKL equation with the kernel calculated to an arbitrary order in the coupling constant. Read More

We examine in detail the diagrammatic mechanisms which provide the change of sign between the single transverse spin asymmetries measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and in the Drell-Yan process (DY). This asymmetry is known to arise due to the transverse spin dependence of the target proton combined with a T-odd complex phase. Using the discrete symmetry properties of transverse spinors, we show that the required complex phase originates in the denominators of rescattering diagrams and their respective cuts. Read More

**Authors:**E. C. Aschenauer

^{1}, A. Bazilevsky

^{2}, K. Boyle

^{3}, K. O. Eyser

^{4}, R. Fatemi

^{5}, C. Gagliardi

^{6}, M. Grosse-Perdekamp

^{7}, John Lajoie

^{8}, Zhongbo Kang

^{9}, Yuri Kovchegov

^{10}, John Koster

^{11}, Itaru Nakagawa

^{12}, Rodolfo Sassot

^{13}, Ralf Seidl

^{14}, Ernst Sichtermann

^{15}, Marco Stratmann

^{16}, Werner Vogelsang

^{17}, Anselm Vossen

^{18}, Scott W. Wissink

^{19}, Feng Yuan

^{20}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}BNL,

^{2}BNL,

^{3}RBRC,

^{4}BNL,

^{5}Kentucky,

^{6}TAMU,

^{7}Illinois,

^{8}Iowa,

^{9}Los Alamos,

^{10}Ohio State,

^{11}RBRC,

^{12}Riken,

^{13}Buenos Aires U.,

^{14}Riken,

^{15}LBL,

^{16}BNL,

^{17}Tuebingen,

^{18}Indiana,

^{19}Indiana,

^{20}LBL

This document summarizes recent achievements of the RHIC spin program and their impact on our understanding of the nucleon's spin structure, i.e. the individual parton (quark and gluon) contributions to the helicity structure of the nucleon and to understand the origin of the transverse spin phenomena. Read More

We summarize the results of including running coupling corrections into the nonlinear evolution equation for diffractive dissociation. We also document a prediction that the NLO QCD odderon intercept is zero resulting from a discussion at the Diffraction 2012 Workshop. Read More

We study two-particle long-range rapidity correlations arising in the early stages of heavy ion collisions in the saturation/Color Glass Condensate framework, assuming for simplicity that one colliding nucleus is much larger than the other. We calculate the two-gluon production cross section while including all-order saturation effects in the heavy nucleus with the lowest-order rescattering in the lighter nucleus. We find four types of correlations in the two-gluon production cross section: (i) geometric correlations, (ii) HBT correlations accompanied by a back-to-back maximum, (iii) away-side correlations, and (iv) near-side azimuthal correlations which are long-range in rapidity. Read More

We present the first steps in an effort to incorporate the physics of transverse spin asymmetries into the saturation formalism of high energy QCD. We consider a simple model in which a transversely polarized quark scatters on a proton or nuclear target. Using the light-cone perturbation theory the hadron production cross section can be written as a convolution of the light-cone wave function squared and the interaction with the target. Read More

We propose a new mechanism for generating a single transverse spin asymmetry (STSA) in polarized proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions in the high-energy scattering approximation. In this framework the STSA originates from the q->q G splitting in the projectile (proton) light-cone wave function followed by a perturbative (C-odd) odderon interaction, together with a C-even interaction, between the projectile and the target. We show that some aspects of the obtained expression for the STSA of the produced quarks are in qualitative agreement with experiment: STSA decreases with decreasing projectile x_F and is a non-monotonic function of the transverse momentum k_T. Read More

We review some of the recent progress in our understanding of the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions due to applications of AdS/CFT correspondence. Read More

We determine running coupling corrections to the kernel of the non-linear evolution equation for the cross section of single diffractive dissociation in high energy DIS. The running coupling kernel for diffractive evolution is found to be exactly the same as the kernel of the rcBK evolution equation. Read More

We calculate running coupling corrections for the lowest-order gluon production cross section in high energy hadronic and nuclear scattering using the BLM scale-setting prescription. At leading order there are three powers of fixed coupling; in our final answer, these three couplings are replaced by seven factors of running coupling: five in the numerator and two in the denominator, forming a `septumvirate' of running couplings, analogous to the `triumvirate' of running couplings found earlier for the small-x BFKL/BK/JIMWLK evolution equations. It is interesting to note that the two running couplings in the denominator of the `septumvirate' run with complex-valued momentum scales, which are complex conjugates of each other, such that the production cross section is indeed real. Read More

We apply gauge/gravity duality to compute $1/N^2_c$ corrections to the heavy quark potentials of a quark--anti-quark pair ($Q\bar Q$) and of a quark--quark pair ($QQ$) immersed into the strongly coupled N = 4 SYM plasma. On the gravity side these corrections come from the exchanges of supergravity modes between two string worldsheets stretching from the UV boundary of AdS space to the black hole horizon in the bulk and smeared over $S^5$. We find that the contributions to the $Q\bar Q$ potential coming from the exchanges of all of the relevant modes (such as dilaton, massive scalar, 2-form field, and graviton) are all attractive, leading to an attractive net $Q\bar Q$ potential. Read More

We use AdS/CFT correspondence to study two-particle correlations in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling. Modeling the colliding heavy ions by shock waves on the gravity side, we observe that at early times after the collision there are long-range rapidity correlations present in the two-point functions for the glueball and the energy-momentum tensor operators. We estimate rapidity correlations at later times by assuming that the evolution of the system is governed by ideal Bjorken hydrodynamics, and find that glueball correlations in this state are suppressed at large rapidity intervals, suggesting that late-time medium dynamics can not "wash out" the long-range rapidity correlations that were formed at early times. Read More

We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. Read More

We calculate running coupling corrections for the lowest-order gluon production cross section in high energy hadronic and nuclear scattering using the BLM scale-setting prescription. In the final answer for the cross section the three powers of fixed coupling are replaced by seven factors of running coupling, five in the numerator and two in the denominator, forming a 'septumvirate' of running couplings, analogous to the 'triumvirate' of running couplings found earlier for the small-x BFKL/BK/JIMWLK evolution equations. It is interesting to note that the two running couplings in the denominator of the 'septumvirate' run with complex-valued momentum scales, which are complex conjugates of each other, such that the production cross section is indeed real. Read More

We present a brief introduction to the physics of parton saturation/Color Glass Condensate (CGC). Read More

We find the DIS structure functions at strong coupling by calculating R-current correlators on a finite-size shock wave using AdS/CFT correspondence. We improve on the existing results in the literature by going beyond the eikonal approximation for the two lowest orders in graviton exchanges. We argue that since the eikonal approximation at strong coupling resums integer powers of 1/x (with x the Bjorken-x variable), the non-eikonal corrections bringing in positive integer powers of x can not be neglected in the small-x limit, as the non-eikonal order-x correction to the (n+1)st term in the eikonal series is of the same order in x as the nth eikonal term in that series. Read More

We find the trapped surface for a collision of two sourceless shock waves in AdS$_5$ and conclude that such collisions always lead to a creation of a black hole in the bulk. Due to holographic correspondence, in the boundary gauge theory this result proves that a thermalized medium (quark-gluon plasma) is produced in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling (albeit in ${\cal N} =4$ super-Yang-Mills theory). We present new evidence supporting the analytic estimate for the time of thermalization that exists in the literature and find that thermalization time is parametrically much shorter than the time of shock wave stopping, indicating that our result may be relevant for description of heavy ion collision experiments. Read More

We review two different theoretical approaches to the strong interaction dynamics at the early times immediately following heavy ion collisions. One approach is based on small-coupling physics of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The other approach is based on Anti-de Sitter space/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence and may be applicable to describing large-coupling QCD interactions. Read More

We show that HERA data for the inclusive structure function F_2(x,Q^2) at small Bjorken-x and Q^2 can be reasonably well described by a color-dipole model with an AdS/CFT-inspired dipole-proton cross section. The model contains only three free parameters fitted to data. In our AdS/CFT-based parameterization the saturation scale varies in the range of 1-3 GeV becoming independent of energy/Bjorken-x at very small x. Read More

We calculate the drag force on a heavy quark hit by a shock wave, thus generalizing the strongly coupled AdS/CFT heavy quark drag calculations to both hot and cold nuclear matter. The derivation employs the trailing string configuration, similar to that used in the literature for a quark moving through a thermal medium, though in the shock metric the string profile is described by a much simpler analytic function. Our expression for the drag depends on the typical transverse momentum scale of the matter in the shock. Read More

We consider high energy collisions of two shock waves in AdS_5 as a model of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in the boundary theory. We first calculate the graviton field produced in the collisions in the NLO and NNLO approximations, corresponding to three- and four-graviton exchanges with the shock waves. We then consider the asymmetric limit where the energy density in one shock wave is much higher than in the other one. Read More

We explore the subleading-N_c corrections to the large-N_c Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) evolution equation by comparing its solution to that of the all-N_c Jalilian-Marian-Iancu-McLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner (JIMWLK) equation. In earlier simulations it was observed that the difference between the solutions of JIMWLK and BK is unusually small for a quark dipole scattering amplitude, of the order of 0.1%, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the naively expected 1/N_c^2 or 11%. Read More

I summarize the theory talks presented at the International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics 2008. Read More

We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark--anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N=4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS_5. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS_5 shock wave. Read More

We revisit the calculation of a heavy quark potential in N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature using the AdS/CFT correspondence. As is widely known, the potential calculated in the pioneering works of Rey et al. and Brandhuber et al. Read More

We calculate the total cross section for deep inelastic scattering (DIS) on a nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N=4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. In analogy to the small coupling case we argue that at high energy the total DIS cross section is related to the expectation value of the Wilson loop formed by the quark-antiquark dipole. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS_5. Read More

We construct a model of high energy heavy ion collisions as two ultrarelativistic shock waves colliding in AdS_5. We point out that shock waves corresponding to physical energy-momentum tensors of the nuclei completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Since in real-life heavy ion collisions the large Bjorken x part of nuclear wave functions continues to move along the light cone trajectories of the incoming nuclei leaving the small-x partons behind, we conclude that a pure large coupling approach is not likely to adequately model nuclear collisions. Read More

We analyze the structure of running coupling corrections to the gluon production cross section in the projectile-nucleus collisions calculated in the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework. We argue that for the gluon production cross section (and for gluon transverse momentum spectra and multiplicity) the inclusion of running coupling corrections brings in collinear singularities due to final state splittings completely unaffected by CGC resummations. Hence, despite the saturation/CGC dynamics, the gluon production cross section is not infrared-safe. Read More

We study the matter produced in heavy ion collisions assuming that this matter is strongly interacting and employing AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate its dynamics. At late proper times we show that Bjorken hydrodynamics solution, obtained recently by Janik and Peschanski using gauge-gravity duality [hep-th/0512162], can be singled out by simply requiring that the metric tensor is a real and single-valued function of the coordinates everywhere in the bulk, without imposing any constraints on the curvature invariant. At early proper times we use similar strategy to show that the energy density approaches a constant as proper time goes to zero. Read More

We study the solution of the nonlinear BK evolution equation with the recently calculated running coupling corrections [hep-ph/0609105, hep-ph/0609090]. Performing a numerical solution we confirm the earlier result of [hep-ph/0408216] that the high energy evolution with the running coupling leads to a universal scaling behavior for the dipole scattering amplitude. The running coupling corrections calculated recently significantly change the shape of the scaling function as compared to the fixed coupling case leading to a considerable increase in the anomalous dimension and to a slow-down of the evolution with rapidity. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}The Ohio State University,

^{2}University of Bielefeld

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We study the sea quark contribution to the BFKL kernel in the framework of Mueller's dipole model using the results of our earlier calculation. We first obtain the BFKL equation with the running coupling constant. We observe that the ``triumvirate'' structure of the running coupling found previously for non-linear evolution equations is preserved for the BFKL equation. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}The Ohio State University,

^{2}The Ohio State University

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We study the inclusion of running coupling corrections into the non-linear small-x JIMWLK and BK evolution equations by resumming all powers of alpha_s N_f in the evolution kernels. We demonstrate that the running coupling corrections are included in the JIMWLK/BK evolution kernel by replacing the fixed coupling constant alpha_s in it with alpha_s (1/r_1^2) alpha_s (1/r_2^2) / alpha_s (1/R^2), where r_1 and r_2 are transverse distances between the emitted gluon and the harder gluon (or quark) off of which it was emitted to the left and to the right of the interaction with the target. In the formalism of Mueller's dipole model r_1 and r_2 are the transverse sizes of ``daughter'' dipoles produced in one step of the dipole evolution. Read More

We calculate the inclusive small-x valence quark production cross section in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies. The calculation is performed in the framework of the Color Glass Condensate formalism. We consider both the case when the valence quark originates inside the nucleus and the case when it originates inside the proton. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}The Ohio State University,

^{2}The Ohio State University,

^{3}The Ohio State University

We examine entropy production in relativistic U+U collisions on the basis of a Color Glass Condensate (CGC) type picture as implemented in the Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi model (KLN). In this framework, we find that the peak entropy density produced in tip-on-tip U+U collisions is about 30% greater than that seen in central Au+Au collisions. Although the resulting difference in the produced charged particle multiplicity between tip-on-tip and side-on-side collisions is smaller than that predicted by previous Glauber model estimates, it is still large enough to allow for experimental discrimination between average orientations of the uranium nuclei. Read More

We calculate production of quark-antiquark pairs in high energy proton-nucleus collisions both in the quasi-classical approximation of McLerran-Venugopalan model and including quantum small-$x$ evolution. The resulting production cross section is explicitly expressed in terms of Glauber-Mueller multiple rescatterings in the classical case and in terms of dipole-nucleus scattering amplitude in the quantum evolution case. We generalize the result of one of us (K. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}The Ohio State University

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We argue that isotropization and, consequently, thermalization of the system of gluons and quarks produced in an ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision does not follow from Feynman diagram analysis to any order in the coupling constant. We conclude that the apparent thermalization of quarks and gluons, leading to success of perfect fluid hydrodynamics in describing heavy ion collisions at RHIC, can only be attributed to the non-perturbative QCD effects not captured by Feynman diagrams. We proceed by modeling these non-pertrubative thermalization effects using viscous hydrodynamics. Read More