# Yuan Cao

## Contact Details

NameYuan Cao |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesComputer Science - Information Theory (8) Quantum Physics (8) Mathematics - Information Theory (8) Physics - Medical Physics (2) Computer Science - Learning (2) Statistics - Machine Learning (1) Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1) Computer Science - Computation and Language (1) Mathematics - Rings and Algebras (1) |

## Publications Authored By Yuan Cao

$(1+pw)$-constacyclic codes of arbitrary length over the non-principal ideal ring $\mathbb{Z}_{p^s} +u\mathbb{Z}_{p^s}$ are studied, where $p$ is a prime, $w\in \mathbb{Z}_{p^s}^{\times}$ and $s$ an integer satisfying $s\geq 2$. First, the structure of any $(1+pw)$-constacyclic code over $\mathbb{Z}_{p^s} +u\mathbb{Z}_{p^s}$ are presented. Then enumerations for the number of all codes and the number of codewords in each code, and the structure of dual codes for these codes are given, respectively. Read More

Random numbers are indispensable for a variety of applications ranging from testing physics foundation to information encryption. In particular, nonlocality tests provide a strong evidence to our current understanding of nature -- quantum mechanics. All the random number generators (RNG) used for the existing tests are constructed locally, making the test results vulnerable to the freedom-of-choice loophole. Read More

Let $\mathbb{F}_{p^m}$ be a finite field of cardinality $p^m$, where $p$ is a prime, and $k, N$ be any positive integers. We denote $R_k=F_{p^m}[u]/\langle u^k\rangle =F_{p^m}+uF_{p^m}+\ldots+u^{k-1}F_{p^m}$ ($u^k=0$) and $\lambda=a_0+a_1u+\ldots+a_{k-1}u^{k-1}$ where $a_0, a_1,\ldots, a_{k-1}\in F_{p^m}$ satisfying $a_0\neq 0$ and $a_1=1$. Let $r$ be a positive integer satisfying $p^{r-1}+1\leq k\leq p^r$. Read More

**Authors:**Yonghui Wu, Mike Schuster, Zhifeng Chen, Quoc V. Le, Mohammad Norouzi, Wolfgang Macherey, Maxim Krikun, Yuan Cao, Qin Gao, Klaus Macherey, Jeff Klingner, Apurva Shah, Melvin Johnson, Xiaobing Liu, Łukasz Kaiser, Stephan Gouws, Yoshikiyo Kato, Taku Kudo, Hideto Kazawa, Keith Stevens, George Kurian, Nishant Patil, Wei Wang, Cliff Young, Jason Smith, Jason Riesa, Alex Rudnick, Oriol Vinyals, Greg Corrado, Macduff Hughes, Jeffrey Dean

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) is an end-to-end learning approach for automated translation, with the potential to overcome many of the weaknesses of conventional phrase-based translation systems. Unfortunately, NMT systems are known to be computationally expensive both in training and in translation inference. Also, most NMT systems have difficulty with rare words. Read More

Let $\mathbb{F}_{2^m}$ be a finite field of cardinality $2^m$, $R=\mathbb{F}_{2^m}[u]/\langle u^4\rangle)$ and $n$ is an odd positive integer. For any $\delta,\alpha\in \mathbb{F}_{2^m}^{\times}$, ideals of the ring $R[x]/\langle x^{2n}-(\delta+\alpha u^2)\rangle$ are identified as $(\delta+\alpha u^2)$-constacyclic codes of length $2n$ over $R$. In this paper, an explicit representation and enumeration for all distinct $(\delta+\alpha u^2)$-constacyclic codes of length $2n$ over $R$ are presented. Read More

Let $D_{2n}=\langle x,y\mid x^n=1, y^2=1, yxy=x^{-1}\rangle$ be a dihedral group, and $R={\rm GR}(p^2,m)$ be a Galois ring of characteristic $p^2$ and cardinality $p^{2m}$ where $p$ is a prime. Left ideals of the group ring $R[D_{2n}]$ are called left dihedral codes over $R$ of length $2n$, and abbreviated as left $D_{2n}$-codes over $R$. Let ${\rm gcd}(n,p)=1$ in this paper. Read More

Let $\mathbb{F}_{p^m}$ be a finite field of cardinality $p^m$ and $R=\mathbb{F}_{p^m}[u]/\langle u^2\rangle=\mathbb{F}_{p^m}+u\mathbb{F}_{p^m}$ $(u^2=0)$, where $p$ is a prime and $m$ is a positive integer. For any $\lambda\in \mathbb{F}_{p^m}^{\times}$, an explicit representation for all distinct $\lambda$-constacyclic codes over $R$ of length $p^sn$ is given by a canonical form decomposition for each code, where $s$ and $n$ are positive integers satisfying ${\rm gcd}(p,n)=1$. For any such code, using its canonical form decomposition the representation for the dual code of the code is provided. Read More

Let $\mathbb{F}_{2^m}$ be a finite field of characteristic $2$ and $R=\mathbb{F}_{2^m}[u]/\langle u^k\rangle=\mathbb{F}_{2^m} +u\mathbb{F}_{2^m}+\ldots+u^{k-1}\mathbb{F}_{2^m}$ ($u^k=0$) where $k\in \mathbb{Z}^{+}$ satisfies $k\geq 2$. For any odd positive integer $n$, it is known that cyclic codes over $R$ of length $2n$ are identified with ideals of the ring $R[x]/\langle x^{2n}-1\rangle$. In this paper, an explicit representation for each cyclic code over $R$ of length $2n$ is provided and a formula to count the number of codewords in each code is given. Read More

Let $\mathbb{F}_{p^m}$ be a finite field of cardinality $p^m$ and $R=\mathbb{F}_{p^m}[u]/\langle u^2\rangle=\mathbb{F}_{p^m}+u\mathbb{F}_{p^m}$ $(u^2=0)$, where $p$ is an odd prime and $m$ is a positive integer. For any $\alpha,\beta\in \mathbb{F}_{p^m}^{\times}$, the aim of this paper is to represent all distinct $(\alpha+u\beta)$-constacyclic codes over $R$ of length $p^sn$ and their dual codes, where $s$ is a nonnegative integer and $n$ is a positive integer satisfying ${\rm gcd}(p,n)=1$. Especially, all distinct $(2+u)$-constacyclic codes of length $6\cdot 5^t$ over $\mathbb{F}_{3}+u\mathbb{F}_3$ and their dual codes are listed, where $t$ is a positive integer. Read More

Let $\mathbb{F}_{q}$ be a finite field of cardinality $q$, $R=\mathbb{F}_{q}[u]/\langle u^4\rangle=\mathbb{F}_{q}+u\mathbb{F}_{q}+u^2\mathbb{F}_{q}+u^3\mathbb{F}_{q}$ $(u^4=0)$ which is a finite chain ring, and $n$ be a positive integer satisfying ${\rm gcd}(q,n)=1$. For any $\delta,\alpha\in \mathbb{F}_{q}^{\times}$, an explicit representation for all distinct $(\delta+\alpha u^2)$-constacyclic codes over $R$ of length $n$ is given, and the dual code for each of these codes is determined. For the case of $q=2^m$ and $\delta=1$, all self-dual $(1+\alpha u^2)$-constacyclic codes over $R$ of odd length $n$ are provided. Read More

We propose a novel parameter estimation procedure that works efficiently for conditional random fields (CRF). This algorithm is an extension to the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), using loss functions defined by Bregman divergences which measure the proximity between the model expectation and the empirical mean of the feature vectors. This leads to a flexible training framework from which multiple update strategies can be derived using natural gradient descent (NGD). Read More

In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, security is guaranteed by estimating the amount of leaked information through monitoring signal disturbance, which, in practice, is generally caused by environmental noise and device imperfections rather than eavesdropping. Such estimation therefore tends to overrate the amount of leaked information in practice, leads to a fundamental threshold of the bit error rate. The threshold becomes a bottleneck of the development of practical QKD systems. Read More

**Authors:**Yuan Jie Cao

^{1}, Suk Lee

^{2}, Kyung Hwan Chang

^{3}, Jang Bo Shim

^{4}, Kwang Hyeon Kim

^{5}, Min Sun Jang

^{6}, Won Sup Yoon

^{7}, Dae Sik Yang

^{8}, Young Je Park

^{9}, Chul Yong Kim

^{10}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705,

^{2}Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705,

^{3}Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705,

^{4}Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705,

^{5}Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705,

^{6}Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705,

^{7}Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705,

^{8}Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705,

^{9}Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705,

^{10}Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705

**Category:**Physics - Medical Physics

To compare the dosimetrical differences between plans generated by helical tomotherapy using 2D or 3D margining technique in in prostate cancer. Ten prostate cancer patients were included in this study. For 2D plans, planning target volume (PTV) was created by adding 5 mm (lateral/anterior-posterior) to clinical target volume (CTV). Read More

The purpose of this study was to use various dosimetrical indices to determine the best IMRT modality technique for treating patients with prostate cancer. Ten patients with prostate cancer were included in this study. Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans were designed to include different modalities, including the linac step and shoot, Tomotherapy, RapidArc, and Proton systems. Read More

This paper proposes a unified framework to quantify local and global inferential uncertainty for high dimensional nonparanormal graphical models. In particular, we consider the problems of testing the presence of a single edge and constructing a uniform confidence subgraph. Due to the presence of unknown marginal transformations, we propose a pseudo likelihood based inferential approach. Read More

Intuition in our everyday life gives rise to a belief that information exchanged between remote parties has to be carried by physical particles. Surprisingly, by recent theoretical studies, quantum mechanics allows counterfactual communication even without actual transmission of physical particles. The mystery of counterfactual communication stems from a (non-intuitive) fundamental concept in quantum mechanics --- wave-particle duality. Read More

Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic task that guarantees a secure commitment between two mutually mistrustful parties and is a building block for many cryptographic primitives, including coin tossing, zero-knowledge proofs, oblivious transfer and secure two-party computation. Unconditionally secure bit commitment was thought to be impossible until recent theoretical protocols that combine quantum mechanics and relativity were shown to elude previous impossibility proofs. Here we implement such a bit commitment protocol. Read More

Free-space quantum communication with satellites opens a promising avenue for global secure quantum network and large-scale test of quantum foundations. Recently, numerous experimental efforts have been carried out towards this ambitious goal. However, one essential step - transmitting single photons from the satellite to the ground with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at realistic environments - remains experimental challenging. Read More

We report a free-space entanglement-based quantum key distribution experiment, implementing the biased basis protocol between two sites which are 15.3 km apart. Photon pairs from a polarization-entangled source are distributed through two 7. Read More

In the well-known EPR paper, Einstein et al. called the nonlocal correlation in quantum entanglement as `spooky action at a distance'. If the spooky action does exist, what is its speed? All previous experiments along this direction have locality loopholes and thus can be explained without having to invoke any `spooky action' at all. Read More

**Authors:**Juan Yin, Ji-Gang Ren, He Lu, Yuan Cao, Hai-Lin Yong, Yu-Ping Wu, Chang Liu, Sheng-Kai Liao, Fei Zhou, Yan Jiang, Xin-Dong Cai, Ping Xu, Ge-Sheng Pan, Jian-Jun Jia, Yong-Mei Huang, Hao Yin, Jian-Yu Wang, Yu-Ao Chen, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Jian-Wei Pan

**Category:**Quantum Physics

A long standing goal for quantum communication is to transfer a quantum state over arbitrary distances. Free-space quantum communication provides a promising solution towards this challenging goal. Here, through a 97-km free space channel, we demonstrate long distance quantum teleportation over a 35-53 dB loss one-link channel, and entanglement distribution over a 66-85 dB high-loss two-link channel. Read More