Ying Liu - Division of Software, Legend Computer Company, Beijing, China

Ying Liu
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Ying Liu
Division of Software, Legend Computer Company, Beijing, China

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (18)
Physics - Space Physics (12)
Physics - Materials Science (6)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (5)
Quantum Physics (5)
Physics - Physics and Society (4)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (3)
Physics - Superconductivity (2)
Statistics - Methodology (2)
Mathematics - Information Theory (2)
Physics - Plasma Physics (2)
Computer Science - Information Theory (2)
Mathematics - Probability (1)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1)
Mathematical Physics (1)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1)
Computer Science - Information Retrieval (1)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (1)
Statistics - Applications (1)
Physics - Optics (1)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)
Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1)
Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction (1)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1)

Publications Authored By Ying Liu

Brain mapping is an increasingly important tool in neurology and psychiatry researches for the realization of data-driven personalized medicine in the big data era, which learns the statistical links between brain images and subject level features. Taking images as responses, the task raises a lot of challenges due to the high dimensionality of the image with relatively small number of samples, as well as the noisiness of measurements in medical images. In this paper we propose a novel method {\it Smooth Image-on-scalar Regression} (SIR) for recovering the true association between an image outcome and scalar predictors. Read More

Propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun far into interplanetary space is not well understood due to limited observations. In this study we examine the propagation characteristics of two geo-effective CMEs, which occurred on 2005 May 6 and 13, respectively. Significant heliospheric consequences associated with the two CMEs are observed, including interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) at the Earth and Ulysses, interplanetary shocks, a long-duration type II radio burst, and intense geomagnetic storms. Read More

As a fundamental postulate of quantum mechanics, Born's rule assigns probabilities to the measurement outcomes of quantum systems and excludes multi-order quantum interference. Here we report an experiment on a single spin in diamond to test Born's rule by inspecting the third-order quantum interference. The ratio of the third-order quantum interference to the second-order in our experiment is ceiled at the scale of $10^{-3}$, which provides a stringent constraint on the potential breakdown of Born's rule. Read More

The New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is a 1-m solar telescope that aims to observe the fine structures in both the photosphere and the chromosphere of the Sun. The observational data acquired simultaneously from one channel for the chromosphere and two channels for the photosphere bring great challenges to the data storage of NVST. The multi-channel instruments of NVST, including scientific cameras and multi-band spectrometers, generate at least 3 terabytes data per day and require high access performance while storing massive short-exposure images. Read More

The heavy baryon $\Lambda_b $ is regarded as composed of a heavy quark and a scalar diquark which has good spin and isospin quantum numbers. In this picture, we calculate the electromagnetic (EM) form factors of $\Lambda_b$ in the Bethe-Salpeter equation approach. We find that the shapes of the EM form factors of $\Lambda_b$ are similar to those of $\Lambda$, which have a peak at about $\omega=1$, but the amplitudes are much smaller than those of $\Lambda$. Read More

The frequency scarcity imposed by fast growing demand for mobile data service requires promising spectrum aggregation systems. The so-called higher-order statistics (HOS) of the channel capacity is a suitable metric on the system performance. While prior relevant works have improved our knowledge on the HOS characterization of spectrum aggregation systems, an analytical framework encompassing generalized fading models of interest is not yet available. Read More

The uncertainty principle is considered to be one of the most striking features in quantum mechanics. In the textbook literature, uncertainty relations usually refer to the preparation uncertainty which imposes a limitation on the spread of measurement outcomes for a pair of non-commuting observables. In this work, we study the preparation uncertainty for the angular momentum, especially in the spin-1/2 representation. Read More

We examine the structure, propagation and expansion of the shock associated with the 2012 July 23 extreme coronal mass ejection (CME). Characteristics of the shock determined from multi-point imaging observations are compared to in situ measurements at different locations and a complex radio type II burst, which according to our definition has multiple branches that may not all be fundamental-harmonic related. The white-light shock signature can be modeled reasonably well by a spherical structure and was expanding backward even on the opposite side of the Sun. Read More

Dynamic treatment regimens (DTRs) are sequential decision rules tailored at each stage by potentially time-varying patient features and intermediate outcomes observed in previous stages. The complexity, patient heterogeneity and chronicity of many diseases and disorders call for learning optimal DTRs which best dynamically tailor treatment to each individual's response over time. Proliferation of personalized data (e. Read More

Tunable quantum phase transitions and novel emergent fermions in solid state materials are fascinating subjects of research. Here, we propose a new stable two-dimensional (2D) material, the blue phosphorene oxide (BPO), which exhibits both. Based on first-principles calculations, we show that its equilibrium state is a narrow-bandgap semiconductor with three bands at low energy. Read More

We show a phase-locked array of three quantum cascade lasers with an integrated Talbot cavity at one side of the laser array. The coupling scheme is called diffraction coupling. By controlling the length of Talbot to be a quarter of Talbot distance (Zt/4), in-phase mode operation can be selected. Read More

Effective gravity and gauge fields emerge for low-energy quasiparticles in topological semimetals. Taking two Dirac semimetals as examples, we show that strain can generate warped spacetime with interesting analogs in astrophysics. We discuss the possibility of simulating event horizons and gravitational lensing effect. Read More

The 2015 March 15 coronal mass ejection as one of the two that together drove the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far was associated with sympathetic filament eruptions. We investigate the relations between the different filaments involved in the eruption. A surge-like small-scale filament motion is confirmed as the trigger that initiated the erupting filament with multi-wavelength observations and using a forced magnetic field extrapolation method. Read More

We analyze multi-spacecraft observations associated with the 2012 July 12 Coronal Mass Ejection (CME), covering the source region on the Sun from SDO, stereoscopic imaging observations from STEREO, magnetic field characteristics at MESSENGER, and type II radio burst and in situ measurements from Wind. A triangulation method based on STEREO stereoscopic observations is employed to determine the kinematics of the CME, and the outcome is compared with the result derived from the type II radio burst with a solar wind electron density model. A Grad-Shafranov technique is applied to Wind in situ data to reconstruct the flux-rope structure and compare it with the observation of the solar source region, which helps understand the geo-effectiveness associated with the CME structure. Read More

We carry out two-dimensional global particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and a dipole field to study the formation of the bow shock and magnetosphere. A self-reforming bow shock ahead of a dipole field is presented by using relatively high temporal-spatial resolutions. We find that (1) the bow shock and the magnetosphere are formed and reach a quasi-stable state after several ion cyclotron periods, and (2) under the Bz southward solar wind condition the bow shock undergoes a self-reformation for low \b{eta}i and high MA. Read More

The prediction of the arrival time for fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their associated shocks is highly desirable in space weather studies. In this paper, we use two shock propagation models, i.e. Read More

We study the solar energetic particle (SEP) event associated with the 2012 July 23 extreme solar storm, for which STEREO and the spacecraft at L1 provide multi-point remote sensing and in situ observations. The extreme solar storm, with a superfast shock and extremely enhanced ejecta magnetic fields observed near 1 AU at STEREO A, was caused by the combination of successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Meanwhile, energetic particles were observed by STEREO and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE and SOHO, suggestive of a wide longitudinal spread of the particles at 1 AU. Read More

Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. Read More

The individual building blocks of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures host fascinating physical phenomena, ranging from ballistic electron transport in graphene to striking optical properties of MoSe2 sheets. The presence of bonded and non-bonded cohesive interactions in a vdW heterostructure, promotes diversity in their structural arrangements, which in turn profoundly modulate the properties of their individual constituents. Here, we report on the presence of correlated structural disorder coexisting with the nearly perfect crystallographic order along the growth direction of epitaxial vdW heterostructures of Bi2Se3/graphene/SiC. Read More

Time-varying community structures widely exist in various real-world networks. However, the spreading dynamics on this kind of network has not been fully studied. To this end, we systematically study the effects of time-varying community structures on social contagions. Read More

The shear-driven drainage of capillary grooves filled with viscous liquid is a dynamic wetting phenomenon relevant to numerous industrial processes and novel lubricant-infused surfaces. Prior work has reported that a finite length $L_\infty$ of the capillary groove can remain indefinitely filled with liquid even when large shear stresses are applied. The mechanism preventing full drainage is attributed to a balance between the shear-driven flow and a counterflow driven by capillary pressures caused by deformation of the free surface. Read More

Topological numbers can characterize the transition between different topological phases, which are not described by Landau's paradigm of symmetry breaking. Since the discovery of quantum Hall effect, more topological phases have been theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. However, it is still an experimental challenge to directly measure the topological number of various predicted topological phases. Read More

Nanowires of two-dimensional (2D) crystals of type-II superconductor NbSe$_2$ prepared by electron-beam lithography were studied, focusing on the effect of the motion of Abrikosov vortices. We present magnetoresistance measurements on these nanowires and show features related to vortex crossing, trapping, and pinning. The vortex crossing rate was found to vary non-monotonically with the applied field, which results in non-monotonic magnetoresistance variations in agreement with theoretical calculations in the London approximation. Read More

As a follow-up study on Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of slow CMEs combining heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. Three events of particular interest, the 2010 June 16, 2011 March 25 and 2012 September 25 CMEs, are selected for this study. We compare slow CMEs with fast and intermediate-speed events, and obtain key results complementing the attempt of \citet{liu13} to create a general picture of CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a typical slow CME can be approximately described by two phases, a gradual acceleration out to about 20-30 solar radii, followed by a nearly invariant speed around the average solar wind level, (2) comparison between different types of CMEs indicates that faster CMEs tend to accelerate and decelerate more rapidly and have shorter cessation distances for the acceleration and deceleration, (3) both intermediate-speed and slow CMEs would have a speed comparable to the average solar wind level before reaching 1 AU, (4) slow CMEs have a high potential to interact with other solar wind structures in the Sun-Earth space due to their slow motion, providing critical ingredients to enhance space weather, and (5) the slow CMEs studied here lack strong magnetic fields at the Earth but tend to preserve a flux-rope structure with axis generally perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun. Read More

Incompatible observables can be approximated by compatible observables in joint measurement or measured sequentially, with constrained accuracy as implied by Heisenberg's original formulation of the uncertainty principle. Recently, Busch, Lahti, and Werner proposed inaccuracy trade-off relations based on statistical distances between probability distributions of measurement outcomes [Phys. Rev. Read More

We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the HCN\,(3--2) and HCO$^+$\,(3--2) molecular lines toward the W3(H$_2$O) and W3(OH) star-forming complexes. Infall and outflow motions in the W3(H$_2$O) have been characterized by observing HCN and HCO$^+$ transitions. High-velocity blue/red-shifted emission, tracing the outflow, show multiple knots, which might originate in episodic and precessing outflows. Read More

We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence which was consisted of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine, and counter-streaming mass flows were ubiquitous in the prominence. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connecting to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed and then reformed at a similar height, finally, it started to oscillate for a long time. Read More

Identifying the most influential spreaders is an important issue in controlling the spreading processes in complex networks. Centrality measures are used to rank node influence in a spreading dynamics. Here we propose a node influence measure based on the centrality of a node and its neighbors' centrality, which we call the neighborhood centrality. Read More

We propose and investigate a spin transistor device consisting of two ferromagnetic leads connected by a two-dimensional topological insulator as the channel material. It exploits the unique features of the topological spin-helical edge states, such that the injected carriers with a non-collinear spin-direction would travel through both edges and show interference effect. The conductance of the device can be controlled in a simple and allelectric manner by a side-gate voltage, which effectively rotates the spin-polarization of the carrier. Read More

We study the role of the coronal magnetic field configuration of an active region in determining the propagation direction of a coronal mass ejection (CME). The CME occurred in the active region 11944 (S09W01) near the disk center on 2014 January 7 and was associated with an X1.2 flare. Read More

Late on July 23, 2012, the STEREO-A spacecraft encountered a fast forward shock driven by a coronal mass ejection launched from the Sun earlier that same day. The estimated travel time of the disturbance ($\sim 20$ hrs), together with the massive magnetic field strengths measured within the ejecta ($> 100$nT), made it one of the most extreme events observed during the space era. In this study, we examine the properties of the shock wave. Read More

We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) molecular line observations in two 2 GHz-wide bands centered at 217.5 and 227.5 GHz, toward the massive star forming region W51 North. Read More

In the paper, we combined DSP processor with image processing algorithm and studied the method of water meter character recognition. We collected water meter image through camera at a fixed angle, and the projection method is used to recognize those digital images. The experiment results show that the method can recognize the meter characters accurately and artificial meter reading is replaced by automatic digital recognition, which improves working efficiency. Read More

The largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 so far occurred on 2015 March 17 and June 22 with $D_{\rm st}$ minima of $-223$ and $-195$ nT, respectively. Both of the geomagnetic storms show a multi-step development. We examine the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in connection with the development of the geomagnetic storms. Read More

Strong spin-orbital coupling (SOC) was found previously to lead to dramatic effects in quantum materials, such as those found in topological insulators. It was shown theoretically that local noncentrosymmetricity resulting from the rotation of RuO$_6$ octahedral in Sr$_3$Ru$_2$O$_7$ will also give rise to an effective SOC\cite{SocSr327,MicroscopicnematicSr327}. In the presence of a magnetic field applied along a specific in-plane direction, the Fermi surface was predicted to undergo a reconstruction. Read More

Quantum computation provides great speedup over its classical counterpart for certain problems. One of the key challenges for quantum computation is to realize precise control of the quantum system in the presence of noise. Control of the spin-qubits in solids with the accuracy required by fault-tolerant quantum computation under ambient conditions remains elusive. Read More

The transition between the supersonic solar wind and the subsonic heliosheath, the termination shock (TS), was observed by Voyager 2 (V2) on 2007 August 31-September 1 at a distance of 84 AU from the Sun. The data reveal multiple crossings of a complex, quasi-perpendicular supercritical shock. These experimental data are the starting point for a more sophisticated analysis that includes computer modeling of a shock in the presence of pickup ions (PUIs). Read More

We apply the concept of artificial and controlled interference in a triangular relay network with an untrusted relay aiming at enhancing the wireless communication secrecy between the source and the destination node. In order to shield the square quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signals transmitted from the source node to the relay, the destination node designs and transmits artificial noise (AN) symbols to jam the relay reception. The objective of our considered AN design is to degrade the error probability performance at the untrusted relay, for different types of channel state information (CSI) at the destination. Read More

The severe geomagnetic effects of solar storms or coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are to a large degree determined by their propagation direction with respect to Earth. There is a lack of understanding of the processes that determine their non-radial propagation. Here we present a synthesis of data from seven different space missions of a fast CME, which originated in an active region near the disk centre and, hence, a significant geomagnetic impact was forecasted. Read More

Recent study shows that the accuracy of the k-shell method in determining node coreness in a spreading process is largely impacted due to the existence of core-like group, which has a large k-shell index but a low spreading efficiency. Based on analysis of the structure of core-like groups in real-world networks, we discover that nodes in the core-like group are mutually densely connected with very few out-leaving links from the group. By defining a measure of diffusion importance for each edge based on the number of out-leaving links of its both ends, we are able to identify redundant links in the spreading process, which have a relatively low diffusion importance but lead to form the locally densely connected core-like group. Read More

New stable Volleyballenes Y20C60, La20C60, and Lu20C60 molecular clusters have been proposed using first-principles density functional theory studies. In conjunction with recent findings for the scandium system, these findings establish Volleyballene M20C60 molecules as a stable general class of fullerene family. All M20C60 (M=Y, La, and Lu) molecules have Th point group symmetries and relatively large HOMO-LUMO gaps. Read More

We investigate the effect of a vertical electric field on a Dirac semimetal thin film. We show that through the interplay between the quantum confinement effect and the field-induced coupling between sub-bands, the sub-band gap can be tuned and inverted, during which the system undergoes a topological phase transition between a trivial band insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator. Consequently, one can electrically switch the topological edge channels on and off, making the system a promising platform for constructing a topological field effect transistor. Read More

A two-dimensional scandium carbide monolayer with a Sc3C10 primitive cell (Sc3C10 sheet) has been identified using first-principles density functional theory. In the Sc3C10 sheet, there is a similar basic structure to the one in the Volleyballene Sc20C60, the Sc8C10 subunit, in which two connected carbon pentagons are surrounded by one scandium octagon. The hybridization between Sc d orbitals and C s-p orbitals is crucial for stabilizing the Sc3C10 sheet. Read More

We report on the Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of molecular lines at 270 GHz toward W3(OH) and W3(H$_2$O) complex. Although previous observations already resolved the W3(H$_2$O) into two or three sub-components, the physical and chemical properties of the two sources are not well constrained. Our SMA observations clearly resolved W3(OH) and W3(H$_2$O) continuum cores. Read More

Since the discovery of the fullerene C60, many very interesting structures have been proposed, such as Ti8C12, Au20, Au32, Au42, TM@Sin, Eu@Si20, B80, and B_{40}^{-/0}. Here, an exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandiums and 60 carbons was identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape, that we refer to below as Volleyballene. Read More

Super-elastic collision is an abnormal collisional process, in which some particular mechanisms cause the kinetic energy of the system increasing. Most studies in this aspect focus on solid-like objects, but they rarely consider gases or liquids, as the collision of the latter is primarily a mixing process. With cross-field diffusion being effectively prohibited, magnetized plasmoids are different from ordinary gases. Read More

Numerical calculations on a mesoscopic ring of a type II superconductor in the London limit suggest that an Abrikosov vortex can be trapped in such a structure above a critical magnetic field and generate a phase shift in the magnetoresistance oscillations. We prepared submicron-sized superconducting loops of single-crystal, type II superconductor NbSe$_2$ and measured magnetoresistance oscillations resulting from vortices crossing the loops. The free energy barrier for vortex crossing determines the crossing rate and is periodically modulated by the external magnetic flux threading the loop. Read More

Unlike popular videos, which would have already achieved high viewership numbers by the time they are declared popular, YouTube trending videos represent content that targets viewers attention over a relatively short time, and has the potential of becoming popular. Despite their importance and visibility, YouTube trending videos have not been studied or analyzed thoroughly. In this paper, we present our findings for measuring, analyzing, and comparing key aspects of YouTube trending videos. Read More

Identifying the most influential spreaders is an important issue in understanding and controlling spreading processes on complex networks. Recent studies showed that nodes located in the core of a network as identified by the k-shell decomposition are the most influential spreaders. However, through a great deal of numerical simulations, we observe that not in all real networks do nodes in high shells are very influential: in some networks the core nodes are the most influential which we call true core, while in others nodes in high shells, even the innermost core, are not good spreaders which we call core-like group. Read More

On 2012 September 30 - October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. Read More