Yang Yang

Yang Yang
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Yang Yang
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Physics - Materials Science (9)
 
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (8)
 
Physics - Physics and Society (7)
 
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (6)
 
Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (5)
 
Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (4)
 
Mathematics - Information Theory (3)
 
Computer Science - Information Theory (3)
 
Computer Science - Computation and Language (3)
 
Computer Science - Multimedia (2)
 
Physics - Optics (2)
 
Statistics - Methodology (2)
 
Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (2)
 
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (2)
 
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1)
 
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1)
 
Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction (1)
 
Computer Science - Robotics (1)
 
Mathematics - Quantum Algebra (1)
 
Physics - Superconductivity (1)
 
Nonlinear Sciences - Adaptation and Self-Organizing Systems (1)
 
Mathematics - Representation Theory (1)
 
Computer Science - Learning (1)
 
Quantitative Biology - Genomics (1)

Publications Authored By Yang Yang

Recently demonstrated metal-semiconductor heterojunctions with few-atom thickness show their promise as 2D Schottky contacts for future integrated circuits and nanoelectronics. The theory for 3D Schottky contacts, however, fails on these low-dimensional systems. Here, we propose a new model that yields carrier distribution and potential profile across the 2D metal-semiconductor heterojunction under the equilibrium condition, based on the input from first-principle calculations. Read More

We investigate theoretically the spin injection in different FM/I/n-Si tunnel contacts by using the lattice NEGF method. We find that the tunnel contacts with low barrier materials such as TiO$_2$ and Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$, have much lower resistances than the conventional barrier materials, resulting in a wider and attainable optimum parameters window for improving the spin injection efficiency and MR ratio of a vertical spin MOSFET. Plus, we find the spin asymmetry coefficient of TiO$_2$ tunnel contact has a negative value, while that of Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ contact can be tuned between positive and negative values, by changing the parameters. Read More

The regularization approach for variable selection was well developed for a completely observed data set in the past two decades. In the presence of missing values, this approach needs to be tailored to different missing data mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on a flexible and generally applicable missing data mechanism, which contains both ignorable and nonignorable missing data mechanism assumptions. Read More

The number of radio frequency (RF) chains can be reduced through beam selection in lens-based millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive MIMO systems, where the equivalent channel between RF chains and multiple users is required at the BS to achieve the multi-user multiplexing gain. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no dedicated codebook for the equivalent channel feedback in such systems. In this paper, we propose the dimension-reduced subspace codebook, which achieves a significant reduction of the feedback overhead and codebook size. Read More

In a number of recent experiments, it has been shown that femtosecond laser pulses can control magnetization on picosecond timescales, which is at least an order of magnitude faster compared to conventional magnetization dynamics. Among these demonstrations, one material system (GdFeCo ferromagnetic films) is particularly interesting, as deterministic toggle-switching of the magnetic order has been achieved without the need of any symmetry breaking magnetic field. This phenomenon is often referred to as all optical switching (AOS). Read More

In a network, a local disturbance can propagate and eventually cause a substantial part of the system to fail, in cascade events that are easy to conceptualize but extraordinarily difficult to predict. Here, we develop a statistical framework that can predict cascade size distributions by incorporating two ingredients only: the vulnerability of individual components and the co-susceptibility of groups of components (i.e. Read More

We constructed an effective tight-binding model with five Cr $3d$ orbitals for LaOCrAs according to first-principles calculations. Basing on this model, we investigated possible superconductivity induced by correlations in doped LaOCrAs using the functional renormalization group (FRG). We find that there are two domes of superconductivity in electron-doped LaOCrAs. Read More

A characteristic property of networks is their ability to propagate influences, such as infectious diseases, behavioral changes, and failures. An especially important class of such contagious dynamics is that of cascading processes. These processes include, for example, cascading failures in infrastructure systems, extinctions cascades in ecological networks, and information cascades in social systems. Read More

The rapid developments of high-speed trains (HSTs) introduce new challenges to HST wireless communication systems. Realistic HST channel models play a critical role in designing and evaluating HST communication systems. Due to the length limitation, bounding of tunnel itself, and waveguide effect, channel characteristics in tunnel scenarios are very different from those in other HST scenarios. Read More

Along with the prosperity of recurrent neural network in modelling sequential data and the power of attention mechanism in automatically identify salient information, image captioning, a.k.a. Read More

We consider the algebra $\square_q$ which is a mild generalization of the quantum algebra $U_q(\frak{sl}_2)$. The algebra $\square_q$ is defined by generators and relations. The generators are $\{x_i\}_{i\in \mathbb{Z}_4}$, where $\mathbb{Z}_4$ is the cyclic group of order $4$. Read More

The query-by-image video retrieval (QBIVR) task has been attracting considerable research attention recently. However, most existing methods represent a video by either aggregating or projecting all its frames into a single datum point, which may easily cause severe information loss. In this paper, we propose an efficient QBIVR framework to enable an effective and efficient video search with image query. Read More

OCR character segmentation for multilingual printed documents is difficult due to the diversity of different linguistic characters. Previous approaches mainly focus on monolingual texts and are not suitable for multilingual-lingual cases. In this work, we particularly tackle the Chinese/English mixed case by reframing it as a semantic segmentation problem. Read More

Person re-identification is challenging due to the large variations of pose, illumination, occlusion and camera view. Owing to these variations, the pedestrian data is distributed as highly-curved manifolds in the feature space, despite the current convolutional neural networks (CNN)'s capability of feature extraction. However, the distribution is unknown, so it is difficult to use the geodesic distance when comparing two samples. Read More

We study a unique behavioral network data set (based on periodic surveys and on electronic logs of dyadic contact via smartphones) collected at the University of Notre Dame.The participants are a sample of members of the entering class of freshmen in the fall of 2011 whose opinions on a wide variety of political and social issues and activities on campus were regularly recorded - at the beginning and end of each semester - for the first three years of their residence on campus. We create a communication activity network implied by call and text data, and a friendship network based on surveys. Read More

The low-energy physics of one-dimensional (1D) strongly correlated systems is generally described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) regardless of quantum statistics of the constituent particles. Such collective behaviour results in the free-fermion universality class of quantum criticality near a phase transition. Although evidences for the TLL have been found in a variety of 1D materials, a conclusive observation of the hallmark TLL and criticality remains challenging due to the lack of proper measures and the requirement of extreme experimental conditions. Read More

With the seamless coverage of wireless cellular networks in modern society, it is interesting to consider the shape of wireless cellular coverage. Is the shape a regular hexagon, an irregular polygon, or another complex geometrical shape? Based on fractal theory, the statistical characteristic of the wireless cellular coverage boundary is determined by the measured wireless cellular data collected from Shanghai, China. The measured results indicate that the wireless cellular coverage boundary presents an extremely irregular geometrical shape, which is also called a statistical fractal shape. Read More

The RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is becoming increasingly popular for quantifying gene expression levels. Since the RNA-seq measurements are relative in nature, between-sample normalization of counts is an essential step in differential expression (DE) analysis. The normalization of existing DE detection algorithms is ad hoc and performed once for all prior to DE detection, which may be suboptimal since ideally normalization should be based on non-DE genes only and thus coupled with DE detection. Read More

We study the mechanical properties of two-dimensional (2D) boron, borophenes, by first-principles calculations. The recently synthesized borophene with 1/6 concentration of hollow hexagons (HH) is shown to have in-plane modulus C up to 210 N/m and bending stiffness as low as D = 0.39 eV. Read More

The field of spintronics involves the study of both spin and charge transport in solid state devices with a view toward increasing their functionality and efficiency. Alternatively, the field of ultrafast magnetism focuses on the use of femtosecond laser pulses to excite electrons in magnetic materials, which allows the magnetic order to be dramatically changed on unprecedented sub-picosecond time-scales. Here, we unite these two distinct research activities by using picosecond electrical pulses to rapidly excite electrons in a magnetic metal. Read More

We report the magnetic response of Au/GdFeCo bilayers to optical irradiation of the Au surface. For bilayers with Au thickness greater than 50 nm, the great majority of energy is absorbed by the Au electrons, creating an initial temperature differential of thousands of Kelvin between the Au and GdFeCo layers. The resulting electronic heat currents between the Au and GdFeCo layers last for several picoseconds with energy flux in excess of 2 TW m-2, and provide sufficient heating to the GdFeCo electrons to induce deterministic reversal of the magnetic moment. Read More

The temperature evolution of GdFeCo electrons following optical heating plays a key role in all optical switching of GdFeCo and is primarily governed by the strength of coupling between electrons and phonons. Typically, the strength of electron-phonon coupling in a metal is deduced by monitoring changes in reflectance following optical heating and then analyzing the transient reflectance with a simple two-temperature thermal model. In a magnetic metal, the change in reflectance cannot be assumed to depend only the electron and phonon temperatures because a metal's reflectance also depends on the magnetization. Read More

The pioneering observation of ultrafast demagnetization in ferromagnetic nickel following optical irradiation has led to the discovery of a broad range of extraordinary magnetic phenomena. Optically driven magnetic phenomena have potential applications for technologies such as data storage and manipulation, or quantum computing. However, despite many significant scientific discoveries, the field of ultrafast magnetism has not yet led to the development of new technologies. Read More

Trilayer graphene (TLG) exhibits rich novel electronic properties and extraordinary quantum Hall phenomena owning to enhanced electronic interactions and tunable chirality of its quasiparticles. Here, we report direct observation of chirality transition of quasiparticles at stacking solitons of TLG via spatial-resolved Landau level spectroscopy. The one-dimensional stacking solitons with width of the order of 10 nm separate adjacent Bernal-stacked TLG and rhombohedral-stacked TLG. Read More

The asymmetric electron dispersion in type-II Weyl semimetal theoretically hosts anisotropic transport properties. Here we observe the significant anisotropic Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly in the Fermi-level delicately adjusted WTe$_{1.98}$ crystals. Read More

We consider the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map $\Lambda$ on a cylinder-like Lorentzian manifold related to the wave equation related to the metric $g$, a magnetic field $A$ and a potential $q$. We show that we can recover the jet of $g,A,q$ on the boundary from $\Lambda$ up to a gauge transformation in a stable way. We also show that $\Lambda$ recovers the following three invariants in a stable way: the lens relation of $g$, and the light ray transforms of $A$ and $q$. Read More

We consider the observability model in networks with arbitrary topologies. We introduce a system of coupled nonlinear equations, valid under the locally tree-like ansatz, to describe the size of the largest observable cluster as a function of the fraction of directly observable nodes present in the network. We perform a systematic analysis on 95 real-world graphs and compare our theoretical predictions with numerical simulations of the observability model. Read More

We study the phase transition in Cu-substituted iron-based superconductors with a new developed real-space Green's function method. We find that Cu substitution has strong effect on the orbital-selective Mott transition introduced by the Hund's rule coupling. The redistribution of the orbital occupancy which is caused by the increase of the Hund's rule coupling, gives rise to the Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition in the half-filled $d_{xy}$ orbital. Read More

In mobile crowd sensing networks data forwarding through opportunistic contacts between participants. Data is replicated to encountered participants. For optimizing data delivery ratio and reducing redundant data a lot of data forwarding schemes, which selectively replicate data to encountered participants through node's data forwarding metric are proposed. Read More

In this paper, a new framework of mobile converged networks is proposed for flexible resource optimization over multi-tier wireless heterogeneous networks. Design principles and advantages of this new framework of mobile converged networks are discussed. Moreover, mobile converged network models based on interference coordination and energy efficiency are presented and the corresponding optimization algorithms are developed. Read More

Hashing has shown its efficiency and effectiveness in facilitating large-scale multimedia applications. Supervised knowledge e.g. Read More

Video captioning has been attracting broad research attention in multimedia community. However, most existing approaches either ignore temporal information among video frames or just employ local contextual temporal knowledge. In this work, we propose a novel video captioning framework, termed as \emph{Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory} (BiLSTM), which deeply captures bidirectional global temporal structure in video. Read More

The business elite constitutes a small but strikingly influential subset of the population, oftentimes affecting important societal outcomes such as the consolidation of political power, the adoption of corporate governance practices, and the stability of national economies more broadly. Here we analyze a unique dataset of all MBA students at a top 5 MBA program. After matching students on all available characteristics (e. Read More

Ultrafast optical heating of the electrons in ferrimagnetic metals can result in all-optical switching (AOS) of the magnetization. Here we report quantitative measurements of the temperature rise of GdFeCo thin films during helicity-independent AOS. Critical switching fluences are obtained as a function of the initial temperature of the sample and for laser pulse durations from 55 fs to 15 ps. Read More

Dual comb spectroscopy allows for high-resolution spectra to be measured over broad bandwidths, but an essential requirement for coherent integration is the availability of a phase reference. Usually, this means that the combs' phase and timing errors must be measured and either minimized by stabilization or removed by correction, limiting the technique's applicability. In this work, we demonstrate that it is possible to extract the phase and timing signals of a multiheterodyne spectrum completely computationally, without any extra measurements or optical elements. Read More

What drives the propensity for the social network dynamics? Social influence is believed to drive both off-line and on-line human behavior, however it has not been considered as a driver of social network evolution. Our analysis suggest that, while the network structure affects the spread of influence in social networks, the network is in turn shaped by social influence activity (i.e. Read More

The existence of gender differences in the structure and composition of social networks is a well established finding in the social and behavioral sciences, but researchers continue to debate whether structural, dispositional, or life course factors are the primary driver of these differences. In this paper we extend work on gender differences in social networks to patterns of interaction, propinquity, and connectivity captured via a social sensing platform comprised of an ensemble of individuals' phone calls, text messaging, face-to-face interactions, and traces of their mobility activities. We attempt to isolate dispositional from other factors by focusing on a relatively homogeneous population on a relatively closed setting at the same stage in the life course. Read More

Since the late 1990s when speech companies began providing their customer-service software in the market, people have gotten used to speaking to machines. As people interact more often with voice and gesture controlled machines, they expect the machines to recognize different emotions, and understand other high level communication features such as humor, sarcasm and intention. In order to make such communication possible, the machines need an empathy module in them which can extract emotions from human speech and behavior and can decide the correct response of the robot. Read More

We analyze the mathematical model of multiwave tomography with a variable speed with integrating measurements on planes tangent to a sphere surrounding the source. We prove sharp uniqueness and stability estimates with full and partial data and propose a time reversal algorithm which recovers the visible singularities. Read More

Functionalization of atomically thin nanomaterials enables the tailoring of their chemical, optical, and electronic properties. Exfoliated black phosphorus, a layered two-dimensional semiconductor exhibiting favorable charge carrier mobility, tunable bandgap, and highly anisotropic properties, is chemically reactive and degrades rapidly in ambient conditions. In contrast, here we show that covalent aryl diazonium functionalization suppresses the chemical degradation of exfoliated black phosphorus even following weeks of ambient exposure. Read More

All optical magnetic switching (AOS) is a recently observed rich and puzzling phenomenon that offers promis- ing technological applications. However, fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains elusive. Here we present a new model for multi-shot helicity-dependent AOS in ferromagnetic materials based on a purely heat-driven mechanism in the presence of Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD). Read More

The cooperative transmission is an effective approach for vehicular communications to improve the wireless transmission capacity and reliability in the fifth generation (5G) small cell networks. Based on distances between the vehicle and cooperative small cell BSs, the cooperative probability and the coverage probability have been derived for 5G cooperative small cell networks where small cell base stations (BSs) follow Poisson point process distributions. Furthermore, the vehicular handoff rate and the vehicular overhead ratio have been proposed to evaluate the vehicular mobility performance in 5G cooperative small cell networks. Read More

Recently, the extremely large magnetoresistance observed in transition metal telluride, like WTe$_2$, attracted much attention because of the potential applications in magnetic sensor. Here we report the observation of extremely large magnetoresistance as 3.0$\times$10$^4$ % measured at 2 K and 9 T magnetic field aligned along [001]-ZrSiS. Read More

Frequency combs based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers feature broadband coverage and high output powers in a compact package, making them an attractive option for broadband spectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate the first multi-heterodyne spectroscopy using two terahertz quantum cascade laser combs. With just 100 $\mu$s of integration time, we achieve peak signal-to-noise ratios exceeding 60 dB and a spectral coverage greater than 250 GHz centered at 2. Read More

In this paper gradient based topology optimization (TO) is used to discover 3-D phononic structures that exhibit ultra-wide normalized all-angle all-mode band gaps. The challenging computational task of repeated 3-D phononic band-structure evaluations is accomplished by a combination of a fast mixed variational eigenvalue solver and distributed Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) parallel computations. The TO algorithm utilizes the material distribution-based approach and a gradient-based optimizer. Read More

In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the universal properties of a spin-polarized two-component Fermi gas in one dimension (1D) using Bethe ansatz. We discuss the quantum phases and phase transitions by obtaining exact results for the equation of state, the contact, the magnetic susceptibility and the contact susceptibility, giving a precise understanding of the 1D analogue of the Bose-Einstein condensation and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer crossover in three dimension (3D) and the associated universal magnetic properties. In particular, we obtain the exact form of the magnetic susceptibility $\chi \sim {1}/{\sqrt{T}}\exp(-\Delta/T)$ at low temperatures, where $\Delta$ is the energy gap and $T$ is the temperature. Read More

We use the Landweber method for numerical simulations for the multiwave tomography problem with a reflecting boundary and compare it with the averaged time reversal method. We also analyze the rate of convergence and the dependence on the step size for the Landweber iterations on a Hilbert space. Read More

Multipath propagation is a common phenomenon in wireless communication. Knowledge of propagation path parameters such as complex channel gain, propagation delay or angle-of-arrival provides valuable information on the user position and facilitates channel response estimation. A major challenge in channel parameter estimation lies in its multidimensional nature, which leads to large-scale estimation problems which are difficult to solve. Read More

This paper proposes a generic formulation that significantly expedites the training and deployment of image classification models, particularly under the scenarios of many image categories and high feature dimensions. As a defining property, our method represents both the images and learned classifiers using binary hash codes, which are simultaneously learned from the training data. Classifying an image thereby reduces to computing the Hamming distance between the binary codes of the image and classifiers and selecting the class with minimal Hamming distance. Read More

We obtain a Struwe type global compactness result for a class of nonlinear nonlocal problems involving the fractional $p-$Laplacian operator and nonlinearities at critical growth. Read More