Yan Zhou - Kansas State University

Yan Zhou
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Yan Zhou
Kansas State University
United States

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Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (32)
Physics - Materials Science (13)
Statistics - Computation (11)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (9)
Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (2)
Physics - Atomic Physics (2)
Physics - Computational Physics (2)
Mathematics - Probability (2)
Computer Science - Mathematical Software (1)
Quantitative Biology - Biomolecules (1)
Statistics - Methodology (1)
Quantum Physics (1)
Statistics - Theory (1)
Mathematics - Statistics (1)
Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (1)
Physics - Chemical Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Yan Zhou

An intriguing feature of the magnetic skyrmion in a frustrated magnetic system is its helicity-orbital coupling. When the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction (DDI) is neglected, a skyrmion can show a current-induced rotational motion together with a helicity rotation since the energy is independent of the helicity. Here, we explore the skyrmion dynamics in a frustrated magnetic system based on the $J_{1}$-$J_{2}$-$J_{3}$ classical Heisenberg model explicitly by including the DDI. Read More

In this article we develop a new sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method for multilevel (ML) Monte Carlo estimation. In particular, the method can be used to estimate expectations with respect to a target probability distribution over an infinite-dimensional and non-compact space as given, for example, by a Bayesian inverse problem with Gaussian random field prior. Under suitable assumptions the MLSMC method has the optimal $O(\epsilon^{-2})$ bound on the cost to obtain a mean-square error of $O(\epsilon^2)$. Read More

In this article we consider static Bayesian parameter estimation for partially observed diffusions that are discretely observed. We work under the assumption that one must resort to discretizing the underlying diffusion process, for instance using the Euler-Maruyama method. Given this assumption, we show how one can use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and particularly particle MCMC [Andrieu, C. Read More

Recent studies have revealed that domain walls in magnetic nanostructures can serve as compact, energy-efficient spin-wave waveguides for building magnonic devices that are considered promising candidates for overcoming the challenges and bottlenecks of today's CMOS technologies. However, imprinting long strip-domain walls into magnetic nanowires remains a challenge, especially in curved geometries. Here, through micromagnetic simulations, we present a method for writing strip-domain walls into curved magnetic nanowires using spin-orbit torque. Read More

We study the motion of magnetic skyrmions in a nanowire induced by a spin-wave current $J$ flowing out of a driving layer close to the edge of the wire. By applying micromagnetic simulation and an analysis of the effective Thiele equation, we find that the skyrmion trajectory is governed by an interplay of both forces due to the magnon current and the wire boundary. The skyrmion is attracted to the driving layer and is accelerated by the repulsive force due to the wire boundary. Read More

The surface states in three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TIs) can be described by a two-dimensional (2D) continuous Dirac Hamiltonian. However, there exists the Fermion doubling problem when putting the continuous 2D Dirac equation into a lattice model. In this letter, we introduce a Wilson term with a zero bare mass into the 2D lattice model to overcome the difficulty. Read More

We report an extensive first-principles investigation of impurity-induced device-to-device variability of spin-polarized quantum tunneling through Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ). In particular, we calculated the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio (TMR) and the average values and variances of the currents and spin transfer torque (STT) of an interfacially doped Fe/MgO/Fe MTJ. Further, we predicted that N-doped MgO can improve the performance of a doped Fe/MgO/Fe MTJ. Read More

We theoretically investigate the spin wave (magnon) excitations in a classical antiferromagnetic spin chain with easy-axis anisotropy. We obtain a Dirac-like equation by linearizing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in this antiferromagnetic system, in contrast to the ferromagnetic system in which a Schr\"{o}dinger-type equation is derived. The Hamiltonian operator in the Dirac-like equation is neither hermitian nor skew-hermitian. Read More

Recent experiments performed in current-driven nano-contacts with strong perpendicular anisotropy have shown that spin-transfer torque can drive self-localized spin waves [1, 2] that above a certain threshold intensity can condense into a highly nonlinear magnetodynamic and nano-sized state known as a magnetic droplet soliton [3]. Here we demonstrate analytically, numerically, and experimentally that at sufficiently large driving currents, and for a spin polarization that is tilted away from the film normal, the circular droplet soliton can become unstable to periodic excitations of its perimeter. We furthermore show that these perimeter excitation modes (PEMs) are parametrically excited when the fundamental droplet soliton precession frequency is close to twice the frequency of one or more of the PEMs. Read More

Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates for next-generation information carriers, owing to their small size, topological stability, and ultralow depinning current density. A wide variety of skyrmionic device concepts and prototypes have been proposed, highlighting their potential applications. Here, we report on a bioinspired skyrmionic device with synaptic plasticity. Read More

We study the current-driven domain wall motion in cylindrical nanowires using analytical and computational methods. An exact spatiotemporal solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation including the spin transfer torque terms is reported. The solution allows an arbitrary time-dependent current density. Read More

Pricing options is an important problem in financial engineering. In many scenarios of practical interest, financial option prices associated to an underlying asset reduces to computing an expectation w.r. Read More

Reliable transport of magnetic skyrmions is required for any future skyrmion-based information processing devices. Here we present a micromagnetic study of the in-plane current-driven motion of a skyrmion in a ferromagnetic nanotrack with spatially sinusoidally varying Gilbert damping and/or non-adiabatic spin-transfer torque coefficients. It is found that the skyrmion moves in a sinusoidal pattern as a result of the spatially varying Gilbert damping and/or non-adiabatic spin-transfer torque in the nanotrack, which could prevent the destruction of the skyrmion caused by the skyrmion Hall effect. Read More

This work provides a numerical micromagnetic study of the magnetic switching of a submicron magnetic junction in a Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) cross structure. The simulation results demonstrate that the magnetic domain at the junction can be controlled to switch coherently by the applied magnetic field. This coherent magnetic switching in the cross structure has been found to be reversible and the 2-bit information can be written in the magnetic junction. Read More

In this article we introduce two new estimates of the normalizing constant (or marginal likelihood) for partially observed diffusion (POD) processes, with discrete observations. One estimate is biased but non-negative and the other is unbiased but not almost surely non-negative. Our method uses the multilevel particle filter of Jasra et al (2015). Read More

Excitation of spin wave modes of a vortex-state magnetic dot by an out-of-plane oscillating magnetic field is studied numerically in the presence of a static in-plane magnetic field. It is shown, that the application of the in-plane static field shifts the position of the vortex core and leads to the separate excitation of different azimuthal dipolar spin waves my perpendicular oscillating field. It is also shown that the excited dipolar azimuthal spin waves excite the gyrotropic mode of the vortex core rotation and, depending on the excitation frequency, cause a significant modification (increase or decrease) of the apparent dissipation rate of the gyrotropic mode. Read More

A magnetic skyrmionium is a nontopological soliton, which has a doughnut-like out-of-plane spin texture in thin films, and can be phenomenologically viewed as a coalition of two topological magnetic skyrmions with opposite topological numbers. Due to its zero topological number ($Q=0$) and doughnut-like structure, the skyrmionium has its distinctive characteristics as compared to the skyrmion with $Q=\pm 1$. Here we systematically study the generation, manipulation and motion of a skyrmionium in ultrathin magnetic nanostructures by applying a magnetic field or a spin-polarized current. Read More

We have directly detected millimeter wave (mm-wave) free space superradiant emission from Rydberg states ($n \sim 30$) of barium atoms in a single shot. We trigger the cooperative effects with a weak initial pulse and detect with single-shot sensitivity and 20 ps time resolution, which allows measurement and shot-by-shot analysis of the distribution of decay rates, time delays, and time-dependent frequency shifts. Cooperative line shifts and decay rates are observed that exceed values that would correspond to the Doppler width of 250 kHz by a factor of 20 and the spontaneous emission rate of 50 Hz by a factor of $10^5$. Read More

In order to address many of the challenges and bottlenecks currently experienced by traditional charge based technologies, various alternatives are being actively explored to provide potential solutions of device miniaturization and scaling in the more-than-MOORE era. Amongst these alternatives, spintronics physics and devices have recently attracted a rapidly increasing interest by exploiting the additional degree of electron's spins. For example, magnetic domain-wall racetrack-memory and logic devices have been realized via manipulating domain-wall motion. Read More

Skyrmions and domain walls are typical spin textures of significant technological relevance to magnetic memory and logic applications, where they are used as carriers of information. The unique topology of skyrmions makes them to display distinct dynamical properties compared to domain walls. Some studies have demonstrated that the two topologically inequivalent magnetic objects could be interconverted by cleverly designed geometric structures. Read More

The well-known Hall effect describes the transverse deflection of charged particles (electrons or holes) in an electric-current carrying conductor under the influence of perpendicular magnetic fields, as a result of the Lorentz force. Similarly, it is intriguing to examine if quasi-particles without an electric charge, but with a topological charge, show related transverse motion. Chiral magnetic skyrmions with a well-defined spin topology resulting in a unit topological charge serve as good candidates to test this hypothesis. Read More

This paper considers uncertainty quantification for an elliptic nonlocal equation. In particular, it is assumed that the parameters which define the kernel in the nonlocal operator are uncertain and a priori distributed according to a probability measure. It is shown that the induced probability measure on some quantities of interest arising from functionals of the solution to the equation with random inputs is well-defined; as is the posterior distribution on parameters given observations. Read More

This article considers the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) approximation of ratios of normalizing constants associated to posterior distributions which in principle rely on continuum models. Therefore, the Monte Carlo estimation error and the discrete approximation error must be balanced. A multilevel strategy is utilized to substantially reduce the cost to obtain a given error level in the approximation as compared to standard estimators. Read More

Magnetic skyrmion holds promise as information carriers in the next-generation memory and logic devices, owing to the topological stability, small size and extremely low current needed to drive it. One of the most potential applications of skyrmion is to design racetrack memory (RM), named Sk-RM, instead of utilizing domain wall (DW). However, current studies face some key design challenges, e. Read More

Spin-Cherenkov effect enables strong excitations of spin waves (SWs) with nonlinear wave dispersions. The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) results in anisotropy and nonreciprocity of SWs propagation. In this work, we study the effect of the interfacial DMI on SW Cherenkov excitations in permalloy thin-film strips within the framework of micromagnetism. Read More

Magnetic skyrmion is a topologically protected magnetic domain-wall structure at nanoscale, which might be a basic building block for advanced spintronic devices. Here, we propose the microwave-driven motion of a magnetic skyrmion in a voltage-gated nanotrack, where the transistor-like function of the magnetic skyrmion is investigated by micromagnetic calculation. It is demonstrated that the microwave field can lead to the motion of the magnetic skyrmion by exciting propagating spin waves, and the motion of the magnetic skyrmion is governed by a gate voltage. Read More

A magnetic skyrmion is a topological magnetization structure with a nanometric size and a well-defined swirling spin distribution, which is anticipated to be an essential building block for novel skyrmion-based device applications. We study the motion of magnetic skyrmions in multilayer synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) racetracks as well as in conventional monolayer ferromagnetic (FM) racetracks at finite temperature. There is an odd-even effect of the constituent FM layer number on the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE). Read More

Magnetic domain-wall (DW) has been widely investigated for future memory and computing systems. However, energy efficiency and stability become two major challenges of DW-based systems. In this letter, we first propose exploiting skyrmions as on-chip and inter-chip interconnects for DW-based systems, owing to the topological stability, small size and ultra-low depinning current density. Read More

In this paper the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations, is considered. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by $l$. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. Read More

A number of extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics predict a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) in the range of the current experimental limits. Trapped ThF$^+$ will be used in a forthcoming generation of the JILA eEDM experiment. Here, we present extensive survey spectroscopy of ThF$^+$ in the 700 - 1000 nm spectral region, with the 700 - 900 nm range fully covered using frequency comb velocity modulation spectroscopy. Read More

Magnetic skyrmion, vortex-like swirling topologically stable spin configurations, is appealing as information carrier for future nanoelectronics, owing to the stability, small size and extremely low driving current density. One of the most promising applications of skyrmion is to build racetrack memory (RM). Compared to domain wall-based RM (DW-RM), skyrmion-based RM (Sky-RM) possesses quite a few benefits in terms of energy, density and speed etc. Read More

The magnetic skyrmion with the topological number of unity ($Q=1$) is a well-known nanometric swirling spin structure in the nonlinear $\sigma$ model with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Here, we show that magnetic skyrmion with the topological number of two ($Q=2$) can be created and stabilized by applying vertical spin-polarized current though it cannot exist as a static stable excitation. Magnetic skyrmion with $Q=2$ is a nonequilibrium dynamic object, subsisting on a balance between the energy injection from the current and the energy dissipation by the Gilbert damping. Read More

Arising from emergent electromagnetic field of magnetic skyrmions due to their nontrivial topology, the skyrmion Hall effect might be a roadblock for practical applications since any longitudinal motions of skyrmions in nanotrack is accompanied by a transverse motion. A direct consequence of such an effect is easy destruction of skyrmions at the nanotrack edges during their fast motions along the nanotrack, despite their topological protection. Here we propose an entirely novel solution of completely inhibiting such skyrmion Hall effect without affecting its topological properties based on a antiferromagnetic-coupling bilayer system. Read More

Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like topological excitations in ferromagnets, which have the topological number $Q=\pm 1$, and hence show the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE) due to the Magnus force effect originating from the topology. Here, we propose the counterpart of the magnetic skyrmion in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) system, that is, the AFM skyrmion, which is topologically protected but without showing the SkHE. Two approaches for creating the AFM skyrmion have been described based on micromagnetic lattice simulations: (i) by injecting a vertical spin-polarized current to a nanodisk with the AFM ground state; (ii) by converting an AFM domain-wall pair in a nanowire junction. Read More

Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected nanoscale objects, which are promising building blocks for novel magnetic and spintronic devices. Here, we investigate the dynamics of a skyrmion driven by a spin wave in a magnetic nanowire. It is found that (i) the skyrmion is first accelerated and then decelerated exponentially; (ii) it can turn L-corners with both right and left turns; and (iii) it always turns left (right) when the skyrmion number is positive (negative) in the T- and Y-junctions. Read More

We consider Bayesian online static parameter estimation for state-space models. This is a very important problem, but is very computationally challenging as the state- of-the art methods that are exact, often have a computational cost that grows with the time parameter; perhaps the most successful algorithm is that of SMC2 [9]. We present a version of the SMC2 algorithm which has computational cost that does not grow with the time parameter. Read More

We consider the numerical approximation of the filtering problem in high dimensions, that is, when the hidden state lies in $\mathbb{R}^d$ with $d$ large. For low dimensional problems, one of the most popular numerical procedures for consistent inference is the class of approximations termed particle filters or sequential Monte Carlo methods. However, in high dimensions, standard particle filters (e. Read More

Magnetic skyrmions, which are topological particle-like excitations in ferromagnets, have attracted a lot of attention recently. Skyrmionics is an attempt to use magnetic skyrmions as information carriers in next generation spintronic devices. Proposals of manipulations and operations of skyrmions are highly desired. Read More

Magnonic crystals are prototype magnetic metamaterials designed for the control of spin wave propagation. Conventional magnonic crystals are composed of single domain elements. If magnetization textures, such as domain walls, vortices and skyrmions, are included in the building blocks of magnonic crystals, additional degrees of freedom over the control of the magnonic band structure can be achieved. Read More

A skyrmion is a topological texture in the continuum field theory. Recent experimental observation of skyrmions in chiral magnet evokes a flourish of its extensive study. Skyrmion is expected to be a key component of the next generation spintronics device called skyrmionics. Read More

In a practical continuous-variable quantum-key distribution (CVQKD), the fluctuations of the local oscillator (LO) not only make the normalization of Bob's measurement outcomes difficult, but also can change the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an imperfect balanced homodyne detector (BHD), which may lead the security of a practical system of CVQKD to be compromised severely. In this paper, we propose that the LO intensity can be manipulated by the legitimate parties, i.e. Read More

A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator. Examples are observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some intial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. Read More

Laser induced ultrafast demagnetization in ferromagnetic metals was discovered almost 20 years ago, but currently there is still lack of consensus on the microscopic mechanism responsible for the corresponding transfer of angular momentum and energy between electron, lattice and spin subsystems. A distinct, but intrinsically correlated phenomenon occurring on a longer timescale is the magnetization precession after the ultrafast demagnetization process, if a magnetic field is applied to tilt the magnetization vector away from its easy direction, which can be attributed to the change of anisotropy after laser heating. In an in-plane magnetized Pt/Co/Pt thin film with perpendicular interface anisotropy, we found excellent agreement between theoretical prediction with plausible parameters and experimental data measured using time resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. Read More

We develop a self-consistent theory for current-induced spin wave excitations in normal metal-magnetic insulator bilayer systems, thereby establishing the relation between spin wave excitation and the experimentally controlled parameters. We fully take into account the complex spin wave spectrum including dipolar interactions and surface anisotropy as well as the spin-pumping at the interface. Our results focus on the mode-dependent power close to the critical currents for spin wave excitation. Read More

Sequential Monte Carlo is a family of algorithms for sampling from a sequence of distributions. Some of these algorithms, such as particle filters, are widely used in the physics and signal processing researches. More recent developments have established their application in more general inference problems such as Bayesian modeling. Read More

We describe excitation of dipole-exchange spin waves in insulating magnetic thin films by spin current injection at the surface of the film. An easy-axis magnetic surface anisotropy can induce a non-chiral surface spin wave mode with penetration depth inversely proportional to the strength of the surface anisotropy, which strongly reduces the critical current and enhances the excitation power. The importance of the interface spin wave modes on the excitation spectrum is reduced by spin pumping, which depends on the quality of the interface as expressed by the spin mixing conductance. Read More

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form a family of molecular motor proteins that couple ATP hydrolysis to substrate translocation across cell membranes. Each nucleotide binding domain of ABC-transporters contains a highly conserved H-loop Histidine residue, whose precise mechanistic role to motor functions has remained elusive. By using combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical calculations, we showed that the conserved H-loop residue H662 in E. Read More

We apply a recently developed quantum theory of spin transfer torque to study the effect of the quantum noise in spin transfer process on the magnetization switching in spin-torque-driven devices. The quantum noise induces considerable fluctuation of the switching time at zero temperature. By including the thermal noise, the temperature dependence of the expectation value and standard deviation of the switching time are obtained in the Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are fitted to an effective first passage model. Read More

Model comparison for the purposes of selection, averaging and validation is a problem found throughout statistics. Within the Bayesian paradigm, these problems all require the calculation of the posterior probabilities of models within a particular class. Substantial progress has been made in recent years, but difficulties remain in the implementation of existing schemes. Read More