Yael Shadmi - Technion

Yael Shadmi
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Yael Shadmi

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (38)
High Energy Physics - Theory (17)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (12)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1)

Publications Authored By Yael Shadmi

We propose a new variable, the charm fraction, for collider searches for new physics. We analyze this variable in the context of searches for simplified supersymmetry models with squarks, the gluino, and the bino, assuming that only the lightest mass-degenerate squarks can be produced at the high-luminosity LHC. The charm fraction complements event counting and kinematic information, increasing the sensitivity of the searches for models with heavy gluinos, for which squark production is flavor-blind. Read More

We show that quarkonia-like states of a hidden SU(N) gauge group can account for the 750 GeV diphoton excess observed by ATLAS and CMS, even with constituents carrying standard model hypercharge only. The required hypercharge is modest, varying between about 1.3-1. Read More

We study the prospects for long-lived charged particle (LLCP) searches at current and future LHC runs and at a 100 TeV pp collider, using Drell-Yan slepton pair production as an example. Because momentum measurements become more challenging for very energetic particles, we carefully treat the expected momentum resolution. At the same time, a novel feature of 100 TeV collisions is the significant energy loss of energetic muons in detectors. Read More

Motivated by the null results of LHC searches, which together with the Higgs mass, severely constrain minimal supersymmetric extensions of the standard model, we adopt a model-independent approach to study charged slepton flavor. We examine a number of simplified models, with different subsets of sleptons, electroweak gauginos, and Higgsinos, and derive the allowed slepton flavor dependence in the region probed by current LHC searches, and in the region relevant for the 14 TeV LHC. We then study the impact of the allowed flavor dependence on lepton plus missing energy searches. Read More

We consider a simple supersymmetric hidden sector: pure SU(N) gauge theory. Dark matter is made up of hidden glueballinos with mass $m_X$ and hidden glueballs with mass near the confinement scale $\Lambda$. For $m_X \sim 1\,\text{TeV}$ and $\Lambda \sim 100\,\text{MeV}$, the glueballinos freeze out with the correct relic density and self-interact through glueball exchange to resolve small-scale structure puzzles. Read More

We study the squark spectra of Flavored Gauge Mediation Models, in which messenger-matter superpotential couplings generate new, generation-dependent contributions to the squark masses. The new couplings are controlled by the same flavor symmetry that explains the fermion masses, leading to excellent alignment of the quark and squark mass matrices. This allows for large squark mass splittings consistent with all flavor bounds. Read More

We show that the messenger-matter couplings of Flavored Gauge Mediation Models can generate substantial stop mixing, leading to Higgs masses around 126 GeV with colored superpartners below 2 TeV and even a TeV. These results are largely independent of the messenger scale. We study the spectra of a few examples with a single messenger pair coupling dominantly to the top, for different messenger scales. Read More

Uncovering the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) is the raison-d'etre of the LHC. Flavor questions, it would seem, are of minor relevance for this quest, apart from their role in constraining the possible structure of EWSB physics. In this short review article, we outline, using flavor-dependent sleptons as an example, how flavor can affect both searches for supersymmetry, and future measurements aimed at understanding the nature of any new discoveries. Read More

If produced at the LHC, long-lived charged particles (LLCPs) would leave tracks in the muon detector. Time-of-Flight based methods for detecting these particles become less efficient if the LLCPs are fast, which would typically be the case if they are produced in the decays of some mother particle which is either heavy or very boosted. Thus for example, in supersymmetric models with long-lived sleptons, the long-lived sleptons produced in neutralino decays are often fast, with beta above 0. Read More

We describe a simple recipe for obtaining local supersymmetry-breaking vacua in s-confining theories coupled to gauge singlets. This recipe gives rise to effective O'Raifeartaigh models in the IR, with calculable supersymmetry-breaking minima near the origin, and can be applied to both vector-like and chiral theories. Since the properties of the vacuum are largely determined by superpotential terms that are non-renormalizable in the UV, it is calculable even when all dimensionless couplings are taken to be of order one. Read More

The kinematic edges of invariant mass distributions provide an important tool for the possible measurements of superpartner masses in supersymmetric models with a neutralino LSP. We examine the effect of lepton flavor dependence on the kinematic endpoints of the di-lepton invariant mass distribution, with the leptons being electrons and muons. In the presence of slepton mass splitting and mixing, each of these distributions exhibits multiple edges, which are likely to be close. Read More

We discuss generalizations of Intriligator-Seiberg-Shih (ISS) vacua to chiral models. We study one example, of an s-confining theory, in detail. In the IR, this example reduces to two ISS-like sectors, and exhibits a supersymmetry-breaking vacuum with all pseudo-moduli stabilized at the origin, and with the R-symmetry unbroken. Read More

The messengers of Gauge-Mediation Models can couple to standard-model matter fields through renormalizable superpotential couplings. These matter-messenger couplings generate generation-dependent sfermion masses and are therefore usually forbidden by discrete symmetries. However, the non-trivial structure of the standard-model Yukawa couplings hints at some underlying flavor theory, which would necessarily control the sizes of the matter-messenger couplings as well. Read More

In anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) models, superpartner masses are proportional to couplings squared. Their hidden sectors therefore naturally contain WIMPless dark matter, particles whose thermal relic abundance is guaranteed to be of the correct size, even though they are not weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs). We study viable dark matter candidates in WIMPless AMSB models with non-Abelian hidden sectors and highlight unusual possibilities that emerge in even the simplest models. Read More

Flavor physics may help us understand theories beyond the standard model. In the context of supersymmetry, if we can measure the masses and mixings of sleptons and squarks, we may learn something about supersymmetry and supersymmetry breaking. Here we consider a hybrid gauge-gravity supersymmetric model in which the observed masses and mixings of the standard model leptons are explained by a U(1) x U(1) flavor symmetry. Read More

We propose a method for determining the mass difference between two particles, \slep_1 and \slep_2, that are nearly degenerate, with \Delta{m}, defined as m_2-m_1, being much less than m_1. This method applies when (a) the \slep_1 momentum can be measured, (b) \slep_2 can only decay to \slep_1, and (c) \slep_1 and \slep_2 can be produced in the decays of a common mother particle. For small \Delta{m}, \slep_2 cannot be reconstructed directly, because its decay products are too soft to be detected. Read More

We determine the widths of three-body decays of sleptons, $\tilde{l}^- \to \tilde{l}^{\pm} l^- l^{\mp}, \tilde{l}^- \nu \bar{\nu}, \tilde{l}^- q \bar{q}$, in the presence of arbitrary slepton flavor violation and left-right mixing. These decays are important in scenarios in which the lightest supersymmetric particle is the gravitino, a generic possibility in models with gauge- and gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Three-body decays have been discussed previously assuming flavor conservation and left-right mixing in only the stau sector. Read More

Can the Large Hadron Collider explain the masses and mixings of the known fermions? A promising possibility is that these masses and mixings are determined by flavor symmetries that also govern new particles that will appear at the LHC. We consider well-motivated examples in supersymmetry with both gravity- and gauge-mediation. Contrary to spreading belief, new physics need not be minimally flavor violating. Read More

We revisit N_f=N_c SQCD and its non-supersymmetric minima conjectured by Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih (ISS). We argue that the existence of such minima depends on the signs of three non-calculable parameters and that no evidence can be inferred by deforming the theory. We demonstrate this by studying a deformation of the theory which involves additional gauge singlets. Read More

We study radiative corrections to the radion potential in the supersymmetric ``detuned RS model'', with supersymmetry broken by boundary conditions. Classically, the radion is stabilized in this model, and the 4d theory is AdS_4. With a few bulk hypermultiplets, the one-loop correction to the cosmological constant is positive. Read More


We consider Lorentz violation in supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. We perform a spurion analysis to show that, in the simplest natural constructions, the resulting supersymmetry-breaking masses are tiny. In the process, we argue that one of the strongest bounds on Lorentz violation in the photon Lagrangian, which comes from the absence of birefringence from distant astrophysical sources, does not apply when Lorentz violation is parametrized by a single vector. Read More

These lectures provide a simple introduction to supersymmetry breaking. After presenting the basics of the subject and illustrating them in tree-level examples, we discuss dynamical supersymmetry breaking, emphasizing the role of holomorphy and symmetries in restricting dynamically-generated superpotentials. We then turn to mechanisms for generating the MSSM supersymmetry-breaking terms, including ``gravity mediation'', gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. Read More

The doublet-triplet splitting problem can be simply solved in product-group GUT models, using a global symmetry that distinguishes the doublets from the triplets. Apart from giving the required mass hierarchy, this ``triplet symmetry'' can also forbid some of the triplet couplings to matter. We point out that, since this symmetry is typically generation-dependent, it gives rise to non-trivial flavor structure. Read More

We compute the one-loop correction to the radion potential in the Randall-Sundrum model with detuned brane tensions, with supersymmetry broken by boundary conditions. We concentrate on the small-warping limit, where the one-loop correction is significant. With pure supergravity, the correction is negative, but with bulk hypermultiplets, the correction can be positive, so that the 4d curvature can be lowered, with the radion stable. Read More

We study the one loop effective potential for the radion superfield in the supersymmetric Randall-Sundrum scenario with detuned brane tensions. At the classical level the distance between the branes is stabilized while the VEV of the fifth component of the graviphoton is a flat direction which breaks supersymmetry. At the quantum level a potential is generated. Read More

The logarithmic energy dependence of gauge couplings in AdS_5 emerges almost automatically when the theory is deconstructed on a coarse lattice. Here we study the theory away from the coarse-lattice limit. While we cannot analytically calculate individual KK masses for a fine lattice, we can calculate the product of all non-zero masses. Read More

We argue that neutrino flavor parameters may exhibit features that are very different from those of quarks and charged leptons. Specifically, within the Froggatt-Nielsen (FN) framework, charged fermion parameters depend on the ratio between two scales, while for neutrinos a third scale--that of lepton number breaking--is involved. Consequently, the selection rules for neutrinos may be different. Read More

We present a simple superfield Lagrangian for massive supergravity. It comprises the minimal supergravity Lagrangian with interactions as well as mass terms for the metric superfield and the chiral compensator. This is the natural generalization of the Fierz-Pauli Lagrangian for massive gravity which comprises mass terms for the metric and its trace. Read More

Triplet-mediated proton decay in Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) is usually suppressed by arranging a large triplet mass. Here we explore instead a mechanism for suppressing the couplings of the triplets to the first and second generations compared to the Yukawa couplings, so that the triplets' mass can be below the GUT scale. This mechanism is based on a ``triplet symmetry'' in the context of product-group GUTs. Read More

We present GUT models based on an $SU(5)\times SU(5)$ GUT group. These models maintain the main successes of simple-group GUTs but permit simple solutions to the doublet-triplet splitting problem. Moreover, GUT breaking is triggered by supersymmetry breaking so that the GUT scale is naturally generated as a combination of the Planck scale and the supersymmetry breaking scale. Read More

On a slice of AdS_5, despite having a dimensionful coupling, gauge theories can exhibit logarithmic dependence on scale. In this paper, we utilize deconstruction to analyze the scaling behavior of the theory, both above and below the AdS curvature scale, and shed light on position-dependent regularizations of the theory. We comment on applications to geometries other than AdS. Read More

Recent results announced as measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment are in fact measurements of the muon's anomalous spin precession frequency. This precession frequency receives contributions from both the muon's anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments. We note that all existing data cannot resolve this ambiguity, and the current deviation from standard model predictions may equally well be interpreted as evidence for new physics in the muon's anomalous magnetic moment, new physics in the muon's electric dipole moment, or both. Read More

We study grand unified theories based on an SU(5)xSU(5) gauge group in which the GUT scale, M_{GUT}, is the VEV of an exact or approximate modulus, and in which fast proton decay is avoided through a combination of a large triplet mass and small triplet couplings. These features are achieved by discrete symmetries. In many of our models, M_{GUT} is generated naturally by the balance of higher dimension terms that lift the GUT modulus potential, and soft supersymmetry breaking masses. Read More

We examine the prospects for discovering new physics through muon dipole moments. The current deviation in $g_{\mu}-2$ may be due entirely to the muon's {\em electric} dipole moment. We note that the precession frequency in the proposed BNL muon EDM experiment is also subject to a similar ambiguity, but this can be resolved by up-down asymmetry measurements. Read More

We examine the muon's electric dipole moment $\dmu$ from a variety of theoretical perspectives. We point out that the reported deviation in the muon's g-2 can be due partially or even entirely to a new physics contribution to the muon's {\em electric} dipole moment. In fact, the recent g-2 measurement provides the most stringent bound on $\dmu$ to date. Read More

Supersymmetric models with a high supersymmetry breaking scale give, in general, large contributions to epsilon_K and/or to various electric dipole moments, even when contributions to CP conserving, flavor changing processes are sufficiently suppressed. Some examples are models of dilaton dominance, alignment, non-Abelian flavor symmetries, heavy first two generation sfermions, anomaly mediation and gaugino mediation. There is then strong motivation for `approximate CP', that is a situation where all CP violating phases are small. Read More

Neutrino masses and mixings have important implications for models of fermion masses, and, most directly, for the charged lepton sector. We consider supersymmetric Abelian flavor models, where neutrino mass parameters are related to those of charged leptons and sleptons. We show that processes such as \tau to \mu\gamma, \mu to e\gamma and \mu-e conversion provide interesting probes. Read More

Supersymmetry is one of the most plausible and theoretically motivated frameworks for extending the Standard Model. However, any supersymmetry in Nature must be a broken symmetry. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) is an attractive idea for incorporating supersymmetry into a successful description of Nature. Read More

The experimental data on atmospheric and solar neutrinos are used to test the framework of non-anomalous Abelian horizontal gauge symmetries with only three light active neutrinos. We assume that the hierarchy in mass-squared splittings is not accidental and that the small breaking parameters are not considerably larger than 0.2. Read More

The experimental data on atmospheric and solar neutrinos suggest that there is near-maximal mixing between \nu_\mu and \nu_\tau but that their masses are hierarchically separated. In models of Abelian horizontal symmetries, mixing of O(1) generically implies that the corresponding masses are of the same order of magnitude. We describe two new mechanisms by which a large hierarchy between strongly mixed neutrinos can be achieved in this framework. Read More

The ground state of string theory may lie at a point of ``maximally enhanced symmetry", at which all of the moduli transform under continuous or discrete symmetries. This hypothesis, along with the hypotheses that the theory at high energies has N=1 supersymmetry and that the gauge couplings are weak and unified, has definite consequences for low energy physics. We describe these, and offer some suggestions as to how these assumptions might be compatible. Read More

Starting with two supersymmetric dual theories, we imagine adding a chiral perturbation that breaks supersymmetry dynamically. At low energy we then get two theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking terms that are generated dynamically. With a canonical Kahler potential, some of the scalars of the "magnetic" theory typically have negative mass-squared, and the vector-like symmetry is broken. Read More

We study Seiberg duality for N=1 supersymmetric QCD with soft supersymmetry-breaking terms. We generate the soft terms through gauge mediation by coupling two theories related by Seiberg duality to the same supersymmetry-breaking sector. In this way, we know what a supersymmetry-breaking perturbation in one theory maps into in its ``dual''. Read More

We show that top-quark pairs are produced in an essentially unique spin configuration in polarized $e^+e^-$ colliders at all energies above the threshold region. Since the directions of the electroweak decay products of polarized top-quarks are strongly correlated to the top-quark spin axis, this unique spin configuration leads to a distinctive topology for top-quark pair events which can be used to constrain anomalous couplings to the top-quark. A significant interference effect between the {\it longitudinal} and {\it transverse} W-bosons in the decay of polarized top-quarks is also discussed. Read More

We study the non-perturbative behavior of some N=1 supersymmetric product-group gauge theories with the help of duality. As a test case we investigate an SU(2)xSU(2) theory in detail. Various dual theories are constructed using known simple-group duality for one group or both groups in succession. Read More

We discuss rescattering effects that can be measured in $e^+e^-$ annihilation to three jets through a single gauge boson, by using triple product (``event handedness'') correlations of the $Z$ ($\gamma^*$) polarization with jet momenta. The gauge boson polarization may be produced either by polarized beams or through the natural polarization (left-right asymmetry) of the $Z$. QCD rescattering does not generate triple product correlations at one loop for massless quarks. Read More