Y. Cao - Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705

Y. Cao
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Y. Cao
Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (10)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (6)
Computer Science - Information Theory (5)
Mathematics - Information Theory (5)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (5)
Physics - Materials Science (4)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (4)
Computer Science - Learning (3)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (3)
Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (3)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (3)
Quantum Physics (2)
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (2)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (2)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (2)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2)
Computer Science - Databases (1)
Mathematics - Probability (1)
Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (1)
Physics - Superconductivity (1)
Mathematics - Rings and Algebras (1)
Computer Science - Computation and Language (1)
Computer Science - Programming Languages (1)
Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science (1)
Computer Science - Robotics (1)
Quantitative Biology - Cell Behavior (1)
Statistics - Machine Learning (1)
Physics - Optics (1)
Mathematics - Number Theory (1)
Physics - Biological Physics (1)
Statistics - Methodology (1)
Physics - Physics and Society (1)

Publications Authored By Y. Cao


The search for fast optical transients, such as the expected electromagnetic counterparts to binary neutron star mergers, is riddled with false positives ranging from asteroids to stellar flares. While moving objects are readily rejected via image pairs separated by $\sim$1 hr, stellar flares represent a challenging foreground that significantly outnumber rapidly-evolving explosions. Identifying stellar sources close to and fainter than the transient detection limit can eliminate these false positives. Read More

Affiliations: 1CIERA/Northwestern, 2Caltech, 3UW e-Science Institute, 4Oskar Klein Centre - Physics, 5Weizmann Institute, 6IPAC, 7Caltech, 8IPAC, 9LBNL, 10Dark Cosmology Centre, 11Oskar Klein Centre - Physics, 12SDSU, 13JPL, 14Oskar Klein Centre - Astronomy, 15Oskar Klein Centre - Astronomy, 16Caltech

Modern wide-field, optical time-domain surveys must solve a basic optimization problem: maximize the number of transient discoveries or minimize the follow-up needed for the new discoveries. Here, we describe the Color Me Intrigued experiment, the first from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) to search for transients simultaneously in the $g_\mathrm{PTF}$- and $R_\mathrm{PTF}$-bands. During the course of this experiment we discovered iPTF$\,$16fnm, a new member of the 02cx-like subclass of type Ia supernovae (SNe). Read More

Electron-electron (e-e) collisions can impact transport in a variety of surprising and sometimes counterintuitive ways. Despite strong interest, experiments on the subject proved challenging because of the simultaneous presence of different scattering mechanisms that suppress or obscure consequences of e-e scattering. Only recently, sufficiently clean electron systems with transport dominated by e-e collisions have become available, showing behavior characteristic of highly viscous fluids. Read More

This paper focuses on developing new navigation and reconnaissance capabilities for cooperative unmanned systems in uncertain environments. The goal is to design a cooperative multi-vehicle system that can survey an unknown environment and find the most valuable route for personnel to travel. To accomplish the goal, the multi-vehicle system first explores spatially diverse routes and then selects the safest route. Read More

$(1+pw)$-constacyclic codes of arbitrary length over the non-principal ideal ring $\mathbb{Z}_{p^s} +u\mathbb{Z}_{p^s}$ are studied, where $p$ is a prime, $w\in \mathbb{Z}_{p^s}^{\times}$ and $s$ an integer satisfying $s\geq 2$. First, the structure of any $(1+pw)$-constacyclic code over $\mathbb{Z}_{p^s} +u\mathbb{Z}_{p^s}$ are presented. Then enumerations for the number of all codes and the number of codewords in each code, and the structure of dual codes for these codes are given, respectively. Read More

We report the discovery by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of tidal disruption event (TDE) candidate iPTF16axa at $z=0.108$, and present its broadband photometric and spectroscopic evolution from 3 months of follow-up observations with ground-based telescopes and \textsl{Swift}. The light curve is well fitted with a $t^{-5/3}$ decay, and we constrain the rise-time to peak to be $<$49 rest-frame days after disruption, a factor of $>3$ shorter than the fallback timescale expected for the $\sim 4\times$10$^{7}$ M$_\odot$ black hole inferred from the host galaxy luminosity. Read More

Data-target pairing is an important step towards multi-target localization for the intelligent operation of unmanned systems. Target localization plays a crucial role in numerous applications, such as search, and rescue missions, traffic management and surveillance. The objective of this paper is to present an innovative target location learning approach, where numerous machine learning approaches, including K-means clustering and supported vector machines (SVM), are used to learn the data pattern across a list of spatially distributed sensors. Read More

Colorization of grayscale images has been a hot topic in computer vision. Previous research mainly focuses on producing a colored image to match the original one. However, since many colors share the same gray value, an input grayscale image could be diversely colored while maintaining its reality. Read More

Chemotaxis, a basic and universal phenomenon among living organisms, directly controls the transport kinetics of active fluids such as swarming bacteria, but has not been considered when utilizing passive tracer to probe the nonequilibrium properties of such fluids. Here we present the first theoretical investigation of the diffusion dynamics of a chemoattractant-coated tracer in bacterial suspension, by developing a molecular dynamics model of bacterial chemotaxis. We demonstrate that the non-Gaussian statistics of full-coated tracer arises from the noises exerted by bacteria, which is athermal and exponentially correlated. Read More

In this work we demonstrate that a free-standing van der Waals heterostructure, usually regarded as a flat object, can exhibit an intrinsic buckled atomic structure resulting from the interaction between two layers with a small lattice mismatch. We studied a freely suspended membrane of well aligned graphene on a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) monolayer by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM). We developed a detection method in the STEM that is capable of recording the direction of the scattered electron beam and that is extremely sensitive to the local stacking of atoms. Read More

Various physical structures exhibit a fundamentally probabilistic nature over diverse scales in space and time, to the point that the demarcation line between quantum and classic laws gets blurred. Here, we characterize the probability of intermittency in the laminar-turbulence transition of a partially mode-locked fibre laser system, whose degree of coherence is deteriorated by multiple mode mixing. Two competing processes, namely the proliferation and the decay of an optical turbulent puff, determine a critical behavior for the onset of turbulence in such a nonlinear dissipative system, where nondeterministic polarization rogue waves are introduced. Read More

We prove that any open subset $U$ of a semi-simple simply connected quasi-split linear algebraic group $G$ with ${codim} (G\setminus U, G)\geq 2$ over a number field satisfies strong approximation by establishing a fibration of $G$ over a toric variety. We also extend this result to strong approximation with Brauer-Manin obstruction for groupic varieties of which all invertible functions are constant. As a by-product of the fibration method, we provide an example which satisfies strong approximation with Brauer-Manin obstruction over $\mathbb{Q}$ and fails to satisfy such a property after some finite extension of $\mathbb{Q}$. Read More

We address the computational challenge of finding the robust sequential change-point detection procedures when the pre- and post-change distributions are not completely specified. Earlier works establish the general conditions for robust procedures which include finding a pair of least favorable distri- butions (LFDs). However, in the multi-dimensional setting, it is hard to find such LFDs computationally. Read More

Behaviour distances to measure the resemblance of two states in a (nondeterministic) fuzzy transition system have been proposed recently in the literature. Such a distance, defined as a pseudo-ultrametric over the state space of the model, provides a quantitative analogue of bisimilarity. In this paper, we focus on the problem of computing these distances. Read More

Flight delay happens every day in airports all over the world. However, systemic investigation in large scales remains a challenge. We collect primary data of domestic departure records from Bureau of Transportation Statistics of United States, and do empirical statistics with them in form of complementary cumulative distributions functions (CCDFs) and transmission function of the delays. Read More

With the advent of new wide-field, high-cadence optical transient surveys, our understanding of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae has grown tremendously in the last decade. However, the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars, that sets the physical backdrop to these violent events, is theoretically not well understood and difficult to probe observationally. Here we report the discovery of the supernova iPTF13dqy = SN 2013fs, a mere ~3 hr after explosion. Read More

In recent years, Deep Learning (DL) has found great success in domains such as multimedia understanding. However, the complex nature of multimedia data makes it difficult to develop DL-based software. The state-of-the art tools, such as Caffe, TensorFlow, Torch7, and CNTK, while are successful in their applicable domains, are programming libraries with fixed user interface, internal representation, and execution environment. Read More

We present a radio-quiet quasar at z=0.237 discovered "turning on" by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). The transient, iPTF 16bco, was detected by iPTF in the nucleus of a galaxy with an archival SDSS spectrum with weak narrow-line emission characteristic of a low-ionization emission line region (LINER). Read More

We consider a random knockout tournament among players $1, \ldots, n$, in which each match involves two players. The match format is specified by the number of matches played in each round, where the constitution of the matches in a round is random. Supposing that there are numbers $v_1, \ldots, v_n$ such that a match between $i$ and $j$ will be won by $i$ with probability $\frac{v_i}{v_i+v_j}$, we obtain a lower bound on the tournament win probability for the best player, as well as upper and lower bounds for all the players. Read More

Crystallographic alignment between two-dimensional crystals in van der Waals heterostructures brought a number of profound physical phenomena, including observation of Hofstadter butterfly and topological currents, and promising novel applications, such as resonant tunnelling transistors. Here, by probing the electronic density of states in graphene using graphene-hexagonal boron nitride tunnelling transistors, we demonstrate a structural transition of bilayer graphene from incommensurate twisted stacking state into a commensurate AB stacking due to a macroscopic graphene self-rotation. This structural transition is accompanied by a topological transition in the reciprocal space and by pseudospin texturing. Read More

Kawamata proposed a conjecture predicting that every nef and big line bundle on a smooth projective variety with trivial first Chern class has nontrivial global sections. We verify this conjecture for several cases, including (i) all hyperk\"{a}hler varieties of dimension $\leq 6$; (ii) all known hyperk\"{a}hler varieties except for O'Grady's 10-dimensional example; (iii) general complete intersection Calabi-Yau varieties in certain Fano manifolds (e.g. Read More

We present the Palomar Transient Factory discoveries and the photometric and spectroscopic observations of PTF11kmb and PTF12bho. We show that both transients have properties consistent with the class of calcium-rich gap transients, specifically lower peak luminosities and rapid evolution compared to ordinary supernovae, and a nebular spectrum dominated by [Ca II] emission. A striking feature of both transients is their host environments: PTF12bho is an intra-cluster transient in the Coma Cluster, while PTF11kmb is located in a loose galaxy group, at a physical offset ~150 kpc from the most likely host galaxy. Read More

In nature, a variety of limbless locomotion patterns flourish from the small or basic life form (Escherichia coli, the amoeba, etc.) to the large or intelligent creatures (e.g. Read More

Random numbers are indispensable for a variety of applications ranging from testing physics foundation to information encryption. In particular, nonlocality tests provide a strong evidence to our current understanding of nature -- quantum mechanics. All the random number generators (RNG) used for the existing tests are constructed locally, making the test results vulnerable to the freedom-of-choice loophole. Read More

One of the intriguing characteristics of honeycomb lattices is the appearance of a pseudo-magnetic field as a result of mechanical deformation. In the case of graphene, the Landau quantization resulting from this pseudo-magnetic field has been measured using scanning tunneling microscopy. Here we show that a signature of the pseudo-magnetic field is a local sublattice symmetry breaking observable as a redistribution of the local density of states. Read More

Differential Privacy (DP) has received increased attention as a rigorous privacy framework. Existing studies employ traditional DP mechanisms (e.g. Read More

In this paper, we introduce a novel fusion method that can enhance object detection performance by fusing decisions from two different types of computer vision tasks: object detection and image classification. In the proposed work, the class label of an image obtained from image classification is viewed as prior knowledge about existence or non-existence of certain objects. The prior knowledge is then fused with the decisions of object detection to improve detection accuracy by mitigating false positives of an object detector that are strongly contradicted with the prior knowledge. Read More

Let $\mathbb{F}_{p^m}$ be a finite field of cardinality $p^m$, where $p$ is a prime, and $k, N$ be any positive integers. We denote $R_k=F_{p^m}[u]/\langle u^k\rangle =F_{p^m}+uF_{p^m}+\ldots+u^{k-1}F_{p^m}$ ($u^k=0$) and $\lambda=a_0+a_1u+\ldots+a_{k-1}u^{k-1}$ where $a_0, a_1,\ldots, a_{k-1}\in F_{p^m}$ satisfying $a_0\neq 0$ and $a_1=1$. Let $r$ be a positive integer satisfying $p^{r-1}+1\leq k\leq p^r$. Read More

Augmenting RGB data with measured depth has been shown to improve the performance of a range of tasks in computer vision including object detection and semantic segmentation. Although depth sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect have facilitated easy acquisition of such depth information, the vast majority of images used in vision tasks do not contain depth information. In this paper, we show that augmenting RGB images with estimated depth can also improve the accuracy of both object detection and semantic segmentation. Read More

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) is an end-to-end learning approach for automated translation, with the potential to overcome many of the weaknesses of conventional phrase-based translation systems. Unfortunately, NMT systems are known to be computationally expensive both in training and in translation inference. Also, most NMT systems have difficulty with rare words. Read More

We present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) PTF12dam and iPTF13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF12dam is very similar in duration (~10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (2-3 mag fainter) compared to those observed in other SLSNe-I. Read More

Let $\mathbb{F}_{2^m}$ be a finite field of cardinality $2^m$, $R=\mathbb{F}_{2^m}[u]/\langle u^4\rangle)$ and $n$ is an odd positive integer. For any $\delta,\alpha\in \mathbb{F}_{2^m}^{\times}$, ideals of the ring $R[x]/\langle x^{2n}-(\delta+\alpha u^2)\rangle$ are identified as $(\delta+\alpha u^2)$-constacyclic codes of length $2n$ over $R$. In this paper, an explicit representation and enumeration for all distinct $(\delta+\alpha u^2)$-constacyclic codes of length $2n$ over $R$ are presented. Read More

Let $k$ a field of characteristic zero. Let $X$ be a smooth, projective, geometrically rational $k$-surface. Let $\mathcal{T}$ be a universal torsor over $X$ with a $k$-point et $\mathcal{T}^c$ a smooth compactification of $\mathcal{T}$. Read More

Phase-field simulation (PFS) have revolutionized the understanding of domain structure and switching behavior in ferroelectric thin films and ceramics. Generally, PFS is based on solution of a (set) of Ginzburg-Landau equations for a defined order parameter field(s) under physical boundary conditions (BCs) of fixed potential or charge. While well-matched to the interfaces in bulk materials and devices, these BCs are generally not applicable to free ferroelectric surfaces. Read More

Let $D_{2n}=\langle x,y\mid x^n=1, y^2=1, yxy=x^{-1}\rangle$ be a dihedral group, and $R={\rm GR}(p^2,m)$ be a Galois ring of characteristic $p^2$ and cardinality $p^{2m}$ where $p$ is a prime. Left ideals of the group ring $R[D_{2n}]$ are called left dihedral codes over $R$ of length $2n$, and abbreviated as left $D_{2n}$-codes over $R$. Let ${\rm gcd}(n,p)=1$ in this paper. Read More

In this paper, we study the distributed control of networked cyber-physical systems when a much more energy-efficient distributed communication management strategy is proposed to solve the well-studied consensus problem. In contrast to the existing potential-based network topology control method, the proposed topology control method is based on the variation of communication ranges such that each agent can control its ad hoc communication range. The proposed network topology control technique can not only guarantee network connectivity but also reduce the communication energy. Read More

Caching is an effective technique to improve user perceived experience for content delivery in wireless networks. Wireless caching differs from traditional web caching in that it can exploit the broadcast nature of wireless medium and hence opportunistically change the network topologies. This paper studies a cache-aided MIMO interference network with 3 transmitters each equipped with M antennas and 3 receivers each with N antennas. Read More

A decade of intense research on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals has revealed that their properties can differ greatly from those of the parent compound. These differences are governed by changes in the band structure due to quantum confinement and are most profound if the underlying lattice symmetry changes. Here we report a high-quality 2D electron gas in few-layer InSe encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride under an inert atmosphere. Read More

Here we consider using quantum annealing to solve Set Cover with Pairs (SCP), an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that play an important role in networking, computational biology, and biochemistry. We show an explicit construction of Ising Hamiltonians whose ground states encode the solution of SCP instances. We numerically simulate the time-dependent Schr\"{o}dinger equation in order to test the performance of quantum annealing for random instances and compare with that of simulated annealing. Read More

Epitaxial heterostructures composed of complex oxides have fascinated researchers for over a decade as they offer multiple degrees of freedom to unveil emergent many-body phenomena often unattainable in bulk. Recently, apart from stabilizing such artificial structures along the conventional [001]-direction, tuning the growth direction along unconventional crystallographic axes has been highlighted as a promising route to realize novel quantum many-body phases. Here we illustrate this rapidly developing field of geometrical lattice engineering with the emphasis on a few prototypical examples of the recent experimental efforts to design complex oxide heterostructures along the (111) orientation for quantum phase discovery and potential applications. Read More

In all archetypical reported (001)-oriented perovskite heterostructures, it has been deduced that the preferential occupation of two-dimensional electron gases is in-plane $d_\textrm{xy}$ state. In sharp contrast to this, the investigated electronic structure of a spinel-perovskite heterostructure $\gamma$-Al$_2$O$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ by resonant soft X-ray linear dichroism, demonstrates that the preferential occupation is out-of-plane $d_\textrm{xz}$/$d_\textrm{yz}$ states for interfacial electrons. Moreover, the impact of strain further corroborates that this anomalous orbital structure can be linked to the altered crystal field at the interface and symmetry breaking of the interfacial structural units. Read More

We study the evolution of magnetic excitations in the disordered two-dimensional antiferromagnet Sr2Ir1-xRuxO4. A gigantic magnetic gap greater than 40 meV opens at x = 0.27 and increases with Ru concentration, rendering the dispersive magnetic excitations in Sr2IrO4 almost momentum independent. Read More

We demonstrate that Mn-doping in the layered sulfides Bi_4O_4S_3 leads to stable Bi_4-x Mn_x O_4 S_3 compounds that exhibit both long-range ferromagnetism and enhanced superconductivity for 0.075 < = x < = 0.15, with a possible record superconducting transition temperature (T_c) = 15 K among all BiS_2-based superconductors. Read More

The electrostatic confinement of massless charge carriers is hampered by Klein tunneling. Circumventing this problem in graphene mainly relies on carving out nanostructures or applying electric displacement fields to open a band gap in bilayer graphene. So far, these approaches suffer from edge disorder or insufficiently controlled localization of electrons. Read More

Chirality is a fundamental property of electrons with the relativistic spectrum found in graphene and topological insulators. It plays a crucial role in relativistic phenomena, such as Klein tunneling, but it is difficult to visualize directly. Here we report the direct observation and manipulation of chirality and pseudospin polarization in the tunneling of electrons between two almost perfectly aligned graphene crystals. Read More