# Xin Zheng

## Contact Details

NameXin Zheng |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (27) Quantum Physics (16) High Energy Physics - Theory (4) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (3) Computer Science - Learning (2) Physics - Optics (2) Physics - Atomic Physics (2) Computer Science - Sound (1) Computer Science - Computation and Language (1) Physics - Superconductivity (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) Computer Science - Information Retrieval (1) Physics - General Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Xin Zheng

Discontinuity of gauge theory in the gauge condition $n\cdot\partial n\cdot A=0$, which emerges at $n\cdot k=0$, is studied here. Such discontinuity is different from that one confronts in axial gauge and can not be regularized by conventional analytical continuation method. The Faddeev-Popov determinate of the gauge $n\cdot\partial n\cdot A=0$, which is solved explicitly in the manuscript, behaves like a $\delta$-functional of gauge potentials once singularities in the functional integral is neglected and the length along $n^{\mu}$ direction of the space tends to infinity. Read More

Locations, e.g., countries, states, cities, and point-of-interests, are central to news, emergency events, and people's daily lives. Read More

The continuity of the gauge fixing condition $n\cdot\partial n\cdot A=0$ for $SU(2)$ gauge theory on the manifold $R\bigotimes S^{1}\bigotimes S^{1}\bigotimes S^{1}$ is studied here, where $n^{\mu}$ stands for directional vector along $x_{i}$-axis($i=1,2,3$). It is proved that the gauge fixing condition is continuous given that gauge potentials are differentiable with continuous derivatives on the manifold $R\bigotimes S^{1}\bigotimes S^{1}\bigotimes S^{1}$ which is compact. Read More

We discuss the quantum simulation of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states for interacting fermions in quasi-one-dimensional gases of alkaline-earth-like atoms such as $^{173}$Yb. Taking advantage of the separation of orbital and nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in these atoms, we consider Raman-assisted spin-orbit couplings in the clock states, which, together with the spin-exchange interactions in the clock-state manifolds, give rise to SPT states for interacting fermions. We numerically investigate the effects of bulk interactions on the topological properties of the system, characterize the interaction-induced topological phase boundaries, and map out the phase diagram. Read More

A gauge condition is presented here to quantize non-Abelian gauge theory on the manifold $R\otimes S^{1}\otimes S^{1}\otimes S^{1}$, which is free from the Gribov ambiguity. Perturbative calculations in the new gauge behave like the axial gauge in ultraviolet region, while infrared behaviours of the perturbative series are quite nontrivial. The new gauge condition, which reads $n\cdot\partial n\cdot A=0$, may not satisfy the requirement that $A^{\mu}(\infty)=0$ in conventional perturbative calculations. Read More

While two-dimensional symmetry-enriched topological phases ($\mathsf{SET}$s) have been studied intensively and systematically, three-dimensional ones are still open issues. We propose an algorithmic approach of imposing global symmetry $G_s$ on gauge theories (denoted by $\mathsf{GT}$) with gauge group $G_g$. The resulting symmetric gauge theories are dubbed "symmetry-enriched gauge theories" ($\mathsf{SEG}$), which may be served as low-energy effective theories of three-dimensional symmetric topological quantum spin liquids. Read More

The reduced density matrices (RDMs) of many-body quantum states form a convex set. The boundary of low dimensional projections of this convex set may exhibit nontrivial geometry such as ruled surfaces. In this paper, we study the physical origins of these ruled surfaces for bosonic systems. Read More

An eigenfunction method is applied to reduce the regular projective representations (Reps) of finite groups to obtain their irreducible projective Reps. Anti-unitary groups are treated specially, where the decoupled factor systems and modified Schur's lemma are introduced. We discuss the applications of irreducible Reps in many-body physics. Read More

We study $S=1$ spin liquid states on the Kagome lattice constructed by Gutzwiller projected $p_x+ip_y$ superconductors. Depending on the topology of the fermions, the obtained spin liquids can be either non-Abelian or Abelian. By calculating the modular matrices $S$ and $T$, we confirm that projected topological superconductors are non-Abelian chiral spin liquid (NACSL). Read More

In this paper, we study the geometry of reduced density matrices for states with symmetry-protected topological (SPT) order. We observe ruled surface structures on the boundary of the convex set of low dimension projections of the reduced density matrices. In order to signal the SPT order using ruled surfaces, it is important that we add a symmetry-breaking term to the boundary of the system---no ruled surface emerges in systems without boundary or when we add a symmetry-breaking term representing a thermodynamic quantity. Read More

The newly-emergent two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) have shown their unique electronic and optical properties, such as good thermal management, high nonlinear refraction index and ultrafast relaxation time. Their narrow energy band gaps predict their optical absorption ability further into the mid-infrared region and their possibility to be very broadband light modulators ranging from the visible to the mid-infrared region. In this paper, a mid-infrared mode-locked fluoride fiber laser with TI Bi2Te3 nano-sheets as the saturable absorber is presented. Read More

Black phosphorus (BP) with its enticing electric and optical properties is intensely researched in the field of optoelectronics. In this paper, Q-switched pulses at 1550 nm and 2 um wavelengths are obtained by inserting bulk-structured BP based saturable absorber (SA) into an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) and an thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser (THDFL), respectively. The BP-SA was prepared by depositing powered BP material on to the flat side of a side-polished single mode fiber. Read More

We study two-legged spin-1 ladder systems with $D_2\times \sigma$ symmetry group, where $D_2$ is discrete spin rotational symmetry and $\sigma$ means interchain reflection symmetry. The system has one trivial phase and seven nontrivial symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases. We construct Hamiltonians to realize all of these SPT phases and study the phase transitions between them. Read More

We present a deep learning approach to estimation of the bead parameters in welding tasks. Our model is based on a four-hidden-layer neural network architecture. More specifically, the first three hidden layers of this architecture utilize Sigmoid function to produce their respective intermediate outputs. Read More

Strong interactions can give rise to new fermionic symmetry protected topological phases which have no analogs in free fermion systems. As an example, we have systematically studied a spinless fermion model with $U(1)$ charge conservation and time reversal symmetry on a three-leg ladder using density-matrix renormalization group. In the non-interacting limit, there are no topological phases. Read More

For a $S=1$ system with even number of spins, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are overcomplete bases for the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. If the system contains odd number of spins, a singlet state can be decomposed as a superposition of all of the following configurations, in each configuration three of the spins form a three-body singlet and the remaining form two-body singlet pairs. This indicates that a $S=1$ spin liquid is especially a resonating-valence bond state. Read More

Gutzwiller projection is a way to construct many-body wave functions that could carry topological order or symmetry protected topological (SPT) order. However, an important issue is to determine whether or not a given Gutzwiller-projected wave functions (GWF) carries a non-trivial SPT order, and which SPT order is carried by the wavefunction. In this paper, we numerically study the SPT order in a spin $S = 1$ GWF on the Kagome lattice. Read More

We find an optical Raman lattice without spin-orbit coupling showing chiral topological orders for cold atoms. Two incident plane-wave lasers are applied to generate simultaneously a double-well square lattice and periodic Raman couplings, the latter of which drive the nearest-neighbor hopping and create a staggered flux pattern across the lattice. Such a minimal setup is can yield the quantum anomalous Hall effect in the single particle regime, while in the interacting regime it achieves the $J_1$-$J_2$-$K$ model with all parameters controllable, which supports a chiral spin liquid phase. Read More

It is well known that a Bosonic Mott insulator can be realized by condensing vortices of a bo- son condensate. Usually, a vortex becomes an anti-vortex (and vice-versa) under time reversal symmetry, and the condensation of vortices results in a trivial Mott insulator. However, if each vortex or anti-vortex interacts with a spin trapped at its core, the time reversal transformation of the composite vortex operator will contain an extra minus sign. Read More

We exploit a natural Projected Entangled-Pair State (PEPS) representation for the resonating Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki loop (RAL) state. By taking advantage of PEPS-based analytical and numerical methods, we characterize the RAL states on various two-dimensional lattices. On square and honeycomb lattices, these states are critical since the dimer-dimer correlations decay as a power law. Read More

In this paper, we first present a new variant of Gaussian restricted Boltzmann machine (GRBM) called multivariate Gaussian restricted Boltzmann machine (MGRBM), with its definition and learning algorithm. Then we propose using a learned GRBM or MGRBM to extract better features for robust speech recognition. Our experiments on Aurora2 show that both GRBM-extracted and MGRBM-extracted feature performs much better than Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) with either HMM-GMM or hybrid HMM-deep neural network (DNN) acoustic model, and MGRBM-extracted feature is slightly better. Read More

In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. B 85,195144 (2012)], variational Monte Carlo method (based on Gutzwiller projected states) was generalized to $S=1$ systems. Read More

Symmetry protected topological (SPT) states are bulk gapped states with gapless edge excitations protected by certain symmetries. The SPT phases in free fermion systems, like topological insulators, can be classified by the K-theory. However, it is not known what SPT phases exist in general interacting systems. Read More

We examine the effective field theory of the Bethe ansatz integrable Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin chains. It shows that the quantum critical theories for the integer spin-S chains should be characterized by the SO(3)level-S Wess-Zumino-Witten model, and classified by the third cohomology group $H^{3}(SO(3),Z)=Z$. Depending on the parity of spin S, this integer classification is further divided into two distinct universality classes, which are associated with two completely different conformal field theories: the even-S chains have gapless bosonic excitations and the odd-S chains have both bosonic and fermionic excitations. Read More

We propose to observe and manipulate topological edge spins in 1D optical lattice based on currently available experimental platforms. Coupling the atomic spin states to a laser-induced periodic Zeeman field, the lattice system can be driven into a symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase, which belongs to the chiral unitary (AIII) class protected by particle number conservation and chiral symmetries. In free-fermion case the SPT phase is classified by a $Z$ invariant which reduces to $Z_4$ with interactions. Read More

Symmetry protected topological (SPT) states are short-range entangled states with symmetry. Nontrivial SPT states have symmetry protected gapless edge excitations. In 2-dimension (2D), there are infinite number of nontrivial SPT phases with SU(2) or SO(3) symmetry. Read More

Spin-1/2 two-legged ladders respecting inter-leg exchange symmetry and D2 spin rotation symmetry have new symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases which are different from the Haldane phase. Three of the new SPT phases are tx,ty,tz, which all have symmetry protected two-fold degenerate edge states on each end of the open boundaries. However, the edge states in different phases have different response to magnetic field. Read More

We study in this paper a series of Gutzwiller Projected wavefunctions for S=1 spin chains obtained from a fermionic mean-field theory for general S>1/2 spin systems [Phys. Rev. B 81, 224417] applied to the bilinear-biquadratic (J-K) model. Read More

Topological insulators in free fermion systems have been well characterized and classified. However, it is not clear in strongly interacting boson or fermion systems what symmetry protected topological orders exist. In this paper, we present a model in a 2D interacting spin system with nontrivial on-site $Z_2$ symmetry protected topological order. Read More

Symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases are gapped short-range-entangled quantum phases with a symmetry G. They can all be smoothly connected to the same trivial product state if we break the symmetry. The Haldane phase of spin-1 chain is the first example of SPT phase which is protected by SO(3) spin rotation symmetry. Read More

In [Z.-X. Liu, M. Read More

We study different quantum phases in integer spin systems with on-site D2h=D2xZ2 and translation symmetry. We find four distinct non-trivial phases in S=1 spin chains despite they all have the same symmetry. All the four phases have gapped bulk excitations, doubly-degenerate end states and the doubly-degenerate entanglement spectrum. Read More

The fermion representation for S = 1/2 spins is generalized to spins with arbitrary magnitudes. The symmetry properties of the representation is analyzed where we find that the particle-hole symmetry in the spinon Hilbert space of S =1/2 fermion representation is absent for S > 1/2. As a result, different path integral representations and mean field theories can be formulated for spin models. Read More

In this paper we generalize the fermionic representation for $S=1/2$ spins to arbitrary spins. Within a mean field theory we obtain several spin liquid states for spin $S=1$ antiferromagnets on triangular lattices, including gapless f-wave spin liquid and topologically nontrivial $p_x+ip_y$ spin liquid. After considering different competing orders, we construct a phase diagram for the $J_1$-$J_3$-$K$ model. Read More

We followed the Shastry--Shraiman formulation of Raman scattering in Hubbard systems and considered the Raman intensity profile in the spin-1/2 "perfect" kagome lattice herbertsmithite ZnCu_3(OH)_6Cl_2, assuming the ground state is well-described by the U(1) Dirac spin-liquid state. In the derivation of the Raman T-matrix, we found that the spin chirality term appears in the A_{2g} channel in the kagome lattice at the t^4/(\omega_i-U)^3 order, but (contrary to the claims by Shastry and Shraiman) vanishes in the square lattice to that order. In the ensuing calculations on the spin-1/2 kagome lattice, we found that the Raman intensity profile in the E_g channel is invariant under an arbitrary rotation in the kagome plane, and that in all (A_{1g}, E_g, and A_{2g}) symmetry channels the Raman intensity profile contains broad continua that display power-law behaviors at low energy, with exponent approximately equal to 1 in the A_{2g} channel and exponent approximately equal to 3 in the E_g and the A_{1g} channels. Read More

We introduce a general method to construct one-dimensional translationally invariant valence bond solid states with a built-in Lie group $G$ and derive their matrix product representations. The general strategies to find their parent Hamiltonians are provided so that the valence bond solid states are their unique ground states. For quantum integer spin-$S$ chains, we discuss two topologically distinct classes of valence bond solid states: One consists of two virtual SU(2) spin-$J$ variables in each site and another is formed by using two $SO(2S+1)$ spinors. Read More

The topological properties of adiabatic gauge fields for multi-level (three-level in particular) quantum systems are studied in detail. Similar to the result that the adiabatic gauge field for SU(2) systems (e.g. Read More

We show the pulse matching phenomenon can be obtained in the general multi-level system with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). For this we find a novel way to create tightly localized stationary pulses by using counter-propagating pump fields. The present process is a spatial compression of excitation so that it allows us to shape and further intensify the localized stationary pulses, without using standing waves of pump fields or spatially modulated pump fields. Read More

We study in detail the classical and quantum depinning of a domain wall (DW) induced by a fast-varying spin-polarized current. By confirming the adiabatic condition for calculating the spin-torque in fast-varying current case, we show that the time-dependent spin current has two critical values that determine the classical depinning of DW. This discovery successfully explains the recent experiments. Read More

The effect of inhomogeneous coupling between three-level atoms and external light fields is studied in the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) quantum memory techqnique. By introducing a subensemble-atomic system to deal with present inhomogeneous coupling case, we find there is a non-symmetric dark-state subspace (DSS) that allows the EIT quantum memory technique to function perfectly. This shows that such memory scheme can work ideally even if the atomic state is very far from being a symmetric one. Read More