XiaoHu Yang - SHAO

XiaoHu Yang
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XiaoHu Yang

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (44)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (21)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
Physics - Plasma Physics (2)

Publications Authored By XiaoHu Yang

The ELUCID project aims to build a series of realistic cosmological simulations that reproduce the spatial and mass distribution of the galaxies as observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This requires powerful reconstruction techniques to create constrained initial conditions. We test the reconstruction method by applying it to several $N$-body simulations. Read More

Halo bias is the one of the key ingredients of the halo models. It was shown at a given redshift to be only dependent, to the first order, on the halo mass. In this study, four types of cosmic web environments: clusters, filaments, sheets and voids are defined within a state of the art high resolution $N$-body simulation. Read More

Compact acceleration of tightly collimated relativistic electron beam with high charge from laser-plasma interaction has many unique applications. However, currently the well-known schemes including laser wakefield acceleration from gas and vacuum laser acceleration from solid often produce electron beams either with low charge or with large divergence angles, suffering from lack of balance between the plasma density and the collimation force. In this work, we report the generation of well collimated electron beams with the divergence angle of a few degrees, quasi-monoenergetic spectra peaked at the MeV-level, and extremely high charge ($\sim$100 nC) via the powerful sub-ps laser pulse interacting with solid target. Read More

Using a method to correct redshift space distortion (RSD) for individual galaxies, we mapped the real space distributions of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7). We use an ensemble of mock catalogs to demonstrate the reliability of our method. Here as the first paper in a series, we mainly focus on the two point correlation function (2PCF) of galaxies. Read More

A method we developed recently for the reconstruction of the initial density field in the nearby Universe is applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. A high-resolution N-body constrained simulation (CS) of the reconstructed initial condition, with $3072^3$ particles evolved in a 500 Mpc/h box, is carried out and analyzed in terms of the statistical properties of the final density field and its relation with the distribution of SDSS galaxies. We find that the statistical properties of the cosmic web and the halo populations are accurately reproduced in the CS. Read More

As the first paper in a series on the study of the galaxy-galaxy lensing from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7), we present our image processing pipeline that corrects the systematics primarily introduced by the Point Spread Function (PSF). Using this pipeline, we processed SDSS DR7 imaging data in $r$ band and generated a background galaxy catalog containing the shape information of each galaxy. Based on our own shape measurements of the galaxy images from SDSS DR7, we extract the galaxy-galaxy (GG) lensing signals around foreground spectroscopic galaxies binned in different luminosity and stellar mass. Read More

A galaxy group catalog is constructed from the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) with the use of a halo-based group finder. The halo mass associated with a group is estimated using a `GAP' method based on the luminosity of the central galaxy and its gap with other member galaxies. Tests using mock samples shows that this method is reliable, particularly for poor systems containing only a few members. Read More

All of the 14 subfields of the Kepler field have been observed at least once with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, Xinglong Observatory, China) during the 2012-2014 observation seasons. There are 88,628 reduced spectra with SNR$_g$ (signal-to-noise ratio in g band) $\geq$ 6 after the first round (2012-2014) of observations for the LAMOST-Kepler project (LK-project). By adopting the upgraded version of the LAMOST Stellar Parameter pipeline (LASP), we have determined the atmospheric parameters ($T_{\rm eff}$ , $\log g$, and $\rm [Fe/H]$) and heliocentric radial velocity $v_{\rm rad}$ for 51,406 stars with 61,226 spectra. Read More

Based on the star formation histories (SFH) of galaxies in halos of different masses, we develop an empirical model to grow galaxies in dark mattet halos. This model has very few ingredients, any of which can be associated to observational data and thus be efficiently assessed. By applying this model to a very high resolution cosmological $N$-body simulation, we predict a number of galaxy properties that are a very good match to relevant observational data. Read More

We investigate the ability of current implementations of galaxy group finders to recover colour-dependent halo occupation statistics. To test the fidelity of group catalogue inferred statistics, we run three different group finders used in the literature over a mock that includes galaxy colours in a realistic manner. Overall, the resulting mock group catalogues are remarkably similar, and most colour-dependent statistics are recovered with reasonable accuracy. Read More

Reliable halo mass estimation for a given galaxy system plays an important role both in cosmology and galaxy formation studies. Here we set out to find the way that can improve the halo mass estimation for those galaxy systems with limited brightest member galaxies been observed. Using four mock galaxy samples constructed from semi-analytical formation models, the subhalo abundance matching method and the conditional luminosity functions, respectively, we find that the luminosity gap between the brightest and the subsequent brightest member galaxies in a halo (group) can be used to significantly reduce the scatter in the halo mass estimation based on the luminosity of the brightest galaxy alone. Read More

We show that the ratio between the stellar mass of central galaxy and the mass of its host halo, $f_c \equiv M_{*,c}/M_{\rm h}$, can be used as an observable proxy of halo assembly time, in that galaxy groups with higher $f_c$ assembled their masses earlier. Using SDSS groups of Yang et al., we study how $f_c$ correlates with galaxy properties such as color, star formation rate, metallicity, bulge to disk ratio, and size. Read More

The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) at the Xinglong observatory in China is a new 4-m telescope equipped with 4,000 optical fibers. In 2010, we initiated the LAMOST-Kepler project. We requested to observe the full field-of-view of the nominal Kepler mission with the LAMOST to collect low-resolution spectra for as many objects from the KIC10 catalogue as possible. Read More

Using a sample of spiral galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) and Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2), we investigate the alignment of spin axes of spiral galaxies with their surrounding large scale structure, which is characterized by the large-scale tidal field reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the spin axes of only have weak tendency to be aligned with (or perpendicular to) the intermediate (or minor) axis of the local tidal tensor. The signal is the strongest in a \cluster environment where all the three eigenvalues of the local tidal tensor are positive. Read More

Simulating the evolution of the local universe is important for studying galaxies and the intergalactic medium in a way free of cosmic variance. Here we present a method to reconstruct the initial linear density field from an input non-linear density field, employing the Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm combined with Particle Mesh (PM) dynamics. The HMC+PM method is applied to cosmological simulations, and the reconstructed linear density fields are then evolved to the present day with N-body simulations. Read More

Major mergers and interactions between gas-rich galaxies with comparable masses are thought to be the main triggers of starburst. In this work, we study, for a large stellar mass range, the interaction rate of the starburst galaxies in the local universe. We focus independently on central and satellite star forming galaxies extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Read More

The empirical model of Lu et al. 2014 is updated with recent data and used to study galaxy star formation and assembly histories. At $z > 2$, the predicted galaxy stellar mass functions are steep, and a significant amount of star formation is hosted by low-mass haloes that may be missed in current observations. Read More

We use ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) broadband X-ray images and the optical clusters identified from SDSS DR7 to estimate the X-ray luminosities around $\sim 65,000$ candidate clusters with masses $\ga 10^{13}\msunh$ based on an Optical to X-ray (OTX) code we develop. We obtain a catalogue with X-ray luminosity for each cluster. This catalog contains 817 clusters (473 at redshift $z\le 0. Read More

We select satellite galaxies from the galaxy group catalog constructed with the SDSS spectroscopic galaxies and measure the tangential shear around these galaxies with source catalog extracted from CFHT/MegaCam Stripe-82 Survey to constrain the mass of subhalos associated with them. The lensing signal is measured around satellites in groups with masses in the range [10^{13}, 5x10^{14}]h^{-1}M_{sun}, and is found to agree well with theoretical expectation. Fitting the data with a truncated NFW profile, we obtain an average subhalo mass of log M_{sub}= 11. Read More

Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7), we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. Read More

We examine the statistical properties of the brightest group galaxies (BGGs) using a complete spectroscopic sample of groups/clusters of galaxies selected from the Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We test whether BGGs and other bright members of groups are consistent with an ordered population among the total population of group galaxies. We find that the luminosity distributions of BGGs do not follow the predictions from the order statistics (OS). Read More

We develop an empirical approach to infer the star formation rate in dark matter halos from the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) at different redshifts and the local cluster galaxy luminosity function (CGLF), which has a steeper faint end relative to the SMF of local galaxies. As satellites are typically old galaxies which have been accreted earlier, this feature can cast important constraint on the formation of low-mass galaxies at high-redshift. The evolution of the SMFs suggests the star formation in high mass halos ($>10^{12}M_{\odot}h^{-1}$) has to be boosted at high redshift beyond what is expected from a simple scaling of the dynamical time. Read More

Assembly bias describes the finding that the clustering of dark matter haloes depends on halo formation time at fixed halo mass. In this paper, we analyse the influence of assembly bias on galaxy clustering using both semi-analytical models (SAMs) and observational data. At fixed stellar mass, SAMs predict that the clustering of {\it central} galaxies depends on the specific star formation rate (sSFR), with more passive galaxies having a higher clustering amplitude. Read More

We study the alignment signal between the distribution of brightest satellite galaxies (BSGs) and the major axis of their host groups using SDSS group catalog constructed by Yang et al. (2007). After correcting for the effect of group ellipticity, a statistically significant (~ 5\sigma) major-axis alignment is detected and the alignment angle is found to be 43. Read More

Using the self-consistent modeling of the conditional stellar mass functions across cosmic time by Yang et al. (2012), we make model predictions for the star formation histories (SFHs) of {\it central} galaxies in halos of different masses. The model requires the following two key ingredients: (i) mass assembly histories of central and satellite galaxies, and (ii) local observational constraints of the star formation rates of central galaxies as function of halo mass. Read More

The statistics of dark matter halos is an essential component of understanding the nonlinear evolution in modified gravity cosmology. Based on a series of modified gravity N-body simulations, we investigate the halo mass function, concentration and bias. We model the impact of modified gravity by a single parameter \zeta, which determines the enhancement of particle acceleration with respect to GR, given the identical mass distribution (\zeta=1 in GR). Read More

Our research objective in this paper is to reconstruct an initial linear density field, which follows the multivariate Gaussian distribution with variances given by the linear power spectrum of the current CDM model and evolves through gravitational instability to the present-day density field in the local Universe. For this purpose, we develop a Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to obtain the linear density field from a posterior probability function that consists of two components: a prior of a Gaussian density field with a given linear spectrum, and a likelihood term that is given by the current density field. The present-day density field can be reconstructed from galaxy groups using the method developed in Wang et al. Read More

The plasma dynamics resulting from the simultaneous impact, of two equal, ultra-intense laser pulses, in two spatially separated spots, onto a dense target is studied via particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The simulations show that electrons accelerated to relativistic speeds, cross the target and exit at its rear surface. Most energetic electrons are bound to the rear surface by the ambipolar electric field and expand along it. Read More

With galaxy groups constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we analyze the expected galaxy-galaxy lensing signals around satellite galaxies residing in different host haloes and located at different halo-centric distances. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to explore the potential constraints on the mass and density profile of subhaloes associated with satellite galaxies from SDSS-like surveys and surveys similar to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Our results show that for SDSS-like surveys, we can only set a loose constraint on the mean mass of subhaloes. Read More

Affiliations: 1PMO, 2NAOC, PMO, 3NAOC, 4SHAO, 5SHAO, 6CNIC, 7PMO, 8PMO, 9SHAO, 10CNIC, 11CNIC, 12SHAO, 13SHAO

Analysis of the Pangu N-body simulation validates that the bulk flow of halos follows a Maxwellian distribution which variance is consistent with the prediction of the linear theory of structure formation. We propose that the consistency between the observed bulk velocity and theories should be examined at the effective scale of the radius of a spherical top-hat window function yielding the same smoothed velocity variance in linear theory as the sample window function does. We compared some recently estimated bulk flows from observational samples with the prediction of the \Lambda CDM model we used; some results deviate from expectation at a level of ~ 3\sigma but the discrepancy is not as severe as previously claimed. Read More

We simultaneously constrain cosmology and galaxy bias using measurements of galaxy abundances, galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use the conditional luminosity function (which describes the halo occupation statistics as function of galaxy luminosity) combined with the halo model (which describes the non-linear matter field in terms of its halo building blocks) to describe the galaxy-dark matter connection. We explicitly account for residual redshift space distortions in the projected galaxy-galaxy correlation functions, and marginalize over uncertainties in the scale dependence of the halo bias and the detailed structure of dark matter haloes. Read More

We quantify the accuracy with which the cosmological parameters characterizing the energy density of matter (\Omega_m), the amplitude of the power spectrum of matter fluctuations (\sigma_8), the energy density of neutrinos (\Omega_{\nu}) and the dark energy equation of state (w_0) can be constrained using data from large galaxy redshift surveys. We advocate a joint analysis of the abundance of galaxies, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy-galaxy weak lensing signal in order to simultaneously constrain the halo occupation statistics (i.e. Read More

We present a new method that simultaneously solves for cosmology and galaxy bias on non-linear scales. The method uses the halo model to analytically describe the (non-linear) matter distribution, and the conditional luminosity function (CLF) to specify the halo occupation statistics. For a given choice of cosmological parameters, this model can be used to predict the galaxy luminosity function, as well as the two-point correlation functions of galaxies, and the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal, both as function of scale and luminosity. Read More

We present measurements of the velocity dispersion profile (VDP) for galaxy groups in the final data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). For groups of given mass we estimate the redshift-space cross-correlation function (CCF) with respect to a reference galaxy sample, xi(r_p, pi), the projected CCF, w_p(r_p), and the real-space CCF, xi(r). The VDP is then extracted from the redshift distortion in xi(r_p, pi), by comparing xi(r_p, pi) with xi(r). Read More

We present a method that uses observations of galaxies to simultaneously constrain cosmological parameters and the galaxy-dark matter connection (aka halo occupation statistics). The latter describes how galaxies are distributed over dark matter haloes, and is an imprint of the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation. A generic problem of using galaxies to constrain cosmology is that galaxies are a biased tracer of the mass distribution, and this bias is generally unknown. Read More

We use the ROSAT all sky survey X-ray cluster catalogs and the optical SDSS DR7 galaxy and group catalogs to cross-identify X-ray clusters with their optical counterparts, resulting in a sample of 201 X-ray clusters in the sky coverage of SDSS DR7. We investigate various correlations between the optical and X-ray properties of these X-ray clusters, and find that the following optical properties are correlated with the X-ray luminosity: the central galaxy luminosity, the central galaxy mass, the characteristic group luminosity ($\propto \Lx^{0.43}$), the group stellar mass ($\propto \Lx^{0. Read More

We present a new model to describe the galaxy-dark matter connection across cosmic time, which unlike the popular subhalo abundance matching technique is self-consistent in that it takes account of the facts that (i) subhalos are accreted at different times, and (ii) the properties of satellite galaxies may evolve after accretion. Using observations of galaxy stellar mass functions out to $z \sim 4$, the conditional stellar mass function at $z\sim 0.1$ obtained from SDSS galaxy group catalogues, and the two-point correlation function (2PCF) of galaxies at $z \sim 0. Read More

The influence of a galaxy's environment on its evolution has been studied and compared extensively in the literature, although differing techniques are often used to define environment. Most methods fall into two broad groups: those that use nearest neighbours to probe the underlying density field and those that use fixed apertures. The differences between the two inhibit a clean comparison between analyses and leave open the possibility that, even with the same data, different properties are actually being measured. Read More

[abridge]Cosmic velocity and tidal fields are important for the understanding of the cosmic web and the environments of galaxies, and can also be used to constrain cosmology. In this paper, we reconstruct these two fields in SDSS volume from dark matter halos represented by galaxy groups. Detailed mock catalogues are used to test the reliability of our method against uncertainties arising from redshift distortions, survey boundaries, and false identifications of groups by our group finder. Read More

An analytical model is developed for the mass function of cold dark matter subhalos at the time of accretion and for the distribution of their accretion times. Our model is based on the model of Zhao et al. (2009) for the median assembly histories of dark matter halos, combined with a simple log-normal distribution to describe the scatter in the main-branch mass at a given time for halos of the same final mass. Read More

It has been a long-standing question whether fossil groups are just sampling the tail of the distribution of ordinary groups, or whether they are a physically distinct class of objects, characterized by an unusual and special formation history. To study this question, we here investigate fossil groups identified in the hydrodynamical simulations of the GIMIC project, which consists of resimulations of five regions in the Millennium Simulation (MS) that are characterized by different large-scale densities, ranging from a deep void to a proto-cluster region. For comparison, we also consider semi-analytic models built on top of the MS, as well as a conditional luminosity function approach. Read More

We use seven high-resolution $N$-body simulations to study the correlations among different halo properties (assembly time, spin, shape and substructure), and how these halo properties are correlated with the large-scale environment in which halos reside. The large-scale tidal field estimated from halos above a mass threshold is used as our primary quantity to characterize the large-scale environment, while other parameters, such as the local overdensity and the morphology of large-scale structure, are used for comparison. For halos at a fixed mass, all the halo properties depend significantly on environment, particularly the tidal field. Read More

We investigate the potential of exploiting the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) to study the properties of hot gas in galaxy groups. It is shown that, with upcoming SZE surveys, one can stack SZE maps around galaxy groups of similar halo masses selected from large galaxy redshift surveys to study the hot gas in halos represented by galaxy groups. We use various models for the hot halo gas to study how the expected SZE signals are affected by gas fraction, equation of state, halo concentration, and cosmology. Read More

We study the topology of cosmic large-scale structure through the genus statistics, using galaxy catalogues generated from the Millennium Simulation and observational data from the latest Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release (SDSS DR7). We introduce a new method for constructing galaxy density fields and for measuring the genus statistics of its isodensity surfaces. It is based on a Delaunay tessellation field estimation (DTFE) technique that allows the definition of a piece-wise continuous density field and the exact computation of the topology of its polygonal isodensity contours, without introducing any free numerical parameter. Read More

We use the kinematics of satellite galaxies that orbit around the central galaxy in a dark matter halo to infer the scaling relations between halo mass and central galaxy properties. Using galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we investigate the halo mass-luminosity relation (MLR) and the halo mass-stellar mass relation (MSR) of central galaxies. In particular, we focus on the dependence of these scaling relations on the colour of the central galaxy. Read More

A large fraction of cosmological information on dark energy and gravity is encoded in the nonlinear regime. Precision cosmology thus requires precision modeling of nonlinearities in general dark energy and modified gravity models. We modify the Gadget-2 code and run a series of N-body simulations on modified gravity cosmology to study the nonlinearities. Read More

It is generally assumed that the central galaxy in a dark matter halo, that is, the galaxy with the lowest specific potential energy, is also the brightest halo galaxy (BHG), and that it resides at rest at the centre of the dark matter potential well. This central galaxy paradigm (CGP) is an essential assumption made in various fields of astronomical research. In this paper we test the validity of the CGP using a large galaxy group catalogue constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Read More

Using a large SDSS galaxy group catalogue, we study how the stellar ages and metallicities of central and satellite galaxies depend on stellar mass and halo mass. We find that satellites are older and metal-richer than centrals of the same stellar mass. In addition, the slopes of the age-stellar mass and metallicity-stellar mass relations are found to become shallower in denser environments. Read More

We compare the stellar masses of central and satellite galaxies predicted by three independent semianalytical models with observational results obtained from a large galaxy group catalogue constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In particular, we compare the stellar mass functions of centrals and satellites, the relation between total stellar mass and halo mass, and the conditional stellar mass functions, which specify the average number of galaxies of stellar mass M_* that reside in a halo of mass M_h. The semi-analytical models only predict the correct stellar masses of central galaxies within a limited mass range and all models fail to reproduce the sharp decline of stellar mass with decreasing halo mass observed at the low mass end. Read More

Clusters, filaments, sheets and voids are the building blocks of the cosmic web. In this study, we present and compare two distinct algorithms for finding cosmic filaments and sheets, a task which is far less well established than the identification of dark matter halos or voids. One method is based on the smoothed dark matter density field, the other uses the halo distributions directly. Read More