X. Tata - Hawaii University

X. Tata
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X. Tata
Hawaii University
United States

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (50)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (9)
High Energy Physics - Theory (2)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2)
Astrophysics (2)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By X. Tata

Weak scale supersymmetry (SUSY) remains a compelling extension of the Standard Model because it stabilizes the quantum corrections to the Higgs and W, Z boson masses. In natural SUSY models these corrections are, by definition, never much larger than the corresponding masses. Natural SUSY models all have an upper limit on the gluino mass, too high to lead to observable signals even at the high luminosity LHC. Read More

A degenerate sfermionic particle spectrum can escape constraints from flavor physics, and at the same time evade the limits from the direct searches if the degeneracy extends to the gaugino-higgsino sector. Inspired by this, we consider a scenario where all the soft terms have an approximately common mass scale at $M_{\text{SUSY}}$, with splittings $\lesssim \mathcal{O}(10\%)$. As a result, the third generation sfermions have large to maximal (left-right) mixing, the same being the case with charginos and some sectors of the neutralino mass matrix. Read More

Radiatively-driven natural SUSY (RNS) models enjoy electroweak naturalness at the $10\%$ level while respecting LHC sparticle and Higgs mass constraints. Gluino and top squark masses can range up to several TeV (with other squarks even heavier) but a set of light Higgsinos are required with mass not too far above $m_h\sim 125$ GeV. Within the RNS framework, gluinos dominantly decay via ${\tilde g} \to t{\tilde t}_1^{*},\ \bar{t}{\tilde t}_1 \to t\bar{t}{\widetilde Z}_{1,2}$ or $t\bar{b}{\widetilde W}_1^-+c. Read More

In the supersymmetric scenario known as mirage mediation (MM), the soft SUSY breaking terms receive comparable anomaly-mediation and moduli-mediation contributions leading to the phenomenon of mirage unification. The simplest MM SUSY breaking models which are consistent with the measured Higgs mass and sparticle mass constraints are strongly disfavoured by fine-tuning considerations. However, while MM makes robust predictions for gaugino masses, the scalar sector is quite sensitive to specific mechanisms for moduli stabilization and potential uplifting. Read More

Recent clarifications of naturalness in supersymmetry robustly require the presence of four light higgsinos with mass ~100-300 GeV while gluinos and (top)-squarks may lie in the multi-TeV range, possibly out of LHC reach. We project the high luminosity (300-3000 fb^{-1}) reach of LHC14 via gluino cascade decays and via same-sign diboson production. We compare these to the reach for neutralino pair production \tz_1\tz_2 followed by \tz_2\to\tz_1\ell^+\ell^- decay to soft dileptons which recoil against a hard jet. Read More

We examine the prospects for detecting light charged higgsinos that are expected to be a necessary feature of natural SUSY models via $pp\to {\widetilde W}^\pm{\widetilde W}_1^\pm jj+X$ processes arising dominantly from $W^\pm W^\pm$ fusion at LHC13. The signal will be a pair of same-sign leptons ($e$ or $\mu$) in events with two relatively forward, hemispherically-separated jets with a large rapidity gap. We find that even though the higgsinos have a full-strength $SU(2)$ gauge couplings to $W$-bosons, the LHC13 cross section for the production of same sign higgsino pairs is smaller than 0. Read More

The realization in the early 1980s that weak scale supersymmetry stabilizes the Higgs sector of the spectacularly successful Standard Model led several authors to explore whether low energy supersymmetry could play a role in particle physics. Among these were Richard Arnowitt, Ali Chamseddine and Pran Nath who constructed a viable {\em locally} supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory (GUT), laying down the foundation for supergravity GUT models of particle physics. Supergravity models continue to be explored as one of the most promising extensions of the Standard Model. Read More

In natural SUSY models higgsinos are always light because \mu^2 cannot be much larger than M_Z^2, while squarks and gluinos may be very heavy. Unless gluinos are discovered at LHC13, the commonly assumed unification of gaugino mass parameters will imply correspondingly heavy winos and binos, resulting in a higgsino-like LSP and small inter-higgsino mass splittings. The small visible energy release in higgsino decays makes their pair production difficult to detect at the LHC. Read More

Naturalness arguments imply the existence of higgsinos lighter than 200-300 GeV. However, because these higgsinos are nearly mass degenerate, they release very little visible energy in their decays, and (even putting aside triggering issues) signals from electroweak higgsino pair production typically remain buried under Standard Model backgrounds. Prospects for detecting higgsino pair production via events with monojets or mono-photons from initial state radiation are also bleak because of signal-to-background rates typically at the 1% level. Read More

Naturalness arguments applied to supersymmetric theories imply a spectrum containing four light higgsinos \tz_{1,2} and \tw_1^+- with masses ~ 100-300 GeV (the closer to M_Z the more natural). The compressed mass spectrum and associated low energy release from \tw_1 and \tz_2 three-body decay makes higgsinos difficult to detect at LHC14, while the other sparticles might be heavy, and possibly even beyond LHC14 reach. In contrast, the International Linear e^+e^- Collider (ILC) with \sqrt{s}>2m(higgsino) would be a {\it higgsino factory} in addition to a Higgs boson factory and would serve as a discovery machine for natural SUSY! In this case, both chargino and neutralino production %which give rise to distinct event topologies, occur at comparable rates, and lead to observable signals above SM backgrounds. Read More

We compare and contrast three different sensitivity measures, $\Delta_{EW}^{-1}$, $\Delta_{HS}^{-1}$ and $\Delta_{BG}^{-1}$ that have been used in discussions of fine-tuning. We argue that though not a fine-tuning measure, $\Delta_{EW}$, which is essentially determined by the particle spectrum, is important because $\Delta_{EW}^{-1}$ quantifies the minimum fine-tuning present in any theory with a specified spectrum. We emphasize the critical role of incorporating correlations between various model parameters in discussions of fine-tuning. Read More

Naturalness arguments imply the existence of higgsinos lighter than 200-300 GeV. However, because these higgsinos are nearly mass degenerate, they release very little visible energy in their decays, and signals from electroweak higgsino pair production typically remain buried under Standard Model backgrounds. Moreover, gluinos, squarks and winos may plausibly lie beyond the reach of the LHC14, so that signals from naturalness-inspired supersymmetric models may well remain hidden via conventional searches. Read More

The SUSY flavor, CP, gravitino and proton-decay problems are all solved to varying degrees by a decoupling solution wherein first/second generation matter scalars would exist in the multi-TeV regime. Recent models of natural SUSY presumably allow for a co-existence of naturalness with the decoupling solution. We show that: if sfermions are heavier than $\sim 10$ TeV, then a small first/second generation contribution to electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT) requires a rather high degree of intra-generational degeneracy of either 1. Read More

In this Report we discuss the four complementary searches for the identity of dark matter: direct detection experiments that look for dark matter interacting in the lab, indirect detection experiments that connect lab signals to dark matter in our own and other galaxies, collider experiments that elucidate the particle properties of dark matter, and astrophysical probes sensitive to non-gravitational interactions of dark matter. The complementarity among the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in several theoretical scenarios. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program based on all four of those approaches. Read More

Radiatively-driven natural supersymmetry (RNS) potentially reconciles the Z and Higgs boson masses close to 100 GeV with gluinos and squarks lying beyond the TeV scale. Requiring no large cancellations at the electroweak scale in constructing M_Z=91.2 GeV while maintaining a light Higgs scalar with m_h 125 GeV implies a sparticle mass spectrum including light higgsinos with mass 100-300 GeV, electroweak gauginos in the 300-1200 GeV range, gluinos at 1-4 TeV and top/bottom squarks in the 1-4 TeV range (probably beyond LHC reach), while first/second generation matter scalars can exist in the 5-30 TeV range (far beyond LHC reach). Read More

We examine the discovery reach of LHC14 for supersymmetry for integrated luminosity ranging from 0.3 to 3 ab^{-1}. In models with gaugino mass unification and M_1,\ M_2<< |\mu| (as for mSUGRA/CMSSM), we find a reach of LHC14 with 3 ab^{-1} for gluino pair production extends to m_{\tg} 2. Read More

Supersymmetric models with low electroweak fine-tuning contain light higgsinos with mass not too far from m_h\simeq 125 GeV, while other sparticles can be much heavier. In the R-parity conserving MSSM, the lightest neutralino is then a higgsino-like WIMP (albeit with non-negligible gaugino components), with thermal relic density well below measured values. This leaves room for axions (or other, perhaps not as well motivated, stable particles) to function as co-dark matter particles. Read More

Imposing electroweak scale naturalness constraints (low \Delta_{EW}) on SUSY models leads to mass spectra characterized by light higgsinos ~100-300 GeV, highly mixed top-squarks and gluinos at the 1-5 TeV scale and allows for m_h ~125 GeV. First and second generation squarks can easily live at the 5-20 TeV scale, thus providing at least a partial solution to the SUSY flavor/CP problems. For such models at the LHC, gluino pair production is followed by cascade decays to t- and b-quark rich final states along with multileptons. Read More

We show that the electroweak fine-tuning parameter \Delta_{\rm EW} derived from the well-known electroweak symmetry breaking condition written in terms of weak scale parameters leads to {\it a bound on fine-tuning in the MSSM} and explain its utility for phenomenological analyses. We argue that a small magnitude of the mu parameter, and the concomitant presence of light higgsinos, is the most basic consequence of naturalness in SUSY models, and list the resulting implications of this for experiments at the LHC and at future e^+e^- colliders. Read More

In supersymmetric models with light higgsinos (which are motivated by electroweak naturalness arguments), the direct production of higgsino pairs may be difficult to search for at LHC due to the low visible energy release from their decays. However, the wino pair production reaction \tw_2^\pm\tz_4\to (W^\pm\tz_{1,2})+(W^\pm\tw_1^\mp) also occurs at substantial rates and leads to final states including equally opposite-sign (OS) and same-sign (SS) diboson production. We propose a novel search channel for LHC14 based on the SS diboson plus missing E_T final state which contains only modest jet activity. Read More

Models of natural supersymmetry seek to solve the little hierarchy problem by positing a spectrum of light higgsinos <~ 200-300 GeV and light top squarks <~ 600 GeV along with very heavy squarks and TeV-scale gluinos. Such models have low electroweak fine-tuning and satisfy the LHC constraints. However, in the context of the MSSM, they predict too low a value of m(h), are frequently in conflict with the measured b\to s\gamma branching fraction and the relic density of thermally produced higgsino-like WIMPs falls well below dark matter (DM) measurements. Read More

The recent discovery of a 125 GeV Higgs-like resonance at LHC, coupled with the lack of evidence for weak scale supersymmetry (SUSY), have severely constrained SUSY models such as mSUGRA/CMSSM. As LHC probes deeper into SUSY model parameter space, the little hierarchy problem -- how to reconcile the Z and Higgs boson mass scale with the scale of SUSY breaking -- will become increasingly exacerbated unless a sparticle signal is found. We evaluate two different measures of fine-tuning in the mSUGRA/CMSSM model. Read More

After completion of the LHC8 run in 2012, the plan is to upgrade the LHC for operation close to its design energy sqrt{s}=14 TeV, with a goal of collecting hundreds of fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity. The time is propitious to begin thinking of what is gained by even further LHC upgrades. In this report, we compute an LHC14 reach for SUSY in the mSUGRA/CMSSM model with an anticipated high luminosity upgrade. Read More

It has been argued that requiring low electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT) along with a (partial) decoupling solution to the SUSY flavor and CP problems leads to a sparticle mass spectra characterized by light Higgsinos at 100-300 GeV, sub-TeV third generation scalars, gluinos at a few TeV and multi-TeV first/second generation scalars (natural SUSY). We show that by starting with multi-TeV first/second and third generation scalars and trilinear soft breaking terms, the natural SUSY spectrum can be generated radiatively via renormalization group running effects. Using the complete 1-loop effective potential to calculate EWFT, significantly heavier third generation squarks can be allowed even with low EWFT. Read More

Particle physics models with Natural Supersymmetry are characterized by a superpotential parameter \mu \sim m_h \sim125$ GeV, while third generation squarks have mass <0.5-1.5 TeV. Read More

LHC searches for supersymmetry currently focus on strongly produced sparticles, which are copiously produced if gluinos and squarks have masses of a few hundred GeV. However, in supersymmetric models with heavy scalars, as favored by the decoupling solution to the SUSY flavor and CP problems, and m_{\tg}> 500 GeV as indicated by recent LHC results, chargino--neutralino (\tw_1^\pm\tz_2) production is the dominant cross section for m_{\tw_1} \sim m_{\tz_2} < m_{\tg}/3 at LHC with \sqrt{s}=7 TeV (LHC7). Furthermore, if m_{\tz_1}+m_Z \lesssim m_{\tz_2}\lesssim m_{\tz_1}+m_h, then \tz_2 dominantly decays via \tz_2\to\tz_1 Z, while \tw_1 decays via \tw_1\to \tz_1 W. Read More

In SUSY models with heavy squarks and gaugino mass unification, the gaugino pair production reaction pp-> \tw_1^\pm\tz_2 dominates gluino pair production for m_{\tg}\agt 1 TeV at LHC with \sqrt{s}=14 TeV (LHC14). For this mass range, the two-body decays \tw_1\to W\tz_1 and \tz_2\to h\tz_1 are expected to dominate the chargino and neutralino branching fractions. By searching for \ell b\bar{b}+MET events from \tw_1^\pm\tz_2 production, we show that LHC14 with 100 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity becomes sensitive to chargino masses in the range m_{\tw_1}\sim 450-550 GeV corresponding to m_{\tg}\sim 1. Read More

We extend our earlier results delineating the supersymmetry (SUSY) reach of the CERN Large Hadron Collider operating at a centre-of-mass energy \sqrt{s}=7 TeV to integrated luminosities in the range 5 - 30 fb^{-1}. Our results are presented within the paradigm minimal supergravity model (mSUGRA or CMSSM). Using a 6-dimensional grid of cuts for the optimization of signal to background ratio -- including missing E_T-- we find for m(gluino) \sim m(squark) an LHC 5\sigma SUSY discovery reach of m(gluino) \sim 1. Read More

We propose a new way to determine the squark mass based on the shape of di-jet invariant mass distribution of supersymmetry (SUSY) di-jet events at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Our algorithm, which is based on event kinematics, requires that the branching ratio $B(\tilde{q} \rightarrow q \tilde{z}_1)$ is substantial for at least some types of squarks, and that $m_{\tilde{z}_1}^2/m_{\tilde{q}}^2 \ll 1$. We select di-jet events with no isolated leptons, and impose cuts on the total jet transverse energy, $E_T^{tot}=E_T(j_1)+E_T(j_2)$, on $\alpha = E_T(j_2)/m_{jj}$, and on the azimuthal angle between the two jets to reduce SM backgrounds. Read More

We investigate the phenomenology of Effective Supersymmetry (ESUSY) models wherein electroweak gauginos and third generation scalars have masses up to about 1~TeV while first and second generation scalars lie in the multi-TeV range. Such models ameliorate the SUSY flavor and CP problems via a decoupling solution, while at the same time maintaining naturalness. In our analysis, we assume independent GUT scale mass parameters for third and first/second generation scalars and for the Higgs scalars, in addition to m_{1/2}, \tan\beta and A_0, and require radiative electroweak symmetry breaking as usual. Read More

We examine the capability of the CERN Large Hadron Collider to discovery supersymmetry (SUSY) with energy \sqrt{s}=7 TeV and integrated luminosity of about 1 fb^{-1}. Our results are presented within the paradigm minimal supergravity model (mSUGRA or CMSSM). Using a 6-dimensional grid of cuts for optimization of signal to background-- including missing E_T-- we find for m_{\tg}\sim m_{\tq} an LHC reach of m_{\tg}\sim 800,\ 950,\ 1100 and 1200 GeV for 0. Read More

The Large Hadron Collider presents an unprecedented opportunity to probe the realm of new physics in the TeV region and shed light on some of the core unresolved issues of particle physics. These include the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass, the possible constituent of cold dark matter, new sources of CP violation needed to explain the baryon excess in the universe, the possible existence of extra gauge groups and extra matter, and importantly the path Nature chooses to resolve the hierarchy problem - is it supersymmetry or extra dimensions. Many models of new physics beyond the standard model contain a hidden sector which can be probed at the LHC. Read More

We examine the supersymmetry (SUSY) reach of the CERN LHC operating at $\sqrt{s}=10$ and 14 TeV within the framework of the minimal supergravity model. We improve upon previous reach projections by incorporating updated background calculations including a variety of $2\to n$ Standard Model (SM) processes. We show that SUSY discovery is possible even before the detectors are understood well enough to utilize either $E_T^{\rm miss}$ or electrons in the signal. Read More

We present a locally supersymmetric extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) based on the gauge group $SU(3)_C\times SU(2)_L\times U(1)_Y\times U(1)^\prime$ where, except for the supersymmetry breaking scale which is fixed to be $\sim 10^{11}$ GeV, we require that all non-Standard-Model parameters allowed by the {\it local} spacetime and gauge symmetries assume their natural values. The $U(1)^\prime$ symmetry, which is spontaneously broken at the intermediate scale, serves to ({\it i}) explain the weak scale magnitudes of $\mu$ and $b_\mu$ terms, ({\it ii}) ensure that dimension-3 and dimension-4 baryon-number-violating superpotential operators are forbidden, solving the proton-lifetime problem, ({\it iii}) predict {\it bilinear lepton number violation} in the superpotential at just the right level to accommodate the observed mass and mixing pattern of active neutrinos (leading to a novel connection between the SUSY breaking scale and neutrino masses), while corresponding trilinear operators are strongly supppressed. The phenomenology is like that of the MSSM with bilinear R-parity violation, were the would-be lightest supersymmetric particle decays leptonically with a lifetime of $\sim 10^{-12}-10^{-8}$ s. Read More

We present an overview of supersymmetry searches, both at collider experiments and via searches for dark matter (DM). We focus on three DM possibilities in the SUSY context: the thermally produced neutralino, a mixture of axion and axino, and the gravitino, and compare and contrast signals that may be expected at colliders, in direct detection (DD) experiments searching of DM relics left over from the Big Bang, and indirect detection (ID) experiments designed to detect the products of DM annihilations within the solar interior or galactic halo. Detection of DM particles using multiple strategies provides complementary information that may shed light on the new physics associated with the dark matter sector. Read More

We re-examine the one-loop renormalization group equations (RGEs) for the dimensionful parameters of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with broken supersymmetry, allowing for arbitrary flavour structure of the soft SUSY breaking (SSB) parameters. We include threshold effects by evaluating the $\beta$-functions in a sequence of (non-supersymmetric) effective theories with heavy particles decoupled at the scale of their mass. We present the most general form for high scale SSB parameters that obtains if we assume that the supersymmetry breaking mechanism does not introduce new inter-generational couplings. Read More

An abundance of astrophysical evidence indicates that the bulk of matter in the universe is made up of massive, electrically neutral particles that form the dark matter (DM). While the density of DM has been precisely measured, the identity of the DM particle (or particles) is a complete mystery. In fact, within the laws of physics as we know them (the Standard Model, or SM), none of the particles have the right properties to make up DM. Read More

The branching fraction for the decays of gluinos to third generation quarks is expected to be enhanced in classes of supersymmetric models where either third generation squarks are lighter than other squarks, or in mixed-higgsino dark matter models constructed to be in concordance with the measured density of cold dark matter. In such scenarios, gluino production events at the CERN Large Hadron Collider should be rich in top and bottom quark jets. Requiring b-jets in addition to missing transverse energy should, therefore, enhance the supersymmetry signal relative to Standard Model backgrounds from V + jet, VV and QCD backgrounds (V=W, Z). Read More

We present brief synopses of supersymmetric models where either the neutralino composition or its mass is adjusted so that thermal relic neutralinos from the Big Bang saturate the measured abundance of cold dark matter in the universe. We first review minimal supergravity (mSUGRA), and then examine its various one-parameter extensions where we relax the assumed universality of the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters. Our goal is to correlate relic-density-allowed parameter choices with expected phenomena in direct, indirect and collider dark matter search experiments. Read More

In a theory with broken supersymmetry, gaugino couplings renormalize differently from gauge couplings, as do higgsino couplings from Higgs boson couplings. As a result, we expect the gauge (Higgs boson) couplings and the corresponding gaugino (higgsino) couplings to evolve to different values under renormalization group evolution. We re-examine the renormalization group equations (RGEs) for these couplings in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Read More

We observe that in SUSY models with non-universal GUT scale gaugino mass parameters, raising the GUT scale SU(2) gaugino mass |M_2| from its unified value results in a smaller value of -m_{H_u}^2 at the weak scale. By the electroweak symmetry breaking conditions, this implies a reduced value of \mu^2 {\it vis \`a vis} models with gaugino mass unification. The lightest neutralino can then be mixed Higgsino dark matter with a relic density in agreement with the measured abundance of cold dark matter (DM). Read More

Martin has proposed a scenario dubbed ``compressed supersymmetry'' (SUSY) where the MSSM is the effective field theory between energy scales M_{\rm weak} and M_{\rm GUT}, but with the GUT scale SU(3) gaugino mass M_3<< M_1 or M_2. As a result, squark and gluino masses are suppressed relative to slepton, chargino and neutralino masses, leading to a compressed sparticle mass spectrum, and where the dark matter relic density in the early universe may be dominantly governed by neutralino annihilation into ttbar pairs via exchange of a light top squark. We explore the dark matter and collider signals expected from compressed SUSY for two distinct model lines with differing assumptions about GUT scale gaugino mass parameters. Read More

We examine supersymmetric models with mixed modulus-anomaly mediated SUSY breaking (MM-AMSB) soft terms which get comparable contributions to SUSY breaking from moduli-mediation and anomaly-mediation. The apparent (mirage) unification of soft SUSY breaking terms at Q=mu_mir not associated with any physical threshold is the hallmark of this scenario. The MM-AMSB structure of soft terms arises in models of string compactification with fluxes, where the addition of an anti-brane leads to an uplifting potential and a de Sitter universe, as first constructed by Kachru {\it et al. Read More

In the post-LEP2 era, and in light of recent measurements of the cosmic abundance of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe from WMAP, many supersymmetric models tend to predict 1. an overabundance of CDM and 2. pessimistically low rates for direct detection of neutralino dark matter. Read More

In supersymmetric models where the magnitude of the GUT scale gaugino mass parameter M_3 is suppressed relative to M_1 and M_2, the lightest neutralino can be a mixed higgsino-bino state with a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the WMAP central value for \Omega_{\rm CDM} h^2 and consistent with all other phenomenological constraints. In these models, the gluino can be as light as 200 GeV without conflicting with the LEP2 bounds on the chargino mass. Thus, gluino pair production can be accessible at the Fermilab Tevatron at high rates. Read More

This is the "TeV4LHC" report of the "Physics Landscapes" Working Group, focused on facilitating the start-up of physics explorations at the LHC by using the experience gained at the Tevatron. We present experimental and theoretical results that can be employed to probe various scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model. Read More

String compactification with fluxes yields MSSM soft SUSY breaking terms that receive comparable contributions from modulus and anomaly mediation whose relative strength is governed by a phenomenological parameter $\alpha$. Gaugino and first/second generation (and sometimes also Higgs and third generation) scalar mass parameters unify at a mirage unification scale $Q \not= M_{\rm GUT}$, determined by the value of $\alpha$. The ratio of scalar to gaugino masses at this mirage unification scale depends directly on the scalar field modular weights, which are fixed in turn by the brane or brane intersections on which the MSSM fields are localized. Read More

We investigate the phenomenology of supersymmetric models where moduli fields and the Weyl anomaly make comparable contributions to SUSY breaking effects in the observable sector of fields. This mixed modulus-anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (MM-AMSB) scenario is inspired by models of string compactification with fluxes, which have been shown to yield a de Sitter vacuum (as in the recent construction by Kachru {\it et al}). The phenomenology depends on the so-called modular weights which, in turn, depend on the location of various fields in the extra dimensions. Read More

In gravity-mediated SUSY breaking models with non-universal gaugino masses, lowering the SU(3) gaugino mass |M_3| leads to a reduction in the squark and gluino masses. Lower third generation squark masses, in turn, diminish the effect of a large top quark Yukawa coupling in the running of the higgs mass parameter m_{H_u}^2, leading to a reduction in the magnitude of the superpotential mu parameter (relative to M_1 and M_2). A low | mu | parameter gives rise to mixed higgsino dark matter (MHDM), which can efficiently annihilate in the early universe to give a dark matter relic density in accord with WMAP measurements. Read More

In supersymmetric models with non-universal gaugino masses, it is possible to have opposite-sign SU(2) and U(1) gaugino mass terms. In these models, the gaugino eigenstates experience little mixing so that the lightest SUSY particle remains either pure bino or pure wino. The neutralino relic density can only be brought into accord with the WMAP measured value when bino-wino co-annihilation (BWCA) acts to enhance the dark matter annihilation rate. Read More