# William Shepherd - UC Irvine

## Contact Details

NameWilliam Shepherd |
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AffiliationUC Irvine |
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CityIrvine |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (32) High Energy Physics - Experiment (16) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (12) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (6) High Energy Physics - Theory (3) Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) High Energy Physics - Lattice (1) |

## Publications Authored By William Shepherd

**Authors:**Andreas Albert, Mihailo Backovic, Antonio Boveia, Oliver Buchmueller, Giorgio Busoni, Albert De Roeck, Caterina Doglioni, Tristan DuPree, Malcolm Fairbairn, Marie-Helene Genest, Stefania Gori, Giuliano Gustavino, Kristian Hahn, Ulrich Haisch, Philip C. Harris, Dan Hayden, Valerio Ippolito, Isabelle John, Felix Kahlhoefer, Suchita Kulkarni, Greg Landsberg, Steven Lowette, Kentarou Mawatari, Antonio Riotto, William Shepherd, Tim M. P. Tait, Emma Tolley, Patrick Tunney, Bryan Zaldivar, Markus Zinser

Weakly-coupled TeV-scale particles may mediate the interactions between normal matter and dark matter. If so, the LHC would produce dark matter through these mediators, leading to the familiar "mono-X" search signatures, but the mediators would also produce signals without missing momentum via the same vertices involved in their production. This document from the LHC Dark Matter Working Group suggests how to compare searches for these two types of signals in case of vector and axial-vector mediators, based on a workshop that took place on September 19/20, 2016 and subsequent discussions. Read More

We calculate one loop $y_t$ and $\lambda$ dependent corrections to $\bar{\Gamma}_Z,\bar{R}_f^0$ and the partial $Z$ widths due to dimension six operators in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT), including finite terms. We assume $\rm CP$ symmetry and a $\rm U(3)^5$ symmetry in the UV matching onto the dimension six operators, dominantly broken by the Standard Model Yukawa matrices. Corrections to these observables are predicted using the input parameters $\{\hat{\alpha}_{ew}, \hat{M}_Z, \hat{G}_F, \hat{m}_t, \hat{m}_h\}$ extracted with one loop corrections in the same limit. Read More

**Authors:**Antonio Boveia, Oliver Buchmueller, Giorgio Busoni, Francesco D'Eramo, Albert De Roeck, Andrea De Simone, Caterina Doglioni, Matthew J. Dolan, Marie-Helene Genest, Kristian Hahn, Ulrich Haisch, Philip C. Harris, Jan Heisig, Valerio Ippolito, Felix Kahlhoefer, Valentin V. Khoze, Suchita Kulkarni, Greg Landsberg, Steven Lowette, Sarah Malik, Michelangelo Mangano, Christopher McCabe, Stephen Mrenna, Priscilla Pani, Tristan du Pree, Antonio Riotto, David Salek, Kai Schmidt-Hoberg, William Shepherd, Tim M. P. Tait, Lian-Tao Wang, Steven Worm, Kathryn Zurek

This document summarises the proposal of the LHC Dark Matter Working Group on how to present LHC results on $s$-channel simplified dark matter models and to compare them to direct (indirect) detection experiments. Read More

We discuss some consistency tests that must be passed for a successful explanation of a diphoton excess at larger mass scales, generated by a scalar or pseudoscalar state, possibly of a composite nature, decaying to two photons. Scalar states at mass scales above the electroweak scale decaying significantly into photon final states generically lead to modifications of Standard Model Higgs phenomenology. We characterise this effect using the formalism of Effective Field Theory (EFT) and study the modification of the effective couplings to photons and gluons of the Higgs. Read More

With the discovery of the Higgs boson the Standard Model has become a complete and comprehensive theory, which has been verified with unparalleled precision and in principle might be valid at all scales. However, several reasons remain why we firmly believe that there should be physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments such as the LHC, new $B$ factories, and earth- and space-based astro-particle experiments provide us with unique opportunities to discover a coherent framework for many of the long-standing puzzles of our field. Read More

**Authors:**Daniel Abercrombie, Nural Akchurin, Ece Akilli, Juan Alcaraz Maestre, Brandon Allen, Barbara Alvarez Gonzalez, Jeremy Andrea, Alexandre Arbey, Georges Azuelos, Patrizia Azzi, Mihailo Backović, Yang Bai, Swagato Banerjee, James Beacham, Alexander Belyaev, Antonio Boveia, Amelia Jean Brennan, Oliver Buchmueller, Matthew R. Buckley, Giorgio Busoni, Michael Buttignol, Giacomo Cacciapaglia, Regina Caputo, Linda Carpenter, Nuno Filipe Castro, Guillelmo Gomez Ceballos, Yangyang Cheng, John Paul Chou, Arely Cortes Gonzalez, Chris Cowden, Francesco D'Eramo, Annapaola De Cosa, Michele De Gruttola, Albert De Roeck, Andrea De Simone, Aldo Deandrea, Zeynep Demiragli, Anthony DiFranzo, Caterina Doglioni, Tristan du Pree, Robin Erbacher, Johannes Erdmann, Cora Fischer, Henning Flaecher, Patrick J. Fox, Benjamin Fuks, Marie-Helene Genest, Bhawna Gomber, Andreas Goudelis, Johanna Gramling, John Gunion, Kristian Hahn, Ulrich Haisch, Roni Harnik, Philip C. Harris, Kerstin Hoepfner, Siew Yan Hoh, Dylan George Hsu, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Yutaro Iiyama, Valerio Ippolito, Thomas Jacques, Xiangyang Ju, Felix Kahlhoefer, Alexis Kalogeropoulos, Laser Seymour Kaplan, Lashkar Kashif, Valentin V. Khoze, Raman Khurana, Khristian Kotov, Dmytro Kovalskyi, Suchita Kulkarni, Shuichi Kunori, Viktor Kutzner, Hyun Min Lee, Sung-Won Lee, Seng Pei Liew, Tongyan Lin, Steven Lowette, Romain Madar, Sarah Malik, Fabio Maltoni, Mario Martinez Perez, Olivier Mattelaer, Kentarou Mawatari, Christopher McCabe, Théo Megy, Enrico Morgante, Stephen Mrenna, Siddharth M. Narayanan, Andy Nelson, Sérgio F. Novaes, Klaas Ole Padeken, Priscilla Pani, Michele Papucci, Manfred Paulini, Christoph Paus, Jacopo Pazzini, Björn Penning, Michael E. Peskin, Deborah Pinna, Massimiliano Procura, Shamona F. Qazi, Davide Racco, Emanuele Re, Antonio Riotto, Thomas G. Rizzo, Rainer Roehrig, David Salek, Arturo Sanchez Pineda, Subir Sarkar, Alexander Schmidt, Steven Randolph Schramm, William Shepherd, Gurpreet Singh, Livia Soffi, Norraphat Srimanobhas, Kevin Sung, Tim M. P. Tait, Timothee Theveneaux-Pelzer, Marc Thomas, Mia Tosi, Daniele Trocino, Sonaina Undleeb, Alessandro Vichi, Fuquan Wang, Lian-Tao Wang, Ren-Jie Wang, Nikola Whallon, Steven Worm, Mengqing Wu, Sau Lan Wu, Hongtao Yang, Yong Yang, Shin-Shan Yu, Bryan Zaldivar, Marco Zanetti, Zhiqing Zhang, Alberto Zucchetta

This document is the final report of the ATLAS-CMS Dark Matter Forum, a forum organized by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations with the participation of experts on theories of Dark Matter, to select a minimal basis set of dark matter simplified models that should support the design of the early LHC Run-2 searches. A prioritized, compact set of benchmark models is proposed, accompanied by studies of the parameter space of these models and a repository of generator implementations. This report also addresses how to apply the Effective Field Theory formalism for collider searches and present the results of such interpretations. Read More

We investigate the relation between the annihilation of dark matter (DM) particles into lepton pairs and into 2-body final states including one or two photons. We parametrize the DM interactions with leptons in terms of contact interactions, and calculate the loop-level annihilation into monochromatic gamma rays, specifically computing the ratio of the DM annihilation cross sections into two gamma rays versus lepton pairs. While the loop-level processes are generically suppressed in comparison with the tree-level annihilation into leptons, we find that some choices for the mediator spin and coupling structure lead to large branching fractions into gamma-ray lines. Read More

Dark matter that was once in thermal equilibrium with the Standard Model is generally prohibited from obtaining all of its mass from the electroweak or QCD phase transitions. This implies a new scale of physics and mediator particles needed to facilitate dark matter annihilations. In this work, we consider scenarios where thermal dark matter annihilates via scalar mediators that are colored and/or electrically charged. Read More

Dark matter that was once in thermal equilibrium with the Standard Model is generally prohibited from obtaining all of its mass from the electroweak phase transition. This implies a new scale of physics and mediator particles to facilitate dark matter annihilation. In this work, we focus on dark matter that annihilates through a generic gauge boson portal. Read More

Searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have significantly constrained the parameter space associated with colored superpartners, whereas the constraints on color-singlet superpartners are considerably less severe. In this study, we investigate the dependence of slepton decay branching fractions on the nature of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). In particular, in the Higgsino-like LSP scenarios, both decay branching fractions of $\tilde\ell_L$ and $\tilde\nu_\ell$ depend strongly on the sign and value of $M_1/M_2$, which has strong implications for the reach of dilepton plus MET searches for slepton pair production. Read More

Theoretical and experimental techniques employed in dedicated searches for dark matter at hadron colliders are reviewed. Bounds from the 7 and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC on dark matter interactions have been collected and the results interpreted. We review the current status of the Effective Field Theory picture of dark matter interactions with the Standard Model. Read More

We present a new technique for distinguishing the hadronic decays of boosted heavy particles from QCD backgrounds based on wavelet transforms. As an initial exploration, we illustrate the technique in the particular case of hadronic $W$ boson decays, comparing it to the ``mass drop'' cut currently used by the LHC experiments. We apply wavelet cuts, which make use of complementary information, and in combination with the mass drop cut results in an improvement of $\sim$7% in discovery reach of hadronic $W$ boson final states over a wide range of transverse momenta. Read More

We explore the possibility of explaining a gamma-ray excess in the Galactic Center, originally pointed out by Hooper, collaborators, and other groups, in an effective field theory framework. We assume that dark matter annihilation is mediated by particles heavy enough to be integrated out, and that such particles couple to all quark families. We calculate the effective coupling required to explain the annihilation signal in the Galactic Center, and compare with bounds from direct detection, collider searches, and the requirement that the dark matter particle make up the appropriate fraction of the universal energy budget. Read More

We consider the contributions of individual new particles to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, utilizing the generic framework of simplified models. We also present analytic results for all possible one-loop contributions, allowing easy application of these results for more complete models which predict more than one particle capable of correcting the muon magnetic moment. Additionally, we provide a Mathematica code to allow the reader straightforwardly compute any 1-loop contribution. Read More

The recent discovery of a Higgs boson with mass of about 125 GeV, along with its striking similarity to the prediction from the Standard Model, informs and constrains many models of new physics. The Higgs mass exhausts one out of three input parameters of the minimal, five-dimensional version of universal extra dimension models, the other two parameters being the Kaluza-Klein (KK) scale and the cut-off scale of the theory. The presence of KK fermions with large coupling to the Higgs implies a short-lived electro-weak vacuum, unless the cut-off scale is at most a few times higher than the KK mass scale, providing an additional tight constraint to the theory parameter space. Read More

We study the muon anomalous magnetic moment $(g-2)_{\mu}$ in the context of the reduced minimal 3-3-1 model recently proposed in the literature. In particular, its spectrum contains a doubly charged scalar ($H^{\pm \pm}$) and gauge boson ($U^{\pm \pm}$), new singly charged vectors ($V^{\pm}$) and a $Z^{\prime}$ boson, each of which might give a sizeable contribution to the $(g-2)_{\mu}$. We compute the 1-loop contributions from all these new particles to the $(g-2)_{\mu}$. Read More

We consider LHC searches for dark matter in the mono-Higgs channel using the tools of effective field theory. This channel takes unique advantage of the presence of $SU(2)_L$ breaking in those operators to avoid the need for any initial-state radiation, usually necessary to tag the production of invisible particles. We find that sensitivities to parameters describing dark matter interactions with standard model particles are comparable to those from monojet searches for a subset of the usually-considered operators, and we present for the first time bounds from collider searches on operators which couple DM to only the Higgs field or its covariant derivatives. Read More

**Authors:**Sebastian Arrenberg, Howard Baer, Vernon Barger, Laura Baudis, Daniel Bauer, James Buckley, Matthew Cahill-Rowley, Randel Cotta, Alex Drlica-Wagner, Jonathan L. Feng, Stefan Funk, JoAnne Hewett, Dan Hooper, Ahmed Ismail, Manoj Kaplinghat, Kyoungchul Kong, Alexander Kusenko, Konstantin Matchev, Mathew McCaskey, Daniel McKinsey, Dan Mickelson, Tom Rizzo, David Sanford, Gabe Shaughnessy, William Shepherd, Tim M. P. Tait, Xerxes Tata, Sean Tulin, Alexander M. Wijangco, Matthew Wood, Jonghee Yoo, Hai-Bo Yu

In this Report we discuss the four complementary searches for the identity of dark matter: direct detection experiments that look for dark matter interacting in the lab, indirect detection experiments that connect lab signals to dark matter in our own and other galaxies, collider experiments that elucidate the particle properties of dark matter, and astrophysical probes sensitive to non-gravitational interactions of dark matter. The complementarity among the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in several theoretical scenarios. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program based on all four of those approaches. Read More

It is sometimes argued that a virtue of pushing the supersymmetry breaking scale above 1 PeV is that no particular flavor structure is required in the soft sector in order to evade bounds on flavor-changing neutral currents. However, without flavor structure, suppressing generic Planck-suppressed contributions to proton decay requires even higher SUSY scales, of order $10^{11}$ ($10^9$) GeV for degenerate (mini-split) gauginos and scalars. With flavor structure, the question of whether proton decay or flavor symmetries are more constraining is model-dependent, but it straightforward to find simple models where both constraints are satisfied for much lower SUSY scales. Read More

We explore the connection between pair production of dark matter particles at collider experiments and annihilation of dark matter in the early and late universe, with a focus on the correlation between the two time-reversed processes. We consider both a model-independent effective theory framework, where the initial and final states are assumed to not change under time-reversal, and concrete UV-complete models within the framework of supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model. Even within the effective theory framework (where crossing symmetry is in some sense assumed), we find that the predictions of that symmetry can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the details of the selected effective interaction. Read More

The size of the smallest dark matter collapsed structures, or protohalos, is set by the temperature at which dark matter particles fall out of kinetic equilibrium. The process of kinetic decoupling involves elastic scattering of dark matter off of Standard Model particles in the early universe, and the relevant cross section is thus closely related to the cross section for dark matter scattering off of nuclei (direct detection) but also, via crossing symmetries, for dark matter pair production at colliders and for pair annihilation. In this study, we employ an effective field theoretic approach to calculate constraints on the kinetic decoupling temperature, and thus on the size of the smallest protohalos, from a variety of direct, indirect and collider probes of particle dark matter. Read More

**Authors:**Daniel Bauer, James Buckley, Matthew Cahill-Rowley, Randel Cotta, Alex Drlica-Wagner, Jonathan L. Feng, Stefan Funk, JoAnne Hewett, Dan Hooper, Ahmed Ismail, Manoj Kaplinghat, Alexander Kusenko, Konstantin Matchev, Daniel McKinsey, Tom Rizzo, William Shepherd, Tim M. P. Tait, Alexander M. Wijangco, Matthew Wood

In this report we summarize the many dark matter searches currently being pursued through four complementary approaches: direct detection, indirect detection, collider experiments, and astrophysical probes. The essential features of broad classes of experiments are described, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. The complementarity of the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in two simple theoretical frameworks. Read More

We propose a model for Dirac leptogenesis based on a non-anomalous $U(1)^{\prime}$ gauged family symmetry. The anomaly cancellation conditions are satisfied with no new chiral fermions other than the three right-handed neutrinos, giving rise to stringent constraints among the charges. Realistic masses and mixing angles are obtained for all fermions. Read More

The LHC studies on the MSSM slepton sector have mostly been focused on direct slepton Drell-Yan pair production. In this paper, we analyze the case when the sleptons are lighter than heavy neutralinos and can appear in the on-shell decay of neutralino states. In particular, we have studied the \chi_1^\pm \chi_2^0 associated production, with the consequent decays of \chi_1^\pm and \chi_2^0 via on-shell sleptons. Read More

We analyze the sensitivity of searches for dark matter in the jets and missing energy channel in the case where the particle mediating interactions between hadronic matter and DM is collider accessible. We consider all tree level UV completions of interactions between fermion DM and quarks which contribute to direct detection, and derive bounds which apply to elastic or inelastic scattering dark matter explanations of direct detection signals. We find that studies based on effective operators give robust bounds when the mediator is heavy enough to resonantly produce the final state in question. Read More

We derive limits on the interactions of dark matter with quarks from ATLAS null searches for jets + missing energy based on ~1 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity, using a model-insensitive effective theory framework. We find that the new limits from the LHC significantly extend limits previously derived from CDF data at the Tevatron. Translated into the parameter space of direct searches, these limits are particularly effective for ~GeV mass WIMPs. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Univ. of Arizona, UC Irvine,

^{2}UC Irvine,

^{3}Univ. of Arizona, UC Irvine

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We discuss same-sign dilepton resonances in the simplified model approach. The relevant $SU(3}_Q^J$ quantum numbers are $1_2^{0,1,2}$. For simplicity, we only consider a spin 0 scalar, which is typically referred to as a doubly charged Higgs in the literature. Read More

A monochromatic gamma ray line results when dark matter particles in the galactic halo annihilate to produce a two body final state which includes a photon. Such a signal is very distinctive from astrophysical backgrounds, and thus represents an incisive probe of theories of dark matter. We compare the recent null results of searches for gamma ray lines in the galactic center and other regions of the sky with the predictions of effective theories describing the interactions of dark matter particles with the Standard Model. Read More

We show that colliders can impose strong constraints on models of dark matter, in particular when the dark matter is light. We analyze models where the dark matter is a fermion or scalar interacting with quarks and/or gluons through an effective theory containing higher dimensional operators which represent heavier states that have been integrated out of the effective field theory. We determine bounds from existing Tevatron searches for monojets as well as expected LHC reaches for a discovery. Read More

We explore model-independent collider constraints on light Majorana dark matter particles. We find that colliders provide a complementary probe of WIMPs to direct detection, and give the strongest current constraints on light DM particles. Collider experiments can access interactions not probed by direct detection searches, and outperform direct detection experiments by about an order of magnitude for certain operators in a large part of parameter space. Read More

We explore the "Beautiful Mirrors" model, which aims to explain the measured value of $A^b_{FB}$, discrepant at the $2.9\sigma$ level. This scenario introduces vector-like quarks which mix with the bottom, subtly affecting its coupling to the $Z$. Read More

We explore the possibility that weakly interacting dark matter can form bound states - WIMPonium. Such states are expected in a wide class of models of particle dark matter, including some limits of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We examine the conditions under which we expect bound states to occur, and use analogues of NRQCD applied to heavy quarkonia to provide estimates for their properties, including couplings to the Standard Model. Read More