# Wilhelm Schlag - University of Chicago

## Contact Details

NameWilhelm Schlag |
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AffiliationUniversity of Chicago |
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CityChicago |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesMathematics - Analysis of PDEs (39) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (29) Mathematical Physics (29) Mathematics - Spectral Theory (5) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (4) Mathematics - Dynamical Systems (2) Mathematics - Classical Analysis and ODEs (2) Mathematics - Complex Variables (1) Mathematics - Number Theory (1) Mathematics - Combinatorics (1) Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (1) |

## Publications Authored By Wilhelm Schlag

We obtain structure formulas for the intertwining wave operators of a Schroedinger operator with potential V in R^3. The difference from our previous submission arXiv:1612.07304 lies with the fact that here we impose a scaling invariant condition on the potential, albeit with a smallness requirement. Read More

We establish quantitative estimates on the structure function arising in the representation of the intertwining wave operators of a Schroedinger operator in three dimensions. Regularity of zero energy is assumed throughout. This paper is related to, and corrects some inaccuracies in, the first author's work https://arxiv. Read More

We study multi-frequency quasi-periodic Schr\"odinger operators on $\mathbb{Z}$ in the regime of positive Lyapunov exponent and for general analytic potentials. Combining Bourgain's semi-algebraic elimination of multiple resonances with the method of elimination of double resonances via resultants, we establish exponential finite-volume localization as well as the separation between the eigenvalues. In a follow-up paper we develop the method further to show that for potentials given by large generic trigonometric polynomials the spectrum consists of a single interval, as conjectured by Chulaevski and Sinai. Read More

We prove a version of the doubling Bernstein inequalities for the trace of an analytic function of two variables on an analytic subset of $\mathbb{C}^2$. The estimate applies to the whole analytic set in question including its singular points. The proof relies on a version of the Cartan estimate for maps in $\mathbb{C}^2$ which we establish in this work. Read More

We give a rigorous proof for the linear stability of the Skyrmion. In addition, we provide new proofs for the existence of the Skyrmion and the GGMT bound. Read More

In the paper we revisit the basic problem of tunneling near a nondegenerate global maximum of a potential on the line. We reduce the semiclassical Schr\"odinger equation to a Weber normal form by means of the Liouville-Green transform. We show that the diffeomorphism which effects this stretching of the independent variable lies in the same regularity class as the potential (analytic or infinitely differentiable) with respect to both variables, i. Read More

In this paper, we continue our study [16] on the long time dynamics of radial solutions to defocusing energy critical wave equation with a trapping radial potential in 3 + 1 dimensions. For generic radial potentials (in the topological sense) there are only finitely many steady states which might be either stable or unstable. We first observe that there can be stable excited states (i. Read More

We consider the one-dimensional discrete Schr\"odinger operator $$ \bigl[H(x,\omega)\varphi\bigr](n)\equiv -\varphi(n-1)-\varphi(n+1) + V(x + n\omega)\varphi(n)\ , $$ $n \in \mathbb{Z}$, $x,\omega \in [0, 1]$ with real-analytic potential $V(x)$. Assume $L(E,\omega)>0$ for all $E$. Let $\mathcal{S}_\omega$ be the spectrum of $H(x,\omega)$. Read More

Exterior channel of energy estimates for the radial wave equation were first considered in three dimensions by Duyckaerts, the first author, and Merle, and recently for the 5-dimensional case by the first, second, and fourth authors. In this paper we find the general form of the channel of energy estimate in all odd dimensions for the radial free wave equation. This will be used in a companion paper to establish soliton resolution for equivariant wave maps in 3 dimensions exterior to the ball B(0,1), and in all equivariance classes. Read More

In this paper we consider finite energy, \ell-equivariant wave maps from 1+3-dimensional Minkowski space exterior to the unit ball at the origin into the 3-sphere. We impose a Dirichlet boundary condition at r=1, which in this context means that the boundary of the unit ball in the domain gets mapped to the north pole. Each such \ell-equivariant wave map has a fixed integer-valued topological degree, and in each degree class there is a unique harmonic map, which minimizes the energy for maps of the same degree. Read More

For the radial energy-supercritical nonlinear wave equation $$\Box u = -u_{tt} + \triangle u = \pm u^7$$ on $\R^{3+1}$, we prove the existence of a class of global in forward time $C^\infty$-smooth solutions with infinite critical Sobolev norm $\dot{H}^{\frac{7}{6}}(\R^3)\times \dot{H}^{\f16}(\R^3)$. Moreover, these solutions are stable under suitably small perturbations . We also show that for the {\em defocussing} energy supercritical wave equation, we can construct such solutions which moreover satisfy the size condition $\|u(0, \cdot)\|_{L_x^\infty(|x|\geq 1)}>M$ for arbitrarily prescribed $M>0$. Read More

Consider a finite energy radial solution to the focusing energy critical semilinear wave equation in 1+4 dimensions. Assume that this solution exhibits type-II behavior, by which we mean that the critical Sobolev norm of the evolution stays bounded on the maximal interval of existence. We prove that along a sequence of times tending to the maximal forward time of existence, the solution decomposes into a sum of dynamically rescaled solitons, a free radiation term, and an error tending to zero in the energy space. Read More

We construct a center-stable manifold of the ground state solitons in the energy space for the critical wave equation without imposing any symmetry, as the dynamical threshold between scattering and blow-up, and also as a collection of solutions which stay close to the ground states. Up to energy slightly above the ground state, this completes the 9-set classification of the global dynamics in our previous paper. We can also extend the manifold to arbitrary energy size by adding large radiation. Read More

In this paper we study 1-equivariant wave maps of finite energy from 1+3-dimensional Minkowski space exterior to the unit ball at the origin into the 3-sphere. We impose a Dirichlet boundary condition at r=1, meaning that the unit sphere in R^3 gets mapped to the north pole. Finite energy implies that spacial infinity gets mapped to either the north or south pole. Read More

For the energy critical focusing wave equation in three dimensions we establish the existence of blowup solutions via an "exotic" dynamical rescaling of the ground state solution W(x). The scaling law is not of the pure-power type, but rather eternally oscillates between such classes. Moreover, there is a continuum of these scaling laws. Read More

For the critical focusing wave equation \Box u = u^5 on R^{3+1} in the radial case, we prove the existence of type II blow up solutions with scaling parameter \lambda(t) = t^{-1-\nu} for all \nu >0. This extends the previous work by the authors and Tataru where the condition \nu> 1/2 had been imposed, and gives the optimal range of polynomial blow up rates in light of recent work by Duyckaerts, Kenig and Merle. Read More

We consider the radial free wave equation in all dimensions and derive asymptotic formulas for the space partition of the energy relative to a light cone, as time goes to infinity. We show that the exterior energy estimate, which Duyckaerts, Merle and the second author obtained in odd dimensions, fails in even dimensions. Positive results for restricted classes of data are obtained. Read More

We consider 1-equivariant wave maps from 1+2 dimensions to the 2-sphere. For wave maps of topological degree zero we prove global existence and scattering for energies below twice the energy of harmonic map, Q, given by stereographic projection. We deduce this result via the concentration compactness/rigidity method developed by the second author and Merle. Read More

We consider 1-equivariant wave maps from 1+2 dimensions to the 2-sphere of finite energy. We establish a classification of all degree 1 global solutions whose energies are less than three times the energy of the harmonic map Q. In particular, for each global energy solution of topological degree 1, we show that the solution asymptotically decouples into a rescaled harmonic map plus a radiation term. Read More

For the critical focusing wave equation $\Box u = u^5$ on $\R^{3+1}$ in the radial case, we establish the role of the "center stable" manifold $\Sigma$ constructed in \cite{KS} near the ground state $(W,0)$ as a threshold between type I blowup and scattering to zero, establishing a conjecture going back to numerical work by Bizo\'n, Chmaj, Tabor. The underlying topology is stronger than the energy norm. Read More

In this paper we establish the existence of certain classes of solutions to the energy critical nonlinear wave equation in dimensions 3 and 5 assuming that the energy exceeds the ground state energy only by a small amount. No radial assumption is made. We find that there exist four sets in the natural energy space with nonempty interiors which correspond to all possible combinations of finite-time blowup on the one hand, and global existence and scattering to a free wave, on the other hand, as time approaches infinity. Read More

We consider 1-equivariant wave maps from \R \times (\R^3 \setminus B) to S^3 where B is a ball centered at 0, and the boundary of B gets mapped to a fixed point on S^3. We show that 1-equivariant maps of degree zero scatter to zero irrespective of their energy. For positive degrees, we prove asymptotic stability of the unique harmonic maps in the energy class determined by the degree. Read More

This paper is part of the radial asymptotic stability analysis of the ground state soliton for either the cubic nonlinear Schrodinger or Klein-Gordon equations in three dimensions. We demonstrate by a rigorous method that the linearized scalar operators which arise in this setting, traditionally denoted by L_{+-}, satisfy the gap property, at least over the radial functions. This means that the interval (0,1] does not contain any eigenvalues of L_{+-} and that the threshold 1 is neither an eigenvalue nor a resonance. Read More

We consider semiclassical Schr\"odinger operators on the real line of the form $$H(\hbar)=-\hbar^2 \frac{d^2}{dx^2}+V(\cdot;\hbar)$$ with $\hbar>0$ small. The potential $V$ is assumed to be smooth, positive and exponentially decaying towards infinity. We establish semiclassical global representations of Jost solutions $f_\pm(\cdot,E;\hbar)$ with error terms that are uniformly controlled for small $E$ and $\hbar$, and construct the scattering matrix as well as the semiclassical spectral measure associated to $H(\hbar)$. Read More

We construct center-stable and center-unstable manifolds, as well as stable and unstable manifolds, for the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with a focusing energy sub-critical nonlinearity, associated with a family of solitary waves which is generated from any radial stationary solution by the action of all Lorentz transforms and spatial translations. The construction is based on the graph transform (or Hadamard) approach, which requires less spectral information on the linearized operator, and less decay of the nonlinearity, than the Lyapunov-Perron method employed previously in this context. The only assumption on the stationary solution is that the kernel of the linearized operator is spanned by its spatial derivatives, which is known to hold for the ground states. Read More

We present some numerical findings concerning the nature of the blowup vs. global existence dichotomy for the focusing cubic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in three dimensions for radial data. The context of this study is provided by the classical paper by Payne, Sattinger from 1975, as well as the recent work by K. Read More

In this paper we obtain a global characterization of the dynamics of even solutions to the one-dimensional nonlinear Klein-Gordon (NLKG) equation on the line with focusing nonlinearity |u|^{p-1}u, p>5, provided their energy exceeds that of the ground state only sightly. The method is the same as in the three-dimensional case arXiv:1005.4894, the major difference being in the construction of the center-stable manifold. Read More

We extend our previous result on the focusing cubic Klein-Gordon equation in three dimensions to the non-radial case, giving a complete classification of global dynamics of all solutions with energy at most slightly above that of the ground state. Read More

We study global behavior of radial solutions for the nonlinear wave equation with the focusing energy critical nonlinearity in three and five space dimensions. Assuming that the solution has energy at most slightly more than the ground states and gets away from them in the energy space, we can classify its behavior into four cases, according to whether it blows up in finite time or scatters to zero, in forward or backward time direction. We prove that initial data for each case constitute a non-empty open set in the energy space. Read More

We extend our previous result on the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with the focusing cubic nonlinearity in three dimensions, for radial data of energy at most slightly above that of the ground state. We prove that the initial data set splits into nine nonempty, pairwise disjoint regions which are characterized by the distinct behaviors of the solution for large time: blow-up, scattering to 0, or scattering to the family of ground states generated by the phase and scaling freedom. Solutions of this latter type form a smooth center-stable manifold, which contains the ground states and separates the phase space locally into two connected regions exhibiting blow-up and scattering to 0, respectively. Read More

We study the focusing, cubic, nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in 3D with large radial data in the energy space. This equation admits a unique positive stationary solution, called the ground state. In 1975, Payne and Sattinger showed that solutions with energy strictly below that of the ground state are divided into two classes, depending on a suitable functional: If it is negative, then one has finite time blowup, if it is nonnegative, global existence; moreover, these sets are invariant under the flow. Read More

We study the wave equation on the real line with a potential that falls off like $|x|^{-\alpha}$ for $|x| \to \infty$ where $2 < \alpha \leq 4$. We prove that the solution decays pointwise like $t^{-\alpha}$ as $t \to \infty$ provided that there are no resonances at zero energy and no bound states. As an application we consider the $\ell=0$ Price Law for Schwarzschild black holes. Read More

We prove sharp pointwise $t^{-3}$ decay for scalar linear perturbations of a Schwarzschild black hole without symmetry assumptions on the data. We also consider electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations for which we obtain decay rates $t^{-4}$, and $t^{-6}$, respectively. We proceed by decomposition into angular momentum $\ell$ and summation of the decay estimates on the Regge-Wheeler equation for fixed $\ell$. Read More

Price's Law states that linear perturbations of a Schwarzschild black hole fall off as $t^{-2\ell-3}$ for $t \to \infty$ provided the initial data decay sufficiently fast at spatial infinity. Moreover, if the perturbations are initially static (i.e. Read More

By means of the concentrated compactness method of Bahouri-Gerard and Kenig-Merle, we prove global existence and regularity for wave maps with smooth data and large energy from 2+1 dimensions into the hyperbolic plane. The argument yields an apriori bound of the Coulomb gauged derivative components of our wave map relative to a suitable norm (which holds the solution) in terms of the energy alone. As a by-product of our argument, we obtain a phase-space decomposition of the gauged derivative components analogous to the one of Bahouri-Gerard. Read More

We consider the Yangs-Mills equations in 4+1 dimensions. This is the energy critical case and we show that it admits a family of solutions which blow up in finite time. They are obtained by the spherically symmetric ansatz in the SO(4) gauge group and result by rescaling of the instanton solution. Read More

This paper studies the scattering matrix $\Sigma(E;\hbar)$ of the problem \[ -\hbar^2 \psi''(x) + V(x) \psi(x) = E\psi(x) \] for positive potentials $V\in C^\infty(\R)$ with inverse square behavior as $x\to\pm\infty$. It is shown that each entry takes the form $\Sigma_{ij}(E;\hbar)=\Sigma_{ij}^{(0)}(E;\hbar)(1+\hbar \sigma_{ij}(E;\hbar))$ where $\Sigma_{ij}^{(0)}(E;\hbar)$ is the WKB approximation relative to the {\em modified potential} $V(x)+\frac{\hbar^2}{4} \la x\ra^{-2}$ and the correction terms $\sigma_{ij}$ satisfy $|\partial_E^k \sigma_{ij}(E;\hbar)| \le C_k E^{-k}$ for all $k\ge0$ and uniformly in $(E,\hbar)\in (0,E_0)\times (0,\hbar_0)$ where $E_0,\hbar_0$ are small constants. This asymptotic behavior is not universal: if $-\hbar^2\partial_x^2 + V$ has a {\em zero energy resonance}, then $\Sigma(E;\hbar)$ exhibits different asymptotic behavior as $E\to0$. Read More

Global in time dispersive estimates for the Schroedinger and wave evolutions are obtained on manifolds with conical ends whose Hamiltonian flow exhibits trapping. This paper deals with the case of initial data with "zero angular momentum". Read More

Global in time dispersive estimates for the Schroedinger and wave evolutions are obtained on manifolds with conical ends whose Hamiltonian flow exhibits trapping. This paper deals with the case of initial data with fixed "nonzero angular momentum". Read More

Let ${n_k}$ be an increasing lacunary sequence, i.e., $n_{k+1}/n_k>1+r$ for some $r>0$. Read More

In this paper we consider magnetic Schr\"odinger operators in R^n, n \ge 3. Under almost optimal conditions on the potentials in terms of decay and regularity we prove smoothing and Strichartz estimates, as well as a limiting absorption principle. For large gradient perturbations the latter is not a corollary of the free case as the differentiated free resolvent does not have small operator norm on any weighted L^2 spaces. Read More

We prove the existence of energy solutions of the energy critical focusing wave equation in R^3 which blow up exactly at x=t=0. They decompose into a bulk term plus radiation term. The bulk is a rescaled version of the stationary "soliton" type solution of the NLW. Read More

We prove the existence of equivariant finite time blow up solutions for the wave map problem from 2+1 dimensions into the 2-sphere. These solutions are the sum of a dynamically rescaled ground-state harmonic map plus a radiation term. The local energy of the latter tends to zero as time approaches blow up time. Read More

We show that the time evolution of the operator $H = -\Delta + i(A \cdot \nabla + \nabla \cdot A) + V$ in R^3 satisfies Strichartz and smoothing estimates under suitable smoothness and decay assumptions on A and V but without any smallness assumptions. We require that zero energy is neither an eigenvalue nor a resonance. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Chicago,

^{2}Rutgers University,

^{3}University of Chicago

We establish a dispersive estimate (with a decay of 1/t), valid for all times, for the Schroedinger evolution on a non-compact 2-dimensional manifold with a trapped geodesic. Read More

In this paper we address the question of proving Anderson localization (AL) for the operator [H(x,\omega)\psi](n) := - \vp(n+1) - \vp(n-1) + V\bigl(T^n_\omega x\bigr)\psi(n), n\in\mathbb Z where T:\tor^2\to\tor^2 is either the shift or the skew-shift and V is only C^\alpha(\tor^2) for some \alpha>0. We show that under the assumption of positive Lyapunov exponents, (AL) takes place for a.e. Read More

We consider one-dimensional difference Schroedinger equations on the discrete line with a potential generated by evaluating a real-analytic potential function V(x) on the one-dimensional torus along an orbit of the shift x-->x+nw. If the Lyapunov exponent is positive for all energies and w, then the integrated density of states is absolutely continuous for almost every w. In this work we establish the formation of a dense set of gaps in the spectrum. Read More

We review some of the work by the authors on this topic. In particular, we discuss the recent paper "Fine properties of the IDS and a quantitative separation property of the Dirichlet eigenvalues". Read More

This is a slightly modified version of the survey article. Minor changes to the text and the references have been made. Read More

We show that the usual Mikhlin multiplier theorem relative to the distorted Fourier transform holds in the range (3/2,3) at least for radial functions and potentials. The restricted range is due to the fact that the Schroedinger operator which gives rise to the distorted Fourier transform may have a zero energy resonance. Consequently, the Littlewood-Paley theorem is shown also only for the range (3/2,3). Read More