# Wen Fu - Rice, LANL

## Contact Details

NameWen Fu |
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AffiliationRice, LANL |
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CityAlbuquerque |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (23) High Energy Physics - Theory (17) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (12) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (8) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (3) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (3) Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (3) Quantitative Biology - Populations and Evolution (1) Quantitative Biology - Genomics (1) Astrophysics (1) Physics - Superconductivity (1) Physics - Plasma Physics (1) Astrophysics of Galaxies (1) Mathematics - Functional Analysis (1) Computer Science - Computation and Language (1) Computer Science - Learning (1) Mathematical Physics (1) Mathematics - Complex Variables (1) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1) |

## Publications Authored By Wen Fu

We compare Particle-in-Cell simulation results of relativistic electron-ion shear flows with different bulk Lorentz factors, and discuss their implications for spine-sheath models of blazar versus gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets. Specifically, we find that most properties of the shear boundary layer scale with the bulk Lorentz factor: the lower the Lorentz factor, the thinner the boundary layer, and the weaker the self-generated fields. Similarly, the energized electron spectrum peaks at an energy near the ion drift energy, which increases with bulk Lorentz factor, and the beaming of the accelerated electrons gets narrower with increasing Lorentz factor. Read More

Quantum information theory along with holography play central roles in our understanding of quantum gravity. Exploring their connections will lead to profound impacts on our understanding of the modern physics and is thus a key challenge for present theory and experiments. In this paper, we investigate a recent conjectured connection between reduced fidelity susceptibility and holographic complexity (the RFS/HC duality for short). Read More

We analyze the gravitational instability (GI) of a locally isothermal inclined disk around one component of a binary system. Such a disk can undergo global Kozai-Lidov (KL) cycles if the initial disk tilt is above the critical KL angle (of about 40 degrees). During these cycles, an initially circular disk exchanges its inclination for eccentricity, and vice versa. Read More

We present Particle-in-Cell simulation results of relativistic shear boundary layers between electron-ion and electron-positron plasmas and discuss their potential applications to astrophysics. Specifically, we find in the case of a fast electron-positron spine surrounded by a slow-moving or stationary electron-ion sheath, lepton acceleration proceeds in a highly anisotropic manner due to electromagnetic fields created at the shear interface. While the highest-energy leptons still produce a beaming pattern (as seen in the quasi-stationary frame of the sheath) of order 1/{\Gamma}, where {\Gamma} is the bulk Lorentz factor of the spine, for lower-energy particles, the beaming is much less pronounced. Read More

We analytically obtain a new charged Lifshtitz solution by adding a non-relativistic Maxwell field in Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The black hole exhibits an anisotropic scaling between space and time (Lifshitz scaling) in the UV limit, while in the IR limit, the Lorentz invariance is recovered. We introduce the probed Lorentz-violation fermions into the background and holographically investigate the spectral properties of the dual fermionic operator. Read More

In many domains such as medicine, training data is in short supply. In such cases, external knowledge is often helpful in building predictive models. We propose a novel method to incorporate publicly available domain expertise to build accurate models. Read More

We study a conjectured correspondence between any codimension two convex surface and a quantum state (SS-duality for short). By generalizing thermofield double formalism to continuum version of the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (cMERA) and using the SS-duality, we show that thermal geometries naturally emerge as a result of hidden quantum entanglement between boundary CFTs. We therefore propose a general framework to emerge the thermal geometry from CFT at finite temperature. Read More

We present how the thermal geometry emerges from CFT at finite temperature by using the truncated entanglement renormalization network, the cMERA. For the case of $2d$ CFT, the reduced geometry is the BTZ black hole or the thermal AdS as expectation. In order to determine which spacetimes prefer to form, we propose a cMERA description of the Hawking-Page phase transition. Read More

We study the holographic phase transition of superconductor dual to a Lifshitz black brane probed by an anisotropic scalar field in the probe limit in Ho\u{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity. With the use of numerical and analytical method, we investigate how the critical temperature of the condensation is affected by the Lifshitz exponent $z$, $\alpha-$correction term in the action as well as the dimensions of the gravity. We also numerically explore the condensation of the dual operator and optical conductivity of the holographic system. Read More

The merger-driven Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) and their associated gravitational wave (GW) radiation, if both successfully detected, have some far-reaching implications, including for instance: (i) The statistical comparison of the physical properties of the short/long-short GRBs with and without GW detection can test the general origin model; (ii) Revealing the physical processes taking place at the central engine; (iii) Measuring the velocity of the Gravitational wave directly/accurately. In this work we discuss these implications in the case of possible association of GW150914/ GBM transient 150914. We compared GBM transient 150914 with other SGRBs and found that such an event {may be} a distinct outlier in some statistical diagrams, possibly due to its specific binary-black-hole merger origin. Read More

Black holes (BHs) hide themselves behind various astronomical phenomena, and their properties, i.e., mass and spin, are usually difficult to constrain. Read More

We analytically consider the spontaneous formation of a fermionic crystalline geometry in a gravity background with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation. Fermionic vortex lattice solution sourced by the lowest Laundau level has been obtained. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the fermionic vortex lattice favors a triangular configuration, regardless of the values of the Lifshitz scaling $z$ and the hyperscaling violation exponent $\theta$. Read More

Some integrals of matrix spaces over a quaternionic field have been calculated in this work. The associated volume of hyperbolic matrix spaces over a quaternionic field has also been calculated by making use of these integrals, and it is of great significance in calculating related kernel functions of these spaces. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Rice, LANL,

^{2}STScI,

^{3}UNLV

**Category:**Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

Previously we showed that a substantially misaligned viscous accretion disk with pressure that orbits around one component of a binary system can undergo global damped Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations. These oscillations produce periodic exchanges of the disk eccentricity with inclination. The disk KL mechanism is quite robust and operates over a wide range of binary and disk parameters. Read More

Martin et al. (2014b) showed that a substantially misaligned accretion disk around one component of a binary system can undergo global damped Kozai-Lidov oscillations. During these oscillations, the inclination and eccentricity of the disk are periodically exchanged. Read More

The short burst GRB 130912A was detected by Swift, Fermi satellites and several ground-based optical telescopes. Its X-ray light curve decayed with time normally. The optical emission, however, displayed a long term plateau, which is the longest one in current short GRB observations. Read More

We study analytically the $d$-wave holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling in the presence of external magnetic field. The vortex lattice solutions of the model have also been obtained with different Lifshitz scaling. Our results imply that holographic $d$-wave superconductor is indeed a type II one even for different Lifshitz scaling. Read More

We carried out two-dimensional high-resolution simulations to study the effect of dust feedback on the evolution of vortices induced by massive planets in protoplanetary disks. Various initial dust to gas disk surface density ratios ($0.001$ -- $0. Read More

We propose a new way of generating magnetized supersonic jets using a ring laser to irradiate a flat surface target. Using 2D FLASH code simulations which include the Biermann Battery term, we demonstrate that strong toroidal fields can be generated and sustained downstream in the collimated jet outflow far from the target surface. The field strength can be controlled by varying the ring laser separation, thereby providing a versatile laboratory platform for studying the effects of magnetic field in a variety of astrophysical settings. Read More

Recent observations of large-scale asymmetric features in protoplanetary disks suggest that large-scale vortices exist in such disks. Massive planets are known to be able to produce deep gaps in protoplanetary disks. The gap edges could become hydrodynamically unstable to the Rossby wave/vortex instability and form large-scale vortices. Read More

In this paper, we present all $[(d+1)+1]$-dimensional static diagonal vacuum solutions of the non-projectable Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity in the IR limit, and show that they give rise to very rich Lifshitz-type structures, depending on the choice of the free parameters of the solutions. These include the Lifshitz spacetimes with or without hyperscaling violation, Lifshitz solitons, and black holes. Remarkably, even the theory breaks explicitly the Lorentz symmetry and allows generically instantaneous propagations, universal horizons still exist, which serve as one-way membranes for signals with any large velocities. Read More

In this paper, we study static vacuum solutions of quantum gravity at a fixed Lifshitz point in (2+1) dimensions, and present all the diagonal solutions in closed forms in the infrared limit. The exact solutions represent spacetimes with very rich structures: they can represent generalized BTZ black holes, Lifshitz space-times or Lifshitz solitons, in which the spacetimes are free of any kind of space-time singularities, depending on the choices of the free parameters of the solutions. We also find several classes of exact static non-diagonal solutions, which represent similar space-time structures as those given in the diagonal case. Read More

In this paper we give a brief review of our recent studies on the long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected Swift, in an effort to understand the puzzle of classifying GRBs. We consider that it is still an appealing conjecture that both long and short GRBs are drawn from the same parent sample by observational biases. Read More

Demographic change of human populations is one of the central questions for delving into the past of human beings. To identify major population expansions related to male lineages, we sequenced 78 East Asian Y chromosomes at 3.9 Mbp of the non-recombining region (NRY), discovered >4,000 new SNPs, and identified many new clades. Read More

Cosmological time dilation is a fundamental phenomenon in an expanding universe, which stresses that both the duration and wavelength of the emitted light from a distant object at the redshift $z$ will be dilated by a factor of $1+z$ at the observer. By using a sample of 139 \emph{Swift} long GRBs with known redshift ($z\leq8.2$), we measure the observed duration ($T_{90}$) in the observed energy range between $140/(1+z)$ keV and $350/(1+z)$ keV, corresponding to a fixed energy range of 140-350 keV in the rest frame. Read More

A nearby super-luminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by six $\gamma$-ray space telescopes ({\it Swift}, Fermi-GBM/LAT, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, AGILE and RHESSI) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic $\gamma-$ray energy release is of $\sim 10^{54}$ erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among the GRBs with a redshift $z\leq 0.5$. Read More

We present Particle-in-Cell simulation results of relativistic shear flows for hybrid positron-electron-ion plasmas and compare to those for pure e+e- and pure e-ion plasmas. Among the three types of relativistic shear flows, we find that only hybrid shear flow is able to energize the electrons to form a high-energy spectral peak plus a hard power-law tail. Such electron spectra are needed to model the observational properties of gamma-ray bursts. Read More

The physical origin of high-frequency QPOs (HFQPOs) in black-hole X-ray binaries remains an enigma despite many years of detailed observational studies. Although there exists a number of models for HFQPOs, many of these are simply "notions" or "concepts" without actual calculation derived from fluid or disk physics. Future progress requires a combination of numerical simulations and semi-analytic studies to extract physical insights. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Cornell, LANL, Rice,

^{2}Cornell

We present two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamic simulations of overstable inertial-acoustic oscillation modes (p-modes) in black-hole accretion discs. These global spiral waves are trapped in the inner-most region of the disc, and are driven overstable by wave absorption at the corotation resonance ($r_c$) when the gradient of the background disc vortensity (vorticity divided by surface density) at $r_c$ is positive and the disc inner boundary is sufficiently reflective. Previous linear calculations have shown that the growth rates of these modes can be as high as 10% of the rotation frequency at the disc inner edge. Read More

**Authors:**Wen Fu

^{1}, Edison P. Liang

^{2}, Milad Fatenejad

^{3}, Donald Q. Lamb

^{4}, Michael Grosskopf

^{5}, Hye-Sook Park

^{6}, Bruce Remington

^{7}, Anatoly Spitkovsky

^{8}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Rice,

^{2}Rice,

^{3}U. Chicago,

^{4}U. Chicago,

^{5}U. Michigan,

^{6}LLNL,

^{7}LLNL,

^{8}Princeton

Supersonic plasma outflows driven by multi-beam, high-energy lasers, such as Omega and NIF, have been and will be used as platforms for a variety of laboratory astrophysics experiments. Here we propose a new way of launching high density and high velocity, plasma jets using multiple intense laser beams in a hollow ring formation. We show that such jets provide a more flexible and versatile platform for future laboratory astrophysics experiments. Read More

GRB 120422A is a low-luminosity Gamma-ray burst (GRB) associated with a bright supernova, which distinguishes itself by its relatively short T90 ~ 5 s and an energetic X-ray tail. We analyze the Swift BAT and XRT data and discuss the physical implications. We show that the early steep decline in the X-ray light curve can be interpreted as the curvature tail of a late emission episode around 58-86 s, with a curved instantaneous spectrum at the end of the emission episode. Read More

We explore, in the context of AdS/CFT correspondence, the causality constraints on the Noncritical Einstein-Weyl (NEW) gravity model in five dimensions. The scalar and shear channels are considered as small metric perturbations around an AdS black brane background. Our results show that causality analysis on the propagation of these two channels imposes a new bound on the coupling of the Weyl-squared terms in the NEW gravity. Read More

We show that the experiential $E_{\rm p}-L$, $\Gamma-L$, $E_{\rm p}-\Gamma$ and ${\rm \bar{\eta}_\gamma}-E_{\rm p}$ correlations (where $L$ is the time-averaged luminosity of the prompt emission, $E_{\rm p}$ is the spectral peak energy, $\Gamma$ is the bulk Lorentz factor and $\bar{\eta}_\gamma$ is the emission efficiency of Gamma-ray bursts) are well consistent with the relations between the resembling parameters predicted in the photospheric radiation model of the prompt emission of Gamma-ray bursts. The time-resolved thermal radiation of GRB 090902B does follow the $E_{\rm p}-L$ and $\Gamma-L$ correlations. A reliable interpretation of the four correlations in alternative models is still lacking. Read More

We study global non-axisymmetric oscillation modes and instabilities in magnetosphere- disc systems, as expected in neutron star X-ray binaries and possibly also in accreting black hole systems. Our two-dimensional magnetosphere-disc model consists of a Keplerian disc in contact with an uniformly rotating magnetosphere with low plasma density. Two types of global overstable modes exist in such systems, the interface modes and the disc inertial-acoustic modes. Read More

We perform a statistical analysis of the temporal and spectral properties of the latest Fermi gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to revisit the classification of GRBs. We find that the bimodalities of duration and the energy ratio ($E_{\mathrm{peak}}$/Fluence) and the anti-correlation between spectral hardness (hardness ratio ($HR$), peak energy and spectral index) and duration ($T_{90}$) support the long/soft $-$ short/hard classification scheme for Fermi GRBs. The $HR - T_{90}$ anti-correlation strongly depends upon the spectral shape of GRBs and energy bands, and the bursts with the curved spectra in the typical BATSE energy bands show a tighter anti-correlation than those with the power-law spectra in the typical BAT energy bands. Read More

GRB 090618 was simultaneously detected by Swift-BAT and Fermi-GBM. Its light curve shows two emission episodes consisting of four prominent pulses. The pulse in the first episode (episode A) has a smoother morphology than the three pulses in the second episode (episode B). Read More

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are brief but intense emission of soft $\gamma-$rays, mostly lasting from a few seconds to a few thousand seconds. For such kind of high energy transients, their isotropic-equivalent-energy ($E_{\rm iso}$) function may be more scientifically meaningful when compared with GRB isotropic-equivalent-luminosity function ($L_{\rm iso}$), as the traditional luminosity function refers to steady emission much longer than a few thousand seconds. In this work we for the first time construct the isotropic-equivalent-energy function for a sample of 95 bursts with measured redshifts ($z$) and find an excess of high-$z$ GRBs. Read More

We consider an extended theory of Horava-Lifshitz gravity with the detailed balance condition softly breaking, but without the projectability condition. With the former, the number of independent coupling constants is significantly reduced. With the latter and by extending the original foliation-preserving diffeomorphism symmetry $ {{Diff}}(M, {\cal{F}})$ to include a local U(1) symmetry, the spin-0 gravitons are eliminated. Read More

**Authors:**Lang Shao

^{1}, Zi-Gao Dai

^{2}, Yi-Zhong Fan

^{3}, Fu-Wen Zhang

^{4}, Zhi-Ping Jin

^{5}, Da-Ming Wei

^{6}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Purple Mountain Observatory,

^{2}Nanjing University,

^{3}Purple Mountain Observatory,

^{4}Purple Mountain Observatory,

^{5}Purple Mountain Observatory,

^{6}Purple Mountain Observatory

In an effort to understand the puzzle of classifying gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we perform a systematic study of {\it Swift} GRBs and investigate several short GRB issues. Though short GRBs have a short ($\lesssim2$ s) prompt duration as monitored by the Burst Alert Telescope, the composite light curves including both the prompt and afterglow emission suggest that most of the short GRBs have a similar radiative feature to long GRBs. Further, some well-studied short GRBs might also have an intrinsically long prompt duration, which renders them as a type of short GRB imposters. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Purple Mountain Observatory,

^{2}Purple Mountain Observatory,

^{3}Purple Mountain Observatory,

^{4}Purple Mountain Observatory

Sw 1644+57/GRB 110328A is a remarkable cosmological X-ray outburst detected by the {\it Swift} satellite. Its early-time ($t\lesssim 0.1$ days since the trigger) X-ray emission resembles some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), e. Read More

Recent hydrodynamical simulations have shown that differentially rotating neutron stars formed in core-collapse supernovae may develop global non-axisymmetric instabilities even when $T/|W|$ (the ratio of the rotational kinetic energy $T$ to the gravitational potential energy $|W|$) is relatively small (less than 0.1). Such low-$T/|W|$ instability can give rise to efficient gravitational wave emission from the proto-neutron star. Read More

We propose a new extended theory of Ho\v{r}ava gravity based on the following three conditions: (i) UV completion, (ii) healthy IR behavior and (iii) a stable vacuum state in quantized version of the theory. Compared with other extended theories, we stress that any realistic theory of gravity must have physical ground states when quantization is performed. To fulfill the three conditions, we softly break the detailed balance but keep its basic structure unchanged. Read More

Low-order, non-axisymmetric p-modes (also referred as inertial-acoustic modes) trapped in the inner-most region of hydrodynamic accretion discs around black holes, are plausible candidates for high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in a number of accreting black-hole systems. These modes are subject to global instabilities due to wave absorption at the corotation resonance (where the wave pattern frequency $\omega/m$ equals the disc rotation rate $\Omega$), when the fluid vortensity, $\zeta=\kappa^2/(2\Omega\Sigma)$ (where $\kappa$ and $\Sigma$ are the radial epicyclic frequency and disc surface density, respectively), has a positive gradient. We investigate the effects of disc magnetic fields on the wave absorption at corotation and the related wave super-reflection of the corotation barrier, and on the overstability of disc p-modes. Read More

Hot accretion tori around a compact object are known to be susceptible to a global hydrodynamical instability, the so-called Papaloizou-Pringle (PP) instability, arising from the interaction of non-axisymmetric waves across the corotation radius, where the wave pattern speed matches the fluid rotation rate. However, accretion tori produced in various astrophysical situations (e.g. Read More

We apply the holographic principle and the equipartition law of energy to the apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe and derive the Friedmann equation describing the dynamics of the universe. We also show that the equipartition law of energy can be interpreted as the first law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon. Read More

Based on the finite-temperature AdS/CFT correspondence, we calculate the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in any Lovelock theories to any order. Our result shows that any Lovelock correction terms except the Gauss-Bonnet term have no contribution to the value of $\eta/s$. This result is consistent with that of Brustein and Medved's prediction. Read More

The stochastic quantization method is applied to the recent proposal by Ho\v{r}ava for gravity. We show that in contrast to General Relativity, the Ho\v{r}ava's action, satisfying the detailed balance condition, has a stable, non-perturbative quantum vacuum when the DeWitt parameter $\lambda$ is not greater than 1/3, providing a possible candidate for consistent quantum gravity. Read More

Recently, it has been shown that if we consider the higher derivative correction, the viscosity bound conjectured to be $\eta/s=1/4\pi$ is violated and so is the causality. In this paper, we consider medium effect and the higher derivative correction simultaneously by adding charge and Gauss-Bonnet terms. We find that the viscosity bound violation is not changed by the charge. Read More

We study the transport coefficients of Quark-Gluon-Plasma in finite temperature and finite baryon density. We use AdS/QCD of charged AdS black hole background with bulk-filling branes identifying the U(1) charge as the baryon number. We calculate the diffusion constant, the shear viscosity and the thermal conductivity to plot their density and temperature dependences. Read More

The origin of the rapid quasi-periodic variabilities observed in a number of accreting black hole X-ray binaries is not understood. It has been suggested that these variabilities are associated with diskoseismic oscillation modes of the black hole accretion disk. In particular, in a disk with no magnetic field, the so-called g-modes (inertial oscillations) can be self-trapped at the inner region of the disk due to general relativistic effects. Read More