Wei Chu

Wei Chu
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Wei Chu
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Physics - Optics (31)
 
Physics - Atomic Physics (14)
 
Computer Science - Learning (3)
 
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (3)
 
Computer Science - Information Retrieval (3)
 
Quantum Physics (3)
 
Physics - Materials Science (2)
 
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (2)
 
Physics - Superconductivity (2)
 
Statistics - Machine Learning (1)
 
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1)
 
Computer Science - Computation and Language (1)
 
Computer Science - Robotics (1)

Publications Authored By Wei Chu

Femtosecond laser micromachining provides high precision and less thermal diffusion in surface structuring as a result of the ultrashort temporal duration and ultrahigh peak intensity of the femtosecond laser pulses. To increase the throughput of surface patterning, the focal spot size can be expanded with loose focusing, which, however, could lead to nonlinear self-focusing of the pulses when the pulses propagate in air. We solve the problem by use of spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for ablation of metal surfaces, which gives rise to improved surface quality as compared with that obtained with the conventional focusing scheme. Read More

We report on an investigation of simultaneous generation of several narrow-bandwidth laser-like coherent emissions from nitrogen molecular ions ( ) produced in intense mid-infrared laser fields. With systematic examinations on the dependences of coherent emissions on gas pressure as well as several laser parameters including laser intensity, polarization and wavelength of the pump laser pulses, we reveal that the multiple coherent emission lines generated in originate from a series of nonlinear processes beginning with four-wave mixing, followed with stimulated Raman scattering. Our analyses further show that the observed nonlinear processes are greatly enhanced at the resonant wavelengths, giving rise to high conversion efficiencies from the infrared pump laser pulses to the coherent emission lines near the transition wavelengths between the different vibrational energy levels of ground X and that of the excited B states. Read More

We demonstrate electro-optic tuning of an on-chip lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes. First two metallic microelectrodes on the substrate were formed via femtosecond laser process. Then a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator located between the microelectrodes was fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing accompanied by focused ion beam milling. Read More

Writing optical waveguides with femtosecond laser pulses provides the capability of forming three-dimensional photonic circuits for manipulating light fields in both linear and nonlinear manners. To fully explore this potential, large depths of the buried waveguides in transparent substrates are often desirable to facilitate achieving vertical integration of waveguides in a multi-layer configuration, which, however, is hampered by rapidly degraded axial resolution caused by optical aberration. Here, we show that with the correction of the spherical aberration, polarization-independent waveguides can be inscribed in a nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate (LN) at depths up to 1. Read More

We report on fabrication of three dimensional (3D) microstructures in glass with isotropic spatial resolutions. To achieve high throughput fabrication, we expand the focal spot size with a low-numerical-aperture lens, which naturally results in a degraded axial resolution. We solve the problem with simultaneous spatial temporal focusing which leads to an isotropic laser-affected volume with a spatial resolution of ~100 micron. Read More

Generation of free-space laser-like emissions of high spatiotemporal coherence and narrow bandwidth in atmosphere opens promising opportunities for remote spectroscopic sensing. Here, we report on generation of such laser-like emissions, which results from the combined contributions of perturbative and non-perturbative nonlinear optical effects in nitrogen molecules exposed to intense mid-infrared laser fields. We systematically investigate the dependence of the generated free-space laser spectrum on wavelength and power of the driver laser. Read More

We report on fabrication of depressed cladding optical waveguides buried in lithium niobate crystal with shaped femtosecond laser pulses. Depressed cladding waveguides of variable mode-field sizes are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding using a slit-beam shaping technique. We show that the waveguides fabricated by our technique allows single-mode propagation of the light polarized in both vertical and horizontal directions. Read More

A speaker cluster-based speaker adaptive training (SAT) method under deep neural network-hidden Markov model (DNN-HMM) framework is presented in this paper. During training, speakers that are acoustically adjacent to each other are hierarchically clustered using an i-vector based distance metric. DNNs with speaker dependent layers are then adaptively trained for each cluster of speakers. Read More

We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~ 4 {\mu}m. Read More

We experimentally investigate generation of molecular nitrogen-ion lasers with two femtosecond laser pulses at different wavelengths. The first pulse serves as the pump which ionizes the nitrogen molecules and excites the molecular ions to excited electronic states. The second pulse serves as the probe which leads to stimulated emission from the excited molecular ions. Read More

We report on experimental observations of formation and evolution of transient plasma produced in fused silica glass with spatiotemporally focused (STF) femtosecond laser pulses using a pump-probe shadow imaging technique. Surprisingly, the observation shows that the track of the plasma is significantly curved, which is attributed to an asymmetric density distribution of the transient plasma produced in the focal volume caused by the pulse front tilt of the STF laser field. Read More

We experimentally investigate the generation of above-threshold harmonics completely from argon atoms on an excited state using mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. The highly nonlinear dependences of the observed signal on the pulse energy and polarization of the driver laser pulses indicate its non-perturbative characteristic. Read More

We carry out a combined theoretical and experimental investigation on the population distributions in the ground and excited states of tunnel ionized N2 molecules at various driver wavelengths in the near- and mid-infrared range. Our results reveal that efficient couplings (i.e. Read More

We report on an experimental comparison on critical intensities of nonlinear self-focusing in air with conventional focusing and spatiotemporal focusing schemes. Our results show that the conventional focusing with the focal lens completely filled with the incident beam allows for the strongest axial intensity confinement against the self-focusing effect. This is because that in the high-numerical-aperture condition, the focal spot will have a compact size which results in a high focal intensity. Read More

We experimentally investigate generation of backward 357 nm N2 laser in a gas mixture of N2/Ar using 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses, and examine the involved gain dynamics based on pump-probe measurements. Our findings show that a minimum lifetime of population inversion in the excited N2 molecules is required for generating intense backward nitrogen lasers, which is ~0.8 ns under our experimental conditions. Read More

We study theoretically the dipole radiation of a hydrogen atom driven by an intense sub-cycle pulse. The time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation for the system is solved by ab initio calculation to obtain the dipole response. Remarkably, a narrowband emission lasting longer than the driving pulse appears at a frequency just above the ionization threshold. Read More

We report on an experimental measurement of the pulse front tilt (PFT) of spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses in the focal plane in both air and bulk transparent materials, which is achieved by examination of the interference pattern between the spatiotemporally focused pulse and a conventional focused reference pulse as a function of time delay between the two pulses. Our simulation results agree well with the experimental observations. Read More

We experimentally demonstrate ultrafast dynamic of generation of a strong 337-nm nitrogen laser by injecting an external seed pulse into a femtosecond laser filament pumped by a circularly polarized laser pulse. In the pump-probe scheme, it is revealed that the population inversion between the excited and ground states of N2 for the free-space 337-nm laser is firstly built up on the timescale of several picoseconds, followed by a relatively slow decay on the timescale of tens of picoseconds, depending on the nitrogen gas pressure. By measuring the intensities of 337-nm signal from nitrogen gas mixed with different concentrations of oxygen gas, it is also found that oxygen molecules have a significant quenching effect on the nitrogen laser signal. Read More

We report on experimental realization of impulsive rotational Raman scattering from neutral nitrogen molecules in a femtosecond laser filament using an intense self-induced white-light seeding "air laser" generated during the filamentation of an 800 nm Ti: Sapphire laser in nitrogen gas. The impulsive rotational Raman fingerprint signals are observed with a maximum conversion efficiency of ~0.8%. Read More

We propose a general technique to retrieve the information of dipole-forbidden resonances in the autoionizing region. In the simulation, a helium atom is pumped by an isolated attosecond pulse in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) combined with a few-femtosecond laser pulse. The excited wave packet consists of the $^1S$, $^1P$, and $^1D$ states, including the background continua, near the $2s2p(^1P)$ doubly excited state. Read More

Molecular rotational spectroscopy based on strong-field-ionization-induced nitrogen laser is employed to investigate the time evolution of the rotational wave packet composed by a coherent superposition of quantum rotational states created in a field-free molecular alignment. We show that this technique uniquely allows real-time observation of the ultrafast dynamics of the individual rotational states in the rotational wavepacket. Our analysis also shows that there exist two channels of generation of the nitrogen laser, shedding new light on the population inversion mechanism behind the air laser generated by intense femtosecond laser pulses. Read More

We demonstrate unexpectedly strong second harmonic generation (SHG) in Argon gas by use of spatiotemporally focused (SF) femtosecond laser pulses. The resulting SHG by the SF scheme at a 75 cm distance shows a significantly enhanced efficiency than that achieved with conventional focusing scheme, which offers a new promising possibility for standoff applications. Our theoretical calculations reasonably reproduce the experimental observations, which indicate that the observed SHG mainly originates from the gradient of nonuniform plasma dynamically controlled by the SF laser field. Read More

Recently, Yao et al. demonstrated the creation of coherent emissions in nitrogen gas with two-color (800 nm + 400 nm) ultrafast laser pulses [New J. Phys. Read More

Femtosecond laser filament generates strong terahertz (THz) pulse in air. In this paper, THz pulse waveform generated by femtosecond laser filament has been experimentally investigated as a function of the length of the filament. Superluminal propagation of THz pulse has been uncovered, indicating that the filament creates a THz waveguide in air. Read More

Terahertz (THz) imaging provides cutting edge technique in biology, medical sciences and non-destructive evaluation. However, due to the long wavelength of the THz wave, the obtained resolution of THz imaging is normally a few hundred microns and is much lower than that of the traditional optical imaging. We introduce a sub-wavelength resolution THz imaging technique which uses the THz radiation generated by a femtosecond laser filament in air as the probe. Read More

We report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the generation of remote self-seeding laser amplification by using only one 800 nm Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser pulse. The laser pulse (~ 40 fs) is first used to generate a filament either in pure nitrogen or in ambient air in which population inversion between ground and excited states of nitrogen molecular ions is realized. Self-induced white light inside the filament is then serving as the seed to be amplified. Read More

We investigate the multi-electron dynamics in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from N2 molecules. Clear spectral minima are observed in the cutoff region at all three mid-infrared wavelengths (i.e. Read More

We report on generation of a rotational wavepacket in the ground vibronic state (v = 0) of excited electronic B2{\Sigma}u+ state of N2+ in a femtosecond laser induced plasma spark. Decoding of the rotational wavepacket is achieved with the frequency-resolved seed-amplified air laser spectrum resulting from the population inversion between the B2{\Sigma}u+-X2{\Sigma}g+ states of N2+ in the plasma. We also observe that the rotational wave-packet leads to modulation of the amplified seed signals in the time domain using a pump-probe scheme, which can be well reproduced by theoretical calculation. Read More

Study on ionization process of molecules in an intense infrared laser field is of paramount interest in strong-field physics and constitutes the foundation of imaging of molecular valence orbitals and attosecond science. We show measurement of alignment-dependent ionization probabilities of the lower-lying orbitals of the molecules by experimentally detecting alignment-dependence of fluorescence emission from tunnel ionized carbon dioxide molecules. The experimental measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations of strong field approximation (SFA) and molecular ADK models. Read More

An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) single attosecond pulse passing through a laser-dressed dense gas is studied theoretically. The weak EUV pulse pumps the helium gas from the ground state to the 2s2p(1P) autoionizing state, which is coupled to the 2s2(1S) autoionizing state by a femtosecond infrared laser with the intensity in the order of 10^{12} W/cm2. The simulation shows how the transient absorption and emission of the EUV are modified by the coupling laser. Read More

We experimentally demonstrate generation of strong narrow-bandwidth emissions with excellent coherent properties at ~391 nm and ~428 nm from molecular ions of nitrogen inside a femtosecond filament in air by an orthogonally polarized two-color driver field (i. e., 800 nm laser pulse and its second harmonic). Read More

We report on the investigation on harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions at 391 nm wavelength from strong-field ionized nitrogen molecules in three different gas mixtures, i.e., N2-Ar, N2-Xe and N2-Ne. Read More

We study theoretically the photoabsorption spectra of an attosecond XUV pulse by a laserdressed atomic system. A weak XUV excites an autoionizing state which is strongly coupled to another autoionizing state by a laser. The theory was applied to explain two recent experiments [Loh, Greene, and Leone, Chem. Read More

An optical coherent control scheme has been proposed and theoretically investigated where an extreme ultraviolet single attosecond pulse (SAP) propagates through a dense helium gas dressed by a time-delayed femtosecond laser pulse. The laser pulse couples the 2s2p(^1P) and 2s^2(^1S) autoionizing states when the SAP excites the 2s2p state. After going through the gas, the spectral and temporal profiles of the SAP are strongly distorted. Read More

The strong coupling between two autoionizing states in helium is studied theoretically with the pump-probe scheme. An isolated 100-as XUV pulse is used to excite helium near the 2s2p(1P) resonance state in the presence of an intense infrared (IR) laser. The laser field introduces strong coupling between 2s2p(1P) and 2p^2(1S) states. Read More

Pulsed terahertz (THz) radiation, generated through optical rectification (OR) by exciting [110] ZnTe crystal with ultrafast optical pulses, typically consists of only a few cycles of electromagnetic field oscillations with a duration about a couple of picoseconds. However, it is possible, under appropriate conditions, to generate a long damped oscillation tail (LDOT) following the main cycles. The LDOT can last tens of picoseconds and its Fourier transform shows a higher and narrower frequency peak than that of the main pulse. Read More

We report on the comparative experimental investigation on third and fifth harmonic generation (THG and FHG) in atomic and molecular gases driven by mid-infrared ultrafast laser pulses at a wavelength of ~1500 nm. We observe that the conversion efficiencies of both the THG and FHG processes saturate at similar peak intensities close to ~1.5\times1014 W/cm2 for argon, nitrogen, and air, whose ionization potentials are close to each other. Read More

We report on the generation of intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) supercontinuum with photon energies spanning from 35 eV to 50 eV (i. e., supporting an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of ~271 as) by loosely focusing 35 fs, 11 mJ pulses from a femtosecond laser amplifier into a 10-mm long gas cell filled with krypton gas. Read More

Remote laser in air based on amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) has produced rather well-collimated coherent beams in both backward and forward propagation directions, opening up possibilities for new remote sensing approaches. The remote ASE-based lasers were shown to enable operation either at ~391 and 337 nm using molecular nitrogen or at ~845 nm using molecular oxygen as gain medium, depending on the employed pump lasers. To date, a multi-wavelength laser in air that allows for dynamically switching the operating wavelength has not yet been achieved, although this type of laser is certainly of high importance for detecting multiple hazard gases. Read More

We report a tunable magnetoresistance (MR) behavior in suspended graphitic multilayers through point defect engineering by ion implantation. We find that ion implantation drastically changes the MR behavior: the linear positive MR in pure graphitic multilayers transforms into a negative MR after introducing significant short-range disorders (implanted boron or carbon atoms), consistent with recent non-Markovian transport theory. Our experiments suggest the important role of the non-Markovian process in the intriguing MR behavior for graphitic systems, and open a new window for understanding transport phenomena beyond the Drude-Boltzmann approach and tailoring the electronic properties of graphitic layers. Read More

Traditional machine-learned ranking systems for web search are often trained to capture stationary relevance of documents to queries, which has limited ability to track non-stationary user intention in a timely manner. In recency search, for instance, the relevance of documents to a query on breaking news often changes significantly over time, requiring effective adaptation to user intention. In this paper, we focus on recency search and study a number of algorithms to improve ranking results by leveraging user click feedback. Read More

We investigate the photon emission in coupled quantum dots based on symmetry considerations. With the help of a new theorem we proved, we reveal the origin of the various emission patterns, which is the combinative symmetry in the time domain and spectrum domain. We are able to tailor the emission patterns and obtain emission spectra with odd harmonics only, even harmonics only, both odd and even harmonic components, or even the quenching of all components. Read More

Contextual bandit algorithms have become popular for online recommendation systems such as Digg, Yahoo! Buzz, and news recommendation in general. \emph{Offline} evaluation of the effectiveness of new algorithms in these applications is critical for protecting online user experiences but very challenging due to their "partial-label" nature. Common practice is to create a simulator which simulates the online environment for the problem at hand and then run an algorithm against this simulator. Read More

Personalized web services strive to adapt their services (advertisements, news articles, etc) to individual users by making use of both content and user information. Despite a few recent advances, this problem remains challenging for at least two reasons. First, web service is featured with dynamically changing pools of content, rendering traditional collaborative filtering methods inapplicable. Read More

Emergence of various vertical search engines highlights the fact that a single ranking technology cannot deal with the complexity and scale of search problems. For example, technology behind video and image search is very different from general web search. Their ranking functions share few features. Read More

X-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to investigate the depth dependent crystal structures and chemical compositions of sequentially chemical-etched YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO) ultrathin film superconductors. In the near-interface region the crystal structure is severely oxygen deficient and of tetragonal symmetry. We consider this a revelation of retarded oxygen diffusion into the O(1) sites during the post-deposition annealing in the presence of interface mismatch strain. Read More

We have examined the effects of 20 keV electron irradiation on [-Cu(1)-O(1)-]n chain oxygen arrangements in oxygen deficient but otherwise twin-free YBa2Cu3O6+x single crystals. Comparison of polarized Raman spectra of non-irradiated and irradiated areas provides evidence that electron bombardments instigate the collective hopping of oxygen atoms either from an interstitial at O(5) site to a vacant O(1) chain site or by reshuffling the chain segments to extend the average length of chains without changing the overall oxygen content. This oxygen ordering effect, while counter-intuitive, is analogous to that found in the photoexcitation induced ordering in which temporal charge imbalance from electron-hole pair creation by inelastic scattering of incident electrons causes a local lattice distortion which brings on the atomic rearrangements. Read More