# W. J. Waalewijn

## Contact Details

NameW. J. Waalewijn |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (43) Nuclear Theory (26) High Energy Physics - Experiment (20) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2) Nuclear Experiment (1) |

## Publications Authored By W. J. Waalewijn

We present a framework that describes the energy distribution of subjets of radius $r$ within a jet of radius $R$. We consider both an inclusive sample of subjets as well as subjets centered around a predetermined axis, from which the jet shape can be obtained. For $r \ll R$ we factorize the physics at angular scales $r$ and $R$ to resum the logarithms of $r/R$. Read More

We introduce a method to compute one-loop soft functions for exclusive $N$-jet processes at hadron colliders, allowing for different definitions of the algorithm that determines the jet regions and of the measurements in those regions. In particular, we generalize the $N$-jettiness hemisphere decomposition of ref.~\cite{Jouttenus:2011wh} in a manner that separates the dependence on the jet boundary from the observables measured inside the jet and beam regions. Read More

We introduce a broad class of fractal jet observables that recursively probe the collective properties of hadrons produced in jet fragmentation. To describe these collinear-unsafe observables, we generalize the formalism of fragmentation functions, which are important objects in QCD for calculating cross sections involving identified final-state hadrons. Fragmentation functions are fundamentally nonperturbative, but have a calculable renormalization group evolution. Read More

We study the transverse momentum spectrum of hadrons in jets. By measuring the transverse momentum with respect to a judiciously chosen axis, we find that this observable is insensitive to (the recoil of) soft radiation. Furthermore, for small transverse momenta we show that the effects of the jet boundary factorize, leading to a new transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) fragmentation function. Read More

To predict the jet mass spectrum at a hadron collider it is crucial to account for the resummation of logarithms between the transverse momentum of the jet and its invariant mass $m_J$. For small jet areas there are additional large logarithms of the jet radius $R$, which affect the convergence of the perturbative series. We present an analytic framework for exclusive jet production at the LHC which gives a complete description of the jet mass spectrum including realistic jet algorithms and jet vetoes. Read More

Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries. Read More

To describe the transverse momentum spectrum of heavy color-singlet production, the joint resummation of threshold and transverse momentum logarithms is investigated. We obtain factorization theorems for various kinematic regimes valid to all orders in the strong coupling, using Soft-Collinear Effective Theory. We discuss how these enable resummation and how to combine regimes. Read More

Several searches for new physics at the LHC require a fixed number of signal jets, vetoing events with additional jets from QCD radiation. As the probed scale of new physics gets much larger than the jet-veto scale, such jet vetoes strongly impact the QCD perturbative series, causing nontrivial theoretical uncertainties. We consider slepton pair production with 0 signal jets, for which we perform the resummation of jet-veto logarithms and study its impact. Read More

Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Read More

We present an efficient way to calculate the effect of soft QCD radiation at one loop, which is needed for predictions at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. We use rapidity coordinates and isolate the divergences in the integrand. By performing manipulations with cumulative variables, we avoid complications from plus distributions. Read More

Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. Read More

**Authors:**R. Astalos, S. Baranov, P. Bartalini, I. Belyaev, Ch. Bierlich, B. Blok, A. Buckley, F. A. Ceccopieri, I. Cherednikov, J. R. Christiansen, D. Ciangottini, M. Deak, B. Ducloue, R. Field, J. R. Gaunt, K. Golec-Biernat, L. Goerlich, A. Grebenyuk, O. Gueta, P. Gunnellini, I. Helenius, H. Jung, D. Kar, O. Kepka, M. Klusek-Gawenda, A. Knutsson, P. Kotko, M. W. Krasny, K. Kutak, E. Lewandowska, G. Lykasov, R. Maciula, A. M. Moraes, T. Martin, G. Mitsuka, L. Motyka, M. Myska, J. Otwinowski, T. Pierog, V. Pleskot, M. Rinaldi, W. Schafer, A. Siodmok, T. Sjostrand, A. Snigirev, A. Stasto, R. Staszewski, T. Stebel, M. Strikman, A. Szczurek, D. Treleani, M. Trzebinski, H. van Haevermaet, A. van Hameren, P. van Mechelen, W. Waalewijn, W. Y. Wang

Multiple Partonic Interactions are often crucial for interpreting results obtained at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The quest for a sound understanding of the dynamics behind MPI - particularly at this time when the LHC is due to start its "Run II" operations - has focused the aim of this workshop. MPI@LHC2014 concentrated mainly on the phenomenology of LHC measurements whilst keeping in perspective those results obtained at previous hadron colliders. Read More

**Authors:**D. Adams, A. Arce, L. Asquith, M. Backovic, T. Barillari, P. Berta, D. Bertolini, A. Buckley, J. Butterworth, R. C. Camacho Toro, J. Caudron, Y. -T. Chien, J. Cogan, B. Cooper, D. Curtin, C. Debenedetti, J. Dolen, M. Eklund, S. El Hedri, S. D. Ellis, T. Embry, D. Ferencek, J. Ferrando, S. Fleischmann, M. Freytsis, M. Giulini, Z. Han, D. Hare, P. Harris, A. Hinzmann, R. Hoing, A. Hornig, M. Jankowiak, K. Johns, G. Kasieczka, R. Kogler, W. Lampl, A. J. Larkoski, C. Lee, R. Leone, P. Loch, D. Lopez Mateos, H. K. Lou, M. Low, P. Maksimovic, I. Marchesini, S. Marzani, L. Masetti, R. McCarthy, S. Menke, D. W. Miller, K. Mishra, B. Nachman, P. Nef, F. T. O'Grady, A. Ovcharova, A. Picazio, C. Pollard, B. Potter-Landua, C. Potter, S. Rappoccio, J. Rojo, J. Rutherfoord, G. P. Salam, R. M. Schabinger, A. Schwartzman, M. D. Schwartz, B. Shuve, P. Sinervo, D. Soper, D. E. Sosa Corral, M. Spannowsky, E. Strauss, M. Swiatlowski, J. Thaler, C. Thomas, E. Thompson, N. V. Tran, J. Tseng, E. Usai, L. Valery, J. Veatch, M. Vos, W. Waalewijn, J. Wacker, C. Young

Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. Read More

**Authors:**Sunil Bansal, Paolo Bartalini, Boris Blok, Diego Ciangottini, Markus Diehl, Fiorella M. Fionda, Jonathan R. Gaunt, Paolo Gunnellini, Tristan Du Pree, Tomas Kasemets, Daniel Ostermeier, Sergio Scopetta, Andrzej SiÃ³dmok, Alexander M. Snigirev, Antoni Szczurek, Daniele Treleani, Wouter J. Waalewijn

An overview of theoretical and experimental progress in double parton scattering (DPS) is presented. The theoretical topics cover factorization in DPS, models for double parton distributions and DPS in charm production and nuclear collisions. On the experimental side, CMS results for dijet and double J/\psi\ production, in light of DPS, as well as first results for the 4-jet channel are presented. Read More

LHC measurements involve cuts on several observables, but resummed calculations are mostly restricted to single variables. We show how the resummation of a class of double-differential measurements can be achieved through an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). A prototypical application is $pp \to Z + 0$ jets, where the jet veto is imposed through the beam thrust event shape ${\mathcal T}$, and the transverse momentum $p_T$ of the $Z$ boson is measured. Read More

Discriminating quark jets from gluon jets is an important but challenging problem in jet substructure. In this paper, we use the concept of mutual information to illuminate the physics of quark/gluon tagging. Ideal quark/gluon separation requires only one bit of truth information, so even if two discriminant variables are largely uncorrelated, they can still share the same "truth overlap". Read More

Beam and jet functions in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory describe collinear initial- and final-state radiation (jets), and enter in factorization theorems for N-jet production, the Higgs pT spectrum, etc. We show that they may directly be calculated as phase-space integrals of QCD splitting functions. At NLO all computations are trivial, as we demonstrate explicitly for the beam function, the transverse-momentum-dependent beam function, the jet function and the fragmenting jet function. Read More

An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It includes soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization-violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in $Z$+jet and $H$+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects, and we use a QCD factorization theorem to predict its dependence on the jet radius $R$, jet $p_T$, jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. Read More

We develop a method for calculating the correlation structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) using Feynman diagrams, when the CMB has been modified by gravitational lensing, Faraday rotation, patchy reionization, or other distorting effects. This method is used to calculate the bias of the Hu-Okamoto quadratic estimator in reconstructing the lensing power spectrum up to O(\phi^4) in the lensing potential $\phi$. We consider both the diagonal noise TTTT, EBEB, etc. Read More

We develop a Feynman diagram approach to calculating correlations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the presence of distortions. As one application, we focus on CMB distortions due to gravitational lensing by Large Scale Structure (LSS). We study the Hu-Okamoto quadratic estimator for extracting lensing from the CMB and derive the noise of the estimator up to ${\mathcal O}(\phi^4)$ in the lensing potential $\phi$. Read More

**Authors:**The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, S. Heinemeyer

^{1}, C. Mariotti

^{2}, G. Passarino

^{3}, R. Tanaka

^{4}, J. R. Andersen, P. Artoisenet, E. A. Bagnaschi, A. Banfi, T. Becher, F. U. Bernlochner, S. Bolognesi, P. Bolzoni, R. Boughezal, D. Buarque, J. Campbell, F. Caola, M. Carena, F. Cascioli, N. Chanon, T. Cheng, S. Y. Choi, A. David, P. de Aquino, G. Degrassi, D. Del Re, A. Denner, H. van Deurzen, S. Diglio, B. Di Micco, R. Di Nardo, S. Dittmaier, M. Duhrssen, R. K. Ellis, G. Ferrera, N. Fidanza, M. Flechl, D. de Florian, S. Forte, R. Frederix, S. Frixione, S. Gangal, Y. Gao, M. V. Garzelli, D. Gillberg, P. Govoni, M. Grazzini, N. Greiner, J. Griffiths, A . V. Gritsan, C. Grojean, D. C. Hall, C. Hays, R. Harlander, R. Hernandez-Pinto, S. Hoche, J. Huston, T. Jubb, M. Kadastik, S. Kallweit, A. Kardos, L. Kashif, N. Kauer, H. Kim, R. Klees, M. Kramer, F. Krauss, A. Laureys, S. Laurila, S. Lehti, Q. Li, S. Liebler, X. Liu, H. E. Logan, G. Luisoni, M. Malberti, F. Maltoni, K. Mawatari, F. Maierhofer, H. Mantler, S. Martin, P. Mastrolia, O. Mattelaer, J. Mazzitelli, B. Mellado, K. Melnikov, P. Meridiani, D. J. Miller, E. Mirabella, S. O. Moch, P. Monni, N. Moretti, A. Muck, M. Muhlleitner, P. Musella, P. Nason, C. Neu, M. Neubert, C. Oleari, J. Olsen, G. Ossola, T. Peraro, K. Peters, F. Petriello, G. Piacquadio, C. T. Potter, S. Pozzorini, K. Prokofiev, I. Puljak, M. Rauch, D. Rebuzzi, L. Reina, R. Rietkerk, A. Rizzi, Y. Rotstein-Habarnau, G. P. Salam, G. Sborlini, F. Schissler, M. Schonherr, M. Schulze, M. Schumacher, F. Siegert, P. Slavich, J. M. Smillie, O. Stal, J. F. von Soden-Fraunhofen, M. Spira, I. W. Stewart, F. J. Tackmann, P. T. E. Taylor, D. Tommasini, J. Thompson, R. S. Thorne, P. Torrielli, F. Tramontano, N. V. Tran, Z. Trocsanyi, M. Ubiali, P. Vanlaer, M. Vazquez Acosta, T. Vickey, A. Vicini, W. J. Waalewijn, D. Wackeroth, C. Wagner, J. R. Walsh, J. Wang, G. Weiglein, A. Whitbeck, C. Williams, J. Yu, G. Zanderighi, M. Zanetti, M. Zaro, P. M. Zerwas, C. Zhang, T. J . E. Zirke, S. Zuberi

**Affiliations:**

^{1}eds.,

^{2}eds.,

^{3}eds.,

^{4}eds.

This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Read More

In e+e- event shapes studies at LEP, two different measurements were sometimes performed: a "calorimetric" measurement using both charged and neutral particles, and a "track-based" measurement using just charged particles. Whereas calorimetric measurements are infrared and collinear safe and therefore calculable in perturbative QCD, track-based measurements necessarily depend on non-perturbative hadronization effects. On the other hand, track-based measurements typically have smaller experimental uncertainties. Read More

By using observables that only depend on charged particles (tracks), one can efficiently suppress pile-up contamination at the LHC. Such measurements are not infrared safe in perturbation theory, so any calculation of track-based observables must account for hadronization effects. We develop a formalism to perform these calculations in QCD, by matching partonic cross sections onto new non-perturbative objects called track functions which absorb infrared divergences. Read More

The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m_jet^2/p_T^jet scale. Read More

Double parton scattering is sensitive to correlations between the two partons in the hadron, including correlations in flavor, spin, color, momentum fractions and transverse separation. We obtain a first estimate of the size of these correlations by calculating the corresponding double parton distribution functions in a bag model of the proton. We find significant correlations between momentum fractions, spin and flavor, but negligible correlations with transverse separation. Read More

We discuss how to construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of the color-ordered QCD helicity amplitudes. This provides an interface to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes, which are the basic building blocks of state-of-the-art next-to-leading order calculations for multileg processes, with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections using SCET. Read More

Jet charge has played an important role in experimentally testing the Parton Model and the Standard Model, and has many potential LHC applications. The energy-weighted charge of a jet is not an infrared-safe quantity, so hadronization must be taken into account. Here we develop the formalism to calculate it, cleanly separating the nonperturbative from the perturbative physics, which we compute at one-loop order. Read More

Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the Standard Model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-Standard-Model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pile-up, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as Standard Model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically-decaying W bosons in t-tbar events. Read More

When high-energy single-hadron production takes place inside an identified jet, there are important correlations between the fragmentation and phase-space cuts. For example, when one-hadron yields are measured in on-resonance B-factory data, a cut on the thrust event shape T is required to remove the large b-quark contribution. This leads to a dijet final state restriction for the light-quark fragmentation process. Read More

Processes such as double Drell-Yan and same-sign WW production have contributions from double parton scattering, which are not well-defined because of a delta(z_\perp=0) singularity that is generated by QCD evolution. We study the single and double parton contributions to these processes, and show how to handle the singularity using factorization and operator renormalization. We compute the QCD evolution of double parton distribution functions (PDFs) due to mixing with single PDFs. Read More

We derive a factorization formula for the double Drell-Yan cross section in terms of double parton distribution functions (dPDFs). Diparton flavor, spin and color correlations and parton-exchange interference terms contribute, even for unpolarized beams. Soft radiation effects are nontrivial for the color correlation and interference contributions, and are described by non-perturbative soft functions. Read More

**Authors:**LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, S. Dittmaier

^{1}, C. Mariotti

^{2}, G. Passarino

^{3}, R. Tanaka

^{4}, S. Alekhin, J. Alwall, E. A. Bagnaschi, A. Banfi, J. Blumlein, S. Bolognesi, N. Chanon, T. Cheng, L. Cieri, A. M. Cooper-Sarkar, M. Cutajar, S. Dawson, G. Davies, N. De Filippis, G. Degrassi, A. Denner, D. D'Enterria, S. Diglio, B. Di Micco, R. Di Nardo, R. K. Ellis, A. Farilla, S. Farrington, M. Felcini, G. Ferrera, M. Flechl, D. de Florian, S. Forte, S. Ganjour, M. V. Garzelli, S. Gascon-Shotkin, S. Glazov, S. Goria, M. Grazzini, J. -Ph. Guillet, C. Hackstein, K. Hamilton, R. Harlander, M. Hauru, S. Heinemeyer, S. Hoche, J. Huston, C. Jackson, P. Jimenez-Delgado, M. D. Jorgensen, M. Kado, S. Kallweit, A. Kardos, N. Kauer, H. Kim, M. Kovac, M. Kramer, F. Krauss, C. -M. Kuo, S. Lehti, Q. Li, N. Lorenzo, F. Maltoni, B. Mellado, S. O. Moch, A. Muck, M. Muhlleitner, P. Nadolsky, P. Nason, C. Neu, A. Nikitenko, C. Oleari, J. Olsen, S. Palmer, S. Paganis, C. G. Papadopoulos, T . C. Petersen, F. Petriello, F. Petrucci, G. Piacquadio, E. Pilon, C. T. Potter, J. Price, I. Puljak, W. Quayle, V. Radescu, D. Rebuzzi, L. Reina, J. Rojo, D. Rosco, G. P. Salam, A. Sapronov, J. Schaarschmidt, M. Schonherr, M. Schumacher, F. Siegert, P. Slavich, M. Spira, I. W. Stewart, W. J. Stirling, F. Stockli, C. Sturm, F. J. Tackmann, R. S. Thorne, D. Tommasini, P. Torrielli, F. Tramontano, Z. Trocsanyi, M. Ubiali, S. Uccirati, M. Vazquez Acosta, T. Vickey, A. Vicini, W. J. Waalewijn, D. Wackeroth, M. Warsinsky, M. Weber, M. Wiesemann, G. Weiglein, J. Yu, G. Zanderighi

**Affiliations:**

^{1}eds.,

^{2}eds.,

^{3}eds.,

^{4}eds.

This Report summarises the results of the second year's activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Read More

We study the fragmentation of (light) quarks and gluons to hadrons inside a jet of cone size R. This allows for a more exclusive analysis of fragmentation than is currently the case. The shape of semi-inclusive cross sections in the hadron energy fraction z is described by fragmenting jet functions (FJFs), which we calculate in terms of R and the jet energy E. Read More

We define and study the properties of generalized beam functions (BFs) and fragmenting jet functions (FJFs), which are fully-unintegrated parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FFs) for perturbative k_T. We calculate at one loop the coefficients for matching them onto standard PDFs and FFs, correcting previous results for the BFs in the literature. Technical subtleties when measuring transverse momentum in dimensional regularization are clarified, and this enables us to renormalize in momentum space. Read More

The N-jettiness event shape divides phase space into N+2 regions, each containing one jet or beam. These jet regions are insensitive to the distribution of soft radiation and, with a geometric measure for N-jettiness, have circular boundaries. We give a factorization theorem for the cross section which is fully differential in the mass of each jet, and compute the corresponding soft function at next-to-leading order (NLO). Read More

New physics searches at the LHC or Tevatron typically look for a specific number of hard jets, leptons and photons. To obtain an exclusive N-jet sample, one can measure the event shape "N-jettiness" \tau_N and veto additional undesired jets by requiring \tau_N <<1. However, this leads to large logarithms of \tau_N in the cross section, that need to be summed for reliable theory predictions. Read More

The N-jettiness event shape divides phase space into N+2 regions, each containing one jet or beam. Using a geometric measure these regions correspond to jets with circular boundaries. We give a factorization theorem for the cross section fully differential in the (transverse) mass of each jet, and compute the corresponding soft function at next-to-leading order (NLO). Read More

The fragmentation of a light parton i to a jet containing a light energetic hadron h, where the momentum fraction of this hadron as well as the invariant mass of the jet is measured, is described by "fragmenting jet functions". We calculate the one-loop matching coefficients J_{ij} that relate the fragmenting jet functions G_i^h to the standard, unpolarized fragmentation functions D_j^h for quark and gluon jets. We perform this calculation using various IR regulators and show explicitly how the IR divergences cancel in the matching. Read More

A major ingredient in Higgs searches at the Tevatron and LHC is the elimination of backgrounds with jets. In current H -> WW -> lnulnu searches, jet algorithms are used to veto central jets to obtain a 0-jet sample, which is then analyzed to discover the Higgs signal. Imposing this tight jet veto induces large double logarithms which significantly modify the Higgs production cross section. Read More

Soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) is applied to compute electroweak radiative corrections to Higgs production via gauge boson fusion, q q -> q q H. There are several novel features which make this process an interesting application of SCET. The amplitude is proportional to the Higgs vacuum expectation value (VEV), and so is not a gauge singlet amplitude. Read More

At the LHC and Tevatron strong initial-state radiation (ISR) plays an important role. It can significantly affect the partonic luminosity available to the hard interaction or contaminate a signal with additional jets and soft radiation. An ideal process to study ISR is isolated Drell-Yan production, pp -> X l+l- without central jets, where the jet veto is provided by the hadronic event shape beam thrust tau_B. Read More

Jet vetoes are essential in many Higgs and new-physics analyses at the LHC and Tevatron. The signals are typically characterized by a specific number of hard jets, leptons, or photons, while the backgrounds often have additional jets. In such cases vetoing undesired additional jets is an effective way to discriminate signals and background. Read More

In hard collisions at a hadron collider the most appropriate description of the initial state depends on what is measured in the final state. Parton distribution functions (PDFs) evolved to the hard collision scale Q are appropriate for inclusive observables, but not for measurements with a specific number of hard jets, leptons, and photons. Here the incoming protons are probed and lose their identity to an incoming jet at a scale \mu_B << Q, and the initial state is described by universal beam functions. Read More

We study proton-(anti)proton collisions at the LHC or Tevatron in the presence of experimental restrictions on the hadronic final state and for generic parton momentum fractions. At the scale Q of the hard interaction, factorization does not yield standard parton distribution functions (PDFs) for the initial state. The measurement restricting the hadronic final state introduces a new scale \mu_B << Q and probes the proton prior to the hard collision. Read More

Anomalies are an infrared effect, but are often realized in effective theories in a non-trivial way. We study the chiral anomaly in Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), where the anomaly equation has terms contributing at different orders in the power expansion. The chiral anomaly equations in SCET are computed up to NNLO in the power counting with external collinear and/or ultrasoft gluons. Read More