# W. -M. Zhang - NASA-Goddard

## Contact Details

NameW. -M. Zhang |
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AffiliationNASA-Goddard |
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CityNew York |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesComputer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (7) Quantum Physics (6) Computer Science - Information Theory (4) Computer Science - Learning (4) Mathematics - Optimization and Control (4) Mathematics - Information Theory (4) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (3) Physics - Superconductivity (3) Physics - Other (2) Physics - Optics (2) Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science (2) Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (2) Nuclear Experiment (2) Nuclear Theory (2) Mathematics - Differential Geometry (2) Statistics - Machine Learning (2) Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (1) Physics - Physics and Society (1) Physics - Materials Science (1) Mathematics - Probability (1) Mathematics - Combinatorics (1) Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1) Computer Science - Software Engineering (1) Mathematics - Commutative Algebra (1) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1) Mathematics - Group Theory (1) Astrophysics of Galaxies (1) Physics - Fluid Dynamics (1) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1) Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1) |

## Publications Authored By W. -M. Zhang

Most distributed machine learning systems nowadays, including TensorFlow and CNTK, are built in a centralized fashion. One bottleneck of centralized algorithms lies on high communication cost on the central node. Motivated by this, we ask, can decentralized algorithms be faster than its centralized counterpart? Although decentralized PSGD (D-PSGD) algorithms have been studied by the control community, existing analysis and theory do not show any advantage over centralized PSGD (C-PSGD) algorithms, simply assuming the application scenario where only the decentralized network is available. Read More

**Authors:**Shuo Zhang, Frederick K. Baganoff, Gabriele Ponti, Joseph Neilsen, John A. Tomsick, Jason Dexter, Maïca Clavel, Sera Markoff, Charles J. Hailey, Kaya Mori, Nicolas M. Barrière, Michael A. Nowak, Steven E. Boggs, Finn E. Christensen, William W. Craig, Brian W. Grefenstette, Fiona A. Harrison, Kristin K. Madsen, Daniel Stern, William W. Zhang

**Category:**High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena

Understanding the origin of the flaring activity from the Galactic center supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, is a major scientific goal of the NuSTAR Galactic plane survey campaign. We report on the data obtained between July 2012 and April 2015, including 27 observations on Sgr A* with a total exposure of ~ 1 Ms. We found a total of ten X-ray flares detected in the NuSTAR observation window, with luminosities in the range of $L_{3-79~keV}$~$(0. Read More

We show that the essential properties of a Feshbach resonance can be tuned by dressing the atomic states in different scattering channels through inter-channel couplings. Such a scheme can be readily implemented in the orbital Feshbach resonance of alkaline-earth-like atoms by coupling hyperfine states in the clock-state manifolds. Using $^{173}$Yb atoms as an example, we find that both the resonance position and the two-body bound-state energy depend sensitively on the inter-channel coupling strength, which offers control parameters in tuning the inter-atomic interactions. Read More

Cavity optomechanics provides a unique platform to control the micromechanical systems by optical fields which covers the classical-quantum boundary to fulfill the theoretical foundations of quantum technologies. The optomechanical resonators are the promising candidates to develop precisely controlled nano-motors, ultrasensitive sensors and robust quantum information processors. For all the above applications, a crucial step is to cool the micromechanical resonators down to their quantum ground states with a very low effective temperature. Read More

A graph is said to be {\em vertex-transitive non-Cayley} if its full automorphism group acts transitively on its vertices and contains no subgroups acting regularly on its vertices. In this paper, a complete classification of cubic vertex-transitive non-Cayley graphs of order $12p$, where $p$ is a prime, is given. As a result, there are $11$ sporadic and one infinite family of such graphs, of which the sporadic ones occur when $p=5$, $7$ or $17$, and the infinite family exists if and only if $p\equiv1\ (\mod 4)$, and in this family there is a unique graph for a given order. Read More

Let $N$ be a closed enlargeable manifold in the sense of Gromov-Lawson and $M$ a closed spin manifold of equal dimension, a famous theorem of Gromov-Lawson states that the connected sum $M\# N$ admits no metric of positive scalar curvature. We present a potential generalization of this result to the case where $M$ is nonspin. We use index theory for Dirac operators to prove our result. Read More

We consider the (graded) Matlis dual $\DD(M)$ of a graded $\D$-module $M$ over the polynomial ring $R = k[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ ($k$ is a field of characteristic zero), and show that it can be given a structure of $\D$-module in such a way that, whenever $\dim_kH^i_{dR}(M)$ is finite, then $H^i_{dR}(M)$ is $k$-dual to $H^{n-i}_{dR}(\DD(M))$. As a consequence, we show that if $M$ is a graded $\D$-module such that $H^n_{dR}(M)$ is a finite-dimensional $k$-space, then $\dim_k(H^n_{dR}(M))$ is the maximal integer $s$ for which there exists a surjective $\D$-linear homomorphism $M \rightarrow E^s$, where $E$ is the top local cohomology module $H^n_{(x_1, \ldots, x_n)}(R)$. This extends a recent result of Hartshorne and Polini on formal power series rings to the case of polynomial rings; we also apply the same circle of ideas to provide an alternate proof of their result. Read More

We propose an automatic diabetic retinopathy (DR) analysis algorithm based on two-stages deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN). Compared to existing DCNN-based DR detection methods, the proposed algorithm have the following advantages: (1) Our method can point out the location and type of lesions in the fundus images, as well as giving the severity grades of DR. Moreover, since retina lesions and DR severity appear with different scales in fundus images, the integration of both local and global networks learn more complete and specific features for DR analysis. Read More

As a complementary study to that performed on the transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) spectra of pions, kaons and protons in proton-proton (pp) collisions at LHC energies 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV, we present a scaling behaviour in the $p_{\rm T}$ spectra of strange particles ($K_{S}^{0}$, $\Lambda$ and $\Xi$) at these three energies. Read More

Multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is an important class of LB model with lots of advantages over traditional single-relaxation-time (SRT) LB model. In addition, the computation of strain rate tensor is crucial in MRT-LB simulations of some complex flows. Up to now, there are only two formulas to compute the strain rate tensor in the MRT LB model. Read More

One of the challenging issues in additive manufacturing (AM) oriented topology optimization is how to design structures that are self-supportive in a manufacture process without introducing additional supporting materials. In the present contribution, it is intended to resolve this problem under an explicit topology optimization framework where optimal structural topology can be found by optimizing a set of explicit geometry parameters. Two solution approaches established based on the Moving Morphable Components (MMC) and Moving Morphable Voids (MMV) frameworks, respectively, are proposed and some theoretical issues associated with AM oriented topology optimization are also analyzed. Read More

**Authors:**F. Wang, B. H. Sun, Z. Liu, R. D. Page, C. Qi, C. Scholey, S. F. Ashley, L. Bianco, I. J. Cullen, I. G. Darby, S. Eeckhaudt, A. B. Garnsworthy, W. Gelletly, M. B. Gomez-Hornillos, T. Grahn, P. T. Greenlees, D. G. Jenkins, G. A. Jones, P. Jones, D. T. Joss, R. Julin, S. Juutinen, S. Ketelhut, S. Khan, A. Kishada, M. Leino, M. Niikura, M. Nyman, J. Pakarinen, S. Pietri, Z. Podolyak, P. Rahkila, S. Rigby, J. Saren, T. Shizuma, J. Sorri, S. Steer, J. Thomson, N. J. Thompson, J. Uusitalo, P. M. Walker, S. William, H. F. Zhang, W. Q. Zhang, L. H. Zhu

The quenching of the experimental spectroscopic factor for proton emission from the short-lived $d_{3/2}$ isomeric state in $^{151m}$Lu was a long-standing problem. In the present work, proton emission from this isomer has been reinvestigated in an experiment at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyv\"{a}skyl\"{a}. The proton-decay energy and half-life of this isomer were measured to be 1295(5) keV and 15. Read More

Three dimensional (3D) topology optimization problems always involve huge numbers of Degrees of Freedom (DOFs) in finite element analysis (FEA) and design variables in numerical optimization, respectively. This will inevitably lead to large computational efforts in the solution process. In the present paper, an efficient and explicit topology optimization approach which can reduce not only the number of design variables but also the number of degrees of freedom in FEA is proposed based on the Moving Morphable Voids (MMVs) solution framework. Read More

High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnetism, which is called as parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent doping can cause superconductivity, which cast doubt on the idea that there is a unified phase diagram for them. Read More

The relativistic mean-field theory with Green's function method is extended to study $\Lambda$ hypernuclei. Taking hypernucleus $^{61}_{\Lambda}$Ca as an example, the single-particle resonant states for $\Lambda$ hyperons are investigated by analyzing density of states and the corresponding energies and widths are given. Different behaviors are observed for the resonant states, i. Read More

In this paper, we propose a Doppler pre-compensation scheme for high-mobility orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) uplink, where a high-speed terminal transmits signals to the base station (BS). Considering that the time-varying multipath channel consists of multiple Doppler frequency offsets (DFOs) with different angle of departures (AoDs), we propose to perform DFO pre-compensation at the transmitter with a large-scale uniform linear array (ULA). The transmitted signal passes through a beamforming network with high-spatial resolution to produce multiple parallel branches. Read More

The relativistic jets created by some active galactic nuclei are important agents of AGN feedback. In spite of this, our understanding of what produces these jets is still incomplete. X-ray observations, which can probe the processes operating in the central regions in immediate vicinity of the supermassive black hole, the presumed jet launching point, are potentially particularly valuable in illuminating the jet formation process. Read More

We develop an empirical behavioural order-driven (EBOD) model, which consists of an order placement process and an order cancellation process. Price limit rules are introduced in the definition of relative price. The order placement process is determined by several empirical regularities: the long memory in order directions, the long memory in relative prices, the asymmetric distribution of relative prices, and the nonlinear dependence of the average order size and its standard deviation on the relative price. Read More

Extreme multi-label learning or classification has been a practical and important problem since the boom of big data. The main challenge lies in the exponential label space which involves 2L possible label sets when the label dimension L is very large e.g. Read More

**Authors:**Qi-Chao Sun, Yang-Fan Jiang, Ya-li Mao, Li-Xing You, Wei Zhang, Wei-Jun Zhang, Xiao Jiang, Teng-Yun Chen, Hao Li, Yi-Dong Huang, Xian-Feng Chen, Zhen Wang, Jingyun Fan, Qiang Zhang, Jian-Wei Pan

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Realizing long distance entanglement swapping with independent sources in the real-world condition is important for both future quantum network and fundamental study of quantum theory. Currently, demonstration over a few of tens kilometer underground optical fiber has been achieved. However, future applications demand entanglement swapping over longer distance with more complicated environment. Read More

**Authors:**Qingyan Wang, Wenhao Zhang, Weiwei Chen, Ying Xing, Yi Sun, Ziqiao Wang, Jia-Wei Mei, Zhengfei Wang, Lili Wang, Xu-Cun Ma, Feng Liu, Qi-Kun Xue, Jian Wang

The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in FeSe/STO has trigged great research interest to reveal a range of exotic physical phenomena in this novel material. Here we present a temperature dependent magnetotransport measurement for ultrathin FeSe/STO films with different thickness and protection layers. Remarkably, a surprising linear magnetoresistance (LMR) is observed around the superconducting transition temperatures but absent otherwise. Read More

Self-adaptive systems are capable of adjusting their behavior to cope with the changes in environment and itself. These changes may cause runtime uncertainty, which refers to the system state of failing to achieve appropriate reconfigurations. However, it is often infeasible to exhaustively anticipate all the changes. Read More

This paper studies the connection between a class of mean-field games and a social welfare optimization problem. We consider a mean-field game in functional spaces with a large population of agents, and each agent seeks to minimize an individual cost function. The cost functions of different agents are coupled through a mean-field term that depends on the mean of the population states. Read More

Market-based coordination of demand side assets has gained great interests in recent years. In spite of its efficiency, there is a risk that the interaction between the dynamic assets through the price signal could result in an unstable closed-loop system. This may cause oscillating power consumption profiles and high volatile energy price. Read More

In this work, a serial on-line cluster reconstruction technique based on FPGA technology was developed to compress experiment data and reduce the dead time of data transmission and storage. At the same time, X-ray imaging experiment based on a two-dimensional positive sensitive triple GEM detector with an effective readout area of 10 cm*10 cm was done to demonstrate this technique with FPGA development board. The result showed that the reconstruction technology was practicality and efficient. Read More

The axis tilt of light beam in optical system would introduce the dispersion of orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum. To deal with it, a two-step method is proposed and demonstrated. First, the tilt angle of optical axis is identified with a deduced relation between the tilt angle and the variation of OAM topological charges with different reference axes, which is obtained with the help of a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Read More

In this paper, we reveal the importance and benefits of introducing second-order operations into deep neural networks. We propose a novel approach named Second-Order Response Transform (SORT), which appends element-wise product transform to the linear sum of a two-branch network module. A direct advantage of SORT is to facilitate cross-branch response propagation, so that each branch can update its weights based on the current status of the other branch. Read More

In many applications, it is often necessary to sample the mean value of certain quantity with respect to a probability measure on a submanifold of $R^n$. By Birkhoff ergodic theorem, one approach is to compute the time average along an infinite long trajectory of an ergodic diffusion process whose invariant measure is the desired one. Motivated by the previous study of Ciccotti, Leli\`{e}vre, and Vanden-Eijnden [6], in this work we construct a family of ergodic diffusion processes on a submanifold whose invariant measures coincide with the given one. Read More

We construct a decomposition procedure for converting split-step quantum walks into ordinary quantum walks with alternating coins, and we show that this decomposition enables a feasible linear optical realization of split-step quantum walks by eliminating quantum-control requirements. As salient applications, we show how our scheme will simulate Majorana modes and edge states. Read More

In this paper we study widely-linear precoding techniques to mitigate in-phase/quadrature-phase (IQ) imbalance (IQI) in the downlink of large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. We adopt a real-valued signal model which takes into account the IQI at the transmitter and then develop widely-linear zero-forcing (WL-ZF), widely-linear matched filter (WL-MF), widely-linear minimum mean-squared error (WL-MMSE) and widely-linear block-diagonalization (WL-BD) type precoding algorithms for both {\color{red} single- and multiple-antenna users.} We also present a performance analysis of WL-ZF and WL-BD. Read More

The success of semi-supervised learning crucially relies on the scalability to a huge amount of unlabelled data that are needed to capture the underlying manifold structure for better classification. Since computing the pairwise similarity between the training data is prohibitively expensive in most kinds of input data, currently, there is no general ready-to-use semi-supervised learning method/tool available for learning with tens of millions or more data points. In this paper, we adopted the idea of two low-rank label propagation algorithms, GLNP (Global Linear Neighborhood Propagation) and Kernel Nystr\"om Approximation, and implemented the parallelized version of the two algorithms accelerated with Nesterov's accelerated projected gradient descent for Big-data Label Propagation (BigLP). Read More

Inspired by a recent paper of Benameur and Heitsch, we generalize the famous result of Gromov and Lawson on the nonexistence of metric of positive scalar curvature on enlargeable manifolds to the case of foliations, without using index theorems on noncompact manifolds. Read More

In this paper, we propose a frequency synchronization scheme for multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) uplink with a large-scale uniform linear array (ULA) at base station (BS) by exploiting the angle information of users. Considering that the incident signal at BS from each user can be restricted within a certain angular spread, the proposed scheme could perform carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation for each user individually through a \textit{joint spatial-frequency alignment} procedure and can be completed efficiently with the aided of fast Fourier transform (FFT). A multi-branch receive beamforming is further designed to yield an equivalent single user transmission model for which the conventional single-user channel estimation and data detection can be carried out. Read More

Pilot contamination attack is an important kind of active eavesdropping activity conducted by a malicious user during channel training phase. In this paper, motivated by the fact that frequency asynchronism could introduce divergence of the transmitted pilot signals between intended user and attacker, we propose a new uncoordinated frequency shift (UFS) scheme for detection of pilot contamination attack in multiple antenna system. An attack detection algorithm is further developed based on source enumeration method. Read More

Both classical and quantum dynamics of the synchronization between two nonlinear mechanical modes scattered from Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) by the standing-wave laser beam are comparatively investigated. As the ultra-low dissipations of the momentum modes in the atomic BECs, the synchronized dynamics are studied in a framework of closed-system theory in order to track down both the classical and the quantum synchronizations from an angle of quantum control. The classical synchronization and the relevant dynamics of measure synchronization, the quantum synchronization and two different types of measures proposed by Mari and estimated by mutual information based on $Q$-function are studied respectively in order to reveal both the macroscopic and the microscopic signatures of synchronized behaviors in a closed quantum system. Read More

One of the most puzzling features of high-temperature cuprate superconductors is the pseudogap state, which appears above the temperature at which superconductivity is destroyed. There remain fundamental questions regarding its nature and its relation to superconductivity. But to address these questions, we must first determine whether the pseudogap and superconducting states share a common property: particle-hole symmetry. Read More

We study the effects of synthetic spin-orbit coupling on the pairing physics in quasi-one-dimensional ultracold Fermi gases of alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms near an orbital Feshbach resonance (OFR). The interplay between spin-orbit coupling and pairing interactions near the OFR leads to an interesting topological Fulde-Ferrell state, where the nontrivial topology of the state is solely encoded in the closed channel with a topologically trivial Fulde-Ferrell pairing in the open channel. We confirm the topological property of the system by characterizing the Zak phase and the edge states. Read More

The general completeness problem of Hoare logic relative to the standard model $N$ of Peano arithmetic has been studied by Cook, and it allows for the use of arbitrary arithmetical formulas as assertions. In practice, the assertions would be simple arithmetical formulas, e.g. Read More

In this paper, we theoretically study the impact of class labels from the perspective of class-aware gradient on training of generative adversarial nets (GANs). Our derivation of the gradient shows how exactly the class label information helps GAN training, and reveals that the current GAN models with labeled data still result in an unclear mixed gradient. We thus propose Activation Maximization GAN (AM-GAN) for a clearer gradient guidance to the generator's optimization, where the key insight is: rather than simply optimizing the generated samples towards the real data distribution, with class information provided, we could dynamically assign each sample a target class and maximize its corresponding activation. Read More

Skin cancer, the most common human malignancy, is primarily diagnosed visually by physicians [1]. Classification with an automated method like CNN [2, 3] shows potential for challenging tasks [1]. By now, the deep convolutional neural networks are on par with human dermatologist [1]. Read More

Understanding structural controllability of a complex network requires to identify a Minimum Input nodes Set (MIS) of the network. It has been suggested that finding an MIS is equivalent to computing a maximum matching of the network, where the unmatched nodes constitute an MIS. However, maximum matching of a network is often not unique, and finding all MISs may provide deep insights to the controllability of the network. Read More

Deep neural networks are playing an important role in state-of-the-art visual recognition. To represent high-level visual concepts, modern networks are equipped with large convolutional layers, which use a large number of filters and contribute significantly to model complexity. For example, more than half of the weights of AlexNet are stored in the first fully-connected layer (4,096 filters). Read More

Considering the problem of color distortion caused by the defogging algorithm based on dark channel prior, an improved algorithm was proposed to calculate the transmittance of all channels respectively. First, incident light frequency's effect on the transmittance of various color channels was analyzed according to the Beer-Lambert's Law, from which a proportion among various channel transmittances was derived; afterwards, images were preprocessed by down-sampling to refine transmittance, and then the original size was restored to enhance the operational efficiency of the algorithm; finally, the transmittance of all color channels was acquired in accordance with the proportion, and then the corresponding transmittance was used for image restoration in each channel. The experimental results show that compared with the existing algorithm, this improved image defogging algorithm could make image colors more natural, solve the problem of slightly higher color saturation caused by the existing algorithm, and shorten the operation time by four to nine times. Read More

Quantum digital signatures (QDS) provide a means for signing electronic communications with informationtheoretic security. However, all previous demonstrations of quantum digital signatures assume trusted measurement devices. This renders them vulnerable against detector side-channel attacks, just like quantum key distribution. Read More

The nonstandard approach to program semantics has successfully resolved the completeness problem of Floyd-Hoare logic. The known versions of nonstandard semantics, the Hungary semantics and axiomatic semantics, are so general that they are absent either from mathematical elegance or from practical usefulness. The aim of this paper is to exhibit a not only mathematically elegant but also practically useful nonstandard semantics. Read More

**Authors:**Francesca M. Fornasini, John A. Tomsick, JaeSub Hong, Eric V. Gotthelf, Franz Bauer, Farid Rahoui, Daniel Stern, Arash Bodaghee, Jeng-Lun Chiu, Maïca Clavel, Jesús M. Corral-Santana, Charles J. Hailey, Roman A. Krivonos, Kaya Mori, David M. Alexander, Didier Barret, Steven E. Boggs, Finn E. Christensen, William W. Craig, Karl Forster, Paolo Giommi, Brian W. Grefenstette, Fiona A. Harrison, Allan Hornstrup, Takao Kitaguchi, J. E. Koglin, Kristin K. Madsen, Peter H. Mao, Hiromasa Miyasaka, Matteo Perri, Michael J. Pivovaroff, Simonetta Puccetti, Vikram Rana, Niels J. Westergaard, William W. Zhang

**Category:**High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena

We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by NuSTAR in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and typical and maximum exposure depths of 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively. Read More

We report a polarized Raman scattering study of non-symmorphic topological insulator KHgSb with hourglass-like electronic dispersion. Supported by theoretical calculations, we show that the lattice of the previously assigned space group $P6_3/mmc$ (No. 194) is unstable in KHgSb. Read More

The impacts that the environment has on the quantum phase transition of light in the DickeBose-Hubbard model are investigated. Based on the quasibosonic approach, mean field theory and the perturbation theory, the formulation of the Hamiltonian, the eigenenergies and the superfluid order parameter are obtained analytically. Compared with the ideal cases, the order parameter of the system evolves with time as the photons naturally decay in their environment. Read More

This paper studies stability analysis of DC microgrids with uncertain constant power loads (CPLs). It is well known that CPLs have negative impedance effects, which may cause instability in a DC microgrid. Existing works often study the stability around a given equilibrium based on some nominal values of CPLs. Read More

Colorization of grayscale images has been a hot topic in computer vision. Previous research mainly focuses on producing a colored image to match the original one. However, since many colors share the same gray value, an input grayscale image could be diversely colored while maintaining its reality. Read More