# Vittorio Giovannetti

## Contact Details

NameVittorio Giovannetti |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (50) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (13) Mathematical Physics (13) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (8) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (5) Mathematics - Probability (3) Mathematics - Information Theory (3) Computer Science - Information Theory (3) Physics - Other (2) Physics - Superconductivity (1) Physics - Optics (1) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1) High Energy Physics - Theory (1) |

## Publications Authored By Vittorio Giovannetti

We develop a perturbation theory of quantum (and classical) master equations with slowly varying parameters, applicable to systems which are externally controlled on a time scale much longer than their characteristic relaxation time. We apply this technique to the analysis of finite-time isothermal processes in which, differently from quasi-static transformations, the state of the system is not able to continuously relax to the equilibrium ensemble. Our approach allows to formally evaluate perturbations up to arbitrary order to the work and heat exchange associated to an arbitrary process. Read More

We consider an instance of "black-box" quantum metrology in the Gaussian framework, where we aim to estimate the amount of squeezing applied on an input probe, without previous knowledge on the direction of application. By taking the quantum Fisher information (QFI) as figure of merit, we evaluate its average and variance with respect to this phase in order to identify probe states that yield good precision for many different squeezing directions. We first consider the case of single-mode Gaussian probes with the same energy, and find that pure squeezed states maximize the average quantum Fisher information (AvQFI) at the cost of a performance that oscillates strongly as the squeezing direction is changed. Read More

A class of Adaptive Decoders (AD's) for coherent-state sequences is studied, including in particular the most common technology for optical-signal processing, e.g., interferometers, coherent displacements and photon-counting detectors. Read More

In this work we consider quantum cascade networks in which quantum systems are connected through unidirectional channels that can mutually interact giving rise to interference effects. In particular we show how to compute master equations for cascade systems in an arbitrary interferometric configuration by means of a collisional model. We apply our general theory to two specific examples: the first consists in two systems arranged in a Mach-Zender-like configuration; the second is a three system network where it is possible to tune the effective chiral interactions between the nodes exploiting interference effects. Read More

The relaxation of a system to a steady state is a central point of interest in many attempts to advance control over the quantum world. In this paper, we consider control through instantaneous Gaussian unitary operations on the ubiquitous lossy channel, and find locally optimal conditions for the cooling and heating of a multimode Gaussian state subject to losses. This is done by isolating the parameters that encode entropy and temperature and by deriving an equation for their evolution. Read More

We study the efficiency of estimation procedures where the temperature of an external bath is indirectly recovered by monitoring the transformations induced on a probing system that is put in thermal contact with the bath. In particular we compare the performances of sequential measurement schemes where the probe is initialized only once and measured repeatedly during its interaction with the bath, with those of measure & re-prepare approaches where instead, after each interaction-and-measurement stage, the probe is reinitialized into the same fiduciary state. From our analysis it is revealed that the sequential approach, while being in general not capable of providing the best accuracy achievable, is nonetheless more versatile with respect to the choice of the initial state of the probe, yielding on average smaller indetermination levels. Read More

In a recent work [D. K. Burgarth et al. Read More

A method to compute the optimal success probability of discrimination of N arbitrary quantum states is presented, based on the decomposition of any N-outcome measurement into sequences of nested two-outcome ones. In this way the optimization of the measurement operators can be carried out in successive steps, optimizing first the binary measurements at the deepest nesting level and then moving on to those at higher levels. We obtain an analytical expression for the maximum success probability after the first optimization step and examine its form for the specific case of N=3,4 states of a qubit. Read More

The ultimate precision of any measurement of the temperature of a quantum system is the inverse of the local quantum thermal susceptibility [De Pasquale et al., Nature Communications 7, 12782 (2016)] of the subsystem with whom the thermometer interacts. If we have access to the global system, in a thermal (Gibbs) state, such quantity reduces to the variance of the system Hamiltonian, endowed with clear thermodynamical interpretation: it corresponds to the heat capacity of the system. Read More

We prove that Gaussian states saturate the p->q norms of the one-mode quantum-limited attenuator and amplifier. The proof starts from the majorization result of De Palma et al., IEEE Trans. Read More

We prove the longstanding conjecture stating that Gaussian thermal input states minimize the output von Neumann entropy of one-mode phase-covariant quantum Gaussian channels among all the input states with a given entropy. Phase-covariant quantum Gaussian channels model the attenuation and the noise that affect any electromagnetic signal in the quantum regime. Our result is crucial to prove the converse theorems for both the triple trade-off region and the capacity region for broadcast communication of the Gaussian quantum-limited amplifier. Read More

A scheme for transferring classical information over a lossy bosonic channel is proposed by generalizing the proposal presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. Read More

We prove that Gaussian thermal input states minimize the output von Neumann entropy of the one-mode Gaussian quantum-limited attenuator for fixed input entropy. The Gaussian quantum-limited attenuator models the attenuation of an electromagnetic signal in the quantum regime. The Shannon entropy of an attenuated real-valued classical signal is a simple function of the entropy of the original signal. Read More

The distribution of entangled quantum systems among two or more nodes of a network is a key task at the basis of quantum communication, quantum computation and quantum cryptography. Unfortunately the transmission lines used in this procedure can introduce so much perturbations and noise in the transmitted signal that prevent the possibility of restoring quantum correlations in the received messages either by means of encoding optimization or by exploiting local operations and classical communication. In this work we present a procedure which allows one to improve the performance of some of these channels. Read More

According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i. Read More

The passive states of a quantum system minimize the average energy among all the states with a given spectrum. We prove that passive states are the optimal inputs of single-jump lossy quantum channels. These channels arise from a weak interaction of the quantum system of interest with a large Markovian bath in its ground state, such that the interaction Hamiltonian couples only consecutive energy eigenstates of the system. Read More

A scheme for the detection of low-intensity optical coherent signals was studied which uses a probabilistic amplifier operated in the non-heralded version, as the underlying non-linear operation to improve the detection efficiency. This approach allows us to improve the statistics by keeping track of all possible outcomes of the amplification stage (including failures). When compared with an optimized Kennedy receiver, the resulting discrimination success probability we obtain presents a gain up to ~1. Read More

On the basis of the quantum Zeno effect it has been recently shown [D. K. Burgarth et al. Read More

In this work we address the problem of realizing a reliable quantum memory based on zero-energy Majorana modes in the presence of experimental constraints on the operations aimed at recovering the information. In particular, we characterize the best recovery operation acting only on the zero-energy Majorana modes and the memory fidelity that can be therewith achieved. In order to understand the effect of such restriction, we discuss two examples of noise models acting on the topological system and compare the amount of information that can be recovered by accessing either the whole system, or the zero-modes only, with particular attention to the scaling with the size of the system and the energy gap. Read More

An ordering between the quantum states emerging from a single mode gauge-covariant bosonic Gaussian channel is proven. Specifically, we show that within the set of input density matrices with the same given spectrum, the element passive with respect to the Fock basis (i.e. Read More

We realize a nanoscale-area Mach-Zehnder interferometer with co-propagating quantum Hall spin-resolved edge states and demonstrate the persistence of gate-controlled quantum interference oscillations, as a function of an applied magnetic field, at relatively large temperatures. Arrays of top-gate magnetic nanofingers are used to induce a resonant charge transfer between the pair of spin-resolved edge states. To account for the pattern of oscillations measured as a function of magnetic field and gate voltage, we have developed a simple theoretical model which satisfactorily reproduces the data. Read More

We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information, a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Read More

We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. Read More

The problem of estimating a parameter of a quantum system through a series of measurements performed sequentially on a quantum probe is analyzed in the general setting where the underlying statistics is explicitly non-i.i.d. Read More

We present a quantifier of non-classical correlations for bipartite, multi-mode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in A. Farace et al. Read More

Under the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH), quantum-quenched systems equilibrate towards canonical, thermal ensembles. While at first glance the ETH might seem a very strong hypothesis, we show that it is indeed not only sufficient but also necessary for thermalization. More specifically, we consider systems coupled to baths with well-defined macroscopic temperature and show that whenever all product states thermalize then the ETH must hold. Read More

We present a new decoding protocol to realize transmission of classical information through a quantum channel at asymptotically maximum capacity, achieving the Holevo bound and thus the optimal communication rate. At variance with previous proposals, our scheme recovers the message bit by bit, making use of a series "yes-no" measurements, organized in bisection fashion, thus determining which codeword was sent in log(N) steps, N being the number of codewords. Read More

There is growing experimental interest in coupling cavity photons to the cyclotron resonance excitations of electron liquids in high-mobility semiconductor quantum wells or graphene sheets. These media offer unique platforms to carry out fundamental studies of exciton-polariton condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics in a regime in which electron-electron interactions are expected to play a pivotal role. Focusing on graphene, we present a theoretical study of the impact of electron-electron interactions on a quantum Hall polariton fluid, that is a fluid of magneto-excitons resonantly coupled to cavity photons. Read More

The set of Entanglement Saving (ES) quantum channels is introduced and characterized. These are completely positive, trace preserving transformations which when acting locally on a bipartite quantum system initially prepared into a maximally entangled configuration, preserve its entanglement even when applied an arbitrary number of times. In other words, a quantum channel $\psi$ is said to be ES if its powers $\psi^n$ are not entanglement-breaking for all integers $n$. Read More

Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem: what is the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing? Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Read More

We give a consistent quantum description of time, based on Page and Wootters' conditional probabilities mechanism, that overcomes the criticisms that were raised against similar previous proposals. In particular we show how the model allows to reproduce the correct statistics of sequential measurements performed on a system at different times. Read More

We search for the optimal quantum pure states of identical bosonic particles for applications in quantum metrology, in particular in the estimation of a single parameter for the generic two-mode interferometric setup. We consider the general case in which the total number of particles is fluctuating around an average $N$ with variance $\Delta N^2$. By recasting the problem in the framework of classical probability, we clarify the maximal accuracy attainable and show that it is always larger than the one reachable with a fixed number of particles (i. Read More

In a multi-terminal setup, when time-reversal symmetry is broken by a magnetic field, the heat flows can be managed by designing a device with programmable Boolean behavior. We show that such device can be used to implement operations like on/off switching, reversal, selected splitting and swap of the heat currents. For each feature, the switching from one working condition to the other is obtained by inverting the magnetic field. Read More

In a multi-terminal device the (electronic) heat and charge currents can follow different paths. In this paper we introduce and analyse a class of multi-terminal devices where this property is pushed to its extreme limits, with charge $and$ heat currents flowing in different reservoirs. After introducing the main characteristics of such $heat-charge$ $current$ $separation$ regime we show how to realise it in a multi-terminal device with normal and superconducting leads. Read More

In this paper we explore the set of linear maps sending the set of quantum Gaussian states into itself. These maps are in general not positive, a feature which can be exploited as a test to check whether a given quantum state belongs to the convex hull of Gaussian states (if one of the considered maps sends it into a non positive operator, the above state is certified not to belong to the set). Generalizing a result known to be valid under the assumption of complete positivity, we provide a characterization of these Gaussian-to-Gaussian (not necessarily positive) superoperators in terms of their action on the characteristic function of the inputs. Read More

We study optimal control strategies to optimize the relaxation rate towards the fixed point of a quantum system in the presence of a non-Markovian dissipative bath. Contrary to naive expectations that suggest that memory effects might be exploited to improve optimal control effectiveness, non-Markovian effects influence the optimal strategy in a non trivial way: we present a necessary condition to be satisfied so that the effectiveness of optimal control is enhanced by non-Markovianity subject to suitable unitary controls. For illustration, we specialize our findings for the case of the dynamics of single qubit amplitude damping channels. Read More

An all-optical scheme for simulating non-Markovian evolution of a quantum system is proposed. It uses only linear optics elements and by controlling the system parameters allows one to control the presence or absence of information backflow from the environment. A sufficient and necessary condition for the non-Markovianity of our channel based on Gaussian inputs is proved. Read More

We study the dynamics of heat flux in the thermalization process of a pair of identical quantum system that interact dissipatively with a reservoir in a {\it cascaded} fashion. Despite the open dynamics of the bipartite system S is globally Lindbladian, one of the subsystems "sees" the reservoir in a state modified by the interaction with the other subsystem and hence it undergoes a non-Markovian dynamics. As a consequence, the heat flow exhibits a non-exponential time behaviour which can greatly deviate from the case where each party is independently coupled to the reservoir. Read More

We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement--breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate ({\it filtering}) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. Read More

We present a novel discussion of the continuous-time quantum error correction introduced by Paz and Zurek in 1998 [Paz and Zurek, Proc. R. Soc. Read More

The problem of Hamiltonian purification introduced by Burgarth et al. [D. K. Read More

We study the thermopower of a three-terminal setup composed of a quantum dot attached to three electrodes, one of which is a topological superconductor. In the model, superconductivity is explicitly taken into account. We compare the results for s-wave (trivial) and p-wave (topological) superconductors and observe that for small temperatures the thermopower has different sign in the two cases. Read More

We consider the problem of time optimal control of a continuous bosonic quantum system subject to the action of a Markovian dissipation. In particular, we consider the case of a one mode Gaussian quantum system prepared in an arbitrary initial state and which relaxes to the steady state due to the action of the dissipative channel. We assume that the unitary part of the dynamics is represented by Gaussian operations which preserve the Gaussian nature of the quantum state, i. Read More

The quantum version of a fundamental entropic data-processing inequality is presented. It establishes a lower bound for the entropy that can be generated in the output channels of a scattering process, which involves a collection of independent input bosonic modes (e.g. Read More

We study two different models of optomechanical systems where a temperature gradient between two radiation baths is exploited for inducing self-sustained coherent oscillations of a mechanical resonator. Viewed from a thermodynamic perspective, such systems represent quantum instances of self-contained thermal machines converting heat into a periodic mechanical motion and thus they can be interpreted as nano-scale analogues of macroscopic piston engines. Our models are potentially suitable for testing fundamental aspects of quantum thermodynamics in the laboratory and for applications in energy efficient nanotechnology. Read More

The classical capacity of phase-invariant Gaussian channels has been recently determined under the assumption that such channels are memoryless. In this work we generalize this result by deriving the classical capacity of a model of quantum memory channel, in which the output states depend on the previous input states. In particular we extend the analysis of [C. Read More

The efficiency of a thermal engine working in linear response regime in a multi-terminals configuration is discussed. For the generic three-terminal case, we provide a general definition of local and non-local transport coefficients: electrical and thermal conductances, and thermoelectric powers. Within the Onsager formalism, we derive analytical expressions for the efficiency at maximum power, which can be written in terms of generalized figures of merit. Read More

We show that mere observation of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into a universal quantum computation. This effect, which occurs if the system is regularly observed at short time intervals, can be rephrased as a modern version of Plato's Cave allegory. More precisely, while in the original version of the myth, the reality perceived within the Cave is described by the projected shadows of some more fundamental dynamics which is intrinsically more complex, we found that in the quantum world the situation changes drastically as the "projected" reality perceived through sequences of measurements can be more complex than the one that originated it. Read More

In most communication schemes information is transmitted via travelling modes of electromagnetic radiation. These modes are unavoidably subject to environmental noise along any physical transmission medium and the quality of the communication channel strongly depends on the minimum noise achievable at the output. For classical signals such noise can be rigorously quantified in terms of the associated Shannon entropy and it is subject to a fundamental lower bound called entropy power inequality. Read More

We report on the theoretical analysis of bosonic and fermionic non-interacting systems in a discrete two-particle quantum walk affected by different kinds of disorder. We considered up to 100-step QWs with a spatial, temporal and space-temporal disorder observing how the randomness and the wavefunction symmetry non-trivially affect the final spatial probability distribution, the transport properties and the Shannon entropy of the walkers. Read More