Vittorio Ferrari

Vittorio Ferrari
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Vittorio Ferrari

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Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (24)
Computer Science - Learning (1)

Publications Authored By Vittorio Ferrari

Training object class detectors typically requires a large set of images with objects annotated by bounding boxes. However, manually drawing bounding boxes is very time consuming. In this paper we greatly reduce annotation time by proposing center-click annotations: we ask annotators to click on the center of an imaginary bounding box which tightly encloses the object instance. Read More

We present a semantic part detection approach that effectively leverages object information. We use the object appearance and its class as indicators of what parts to expect. We also model the expected relative location of parts inside the objects based on their appearance. Read More

We propose to help weakly supervised object localization for classes where location annotations are not available, by transferring things and stuff knowledge from a source set with available annotations. The source and target classes might share similar appearance (e.g. Read More

Semantic classes can be either things (objects with a well-defined shape, e.g. car, person) or stuff (amorphous background regions, e. Read More

We propose a technique to train semantic part-based models of object classes from Google Images. Our models encompass the appearance of parts and their spatial arrangement on the object, specific to each viewpoint. We learn these rich models by collecting training instances for both parts and objects, and automatically connecting the two levels. Read More

We present a technique for weakly supervised object localization (WSOL), building on the observation that WSOL algorithms usually work better on images with bigger objects. Instead of training the object detector on the entire training set at the same time, we propose a curriculum learning strategy to feed training images into the WSOL learning loop in an order from images containing bigger objects down to smaller ones. To automatically determine the order, we train a regressor to estimate the size of the object given the whole image as input. Read More

We propose a novel method for semantic segmentation, the task of labeling each pixel in an image with a semantic class. Our method combines the advantages of the two main competing paradigms. Methods based on region classification offer proper spatial support for appearance measurements, but typically operate in two separate stages, none of which targets pixel labeling performance at the end of the pipeline. Read More

Semantic object parts can be useful for several visual recognition tasks. Lately, these tasks have been addressed using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), achieving outstanding results. In this work we study whether CNNs learn semantic parts in their internal representation. Read More

We present a method for training CNN-based object class detectors directly using mean average precision (mAP) as the training loss, in a truly end-to-end fashion that includes non-maximum suppression (NMS) at training time. This contrasts with the traditional approach of training a CNN for a window classification loss, then applying NMS only at test time, when mAP is used as the evaluation metric in place of classification accuracy. However, mAP following NMS forms a piecewise-constant structured loss over thousands of windows, with gradients that do not convey useful information for gradient descent. Read More

Training object class detectors typically requires a large set of images in which objects are annotated by bounding-boxes. However, manually drawing bounding-boxes is very time consuming. We propose a new scheme for training object detectors which only requires annotators to verify bounding-boxes produced automatically by the learning algorithm. Read More

We propose an automatic system for organizing the content of a collection of unstructured videos of an articulated object class (e.g. tiger, horse). Read More

Minimisation of discrete energies defined over factors is an important problem in computer vision, and a vast number of MAP inference algorithms have been proposed. Different inference algorithms perform better on factor graph models (GMs) from different underlying problem classes, and in general it is difficult to know which algorithm will yield the lowest energy for a given GM. To mitigate this difficulty, survey papers advise the practitioner on what algorithms perform well on what classes of models. Read More

Semantic segmentation is the task of assigning a class-label to each pixel in an image. We propose a region-based semantic segmentation framework which handles both full and weak supervision, and addresses three common problems: (1) Objects occur at multiple scales and therefore we should use regions at multiple scales. However, these regions are overlapping which creates conflicting class predictions at the pixel-level. Read More

The semantic image segmentation task presents a trade-off between test time accuracy and training-time annotation cost. Detailed per-pixel annotations enable training accurate models but are very time-consuming to obtain, image-level class labels are an order of magnitude cheaper but result in less accurate models. We take a natural step from image-level annotation towards stronger supervision: we ask annotators to point to an object if one exists. Read More

Intuitively, the appearance of true object boundaries varies from image to image. Hence the usual monolithic approach of training a single boundary predictor and applying it to all images regardless of their content is bound to be suboptimal. In this paper we therefore propose situational object boundary detection: We first define a variety of situations and train a specialized object boundary detector for each of them using [Dollar and Zitnick 2013]. Read More

We present a method for calibrating the Ensemble of Exemplar SVMs model. Unlike the standard approach, which calibrates each SVM independently, our method optimizes their joint performance as an ensemble. We formulate joint calibration as a constrained optimization problem and devise an efficient optimization algorithm to find its global optimum. Read More

We present Context Forest (ConF), a technique for predicting properties of the objects in an image based on its global appearance. Compared to standard nearest-neighbour techniques, ConF is more accurate, fast and memory efficient. We train ConF to predict which aspects of an object class are likely to appear in a given image (e. Read More

We propose a method for annotating the location of objects in ImageNet. Traditionally, this is cast as an image window classification problem, where each window is considered independently and scored based on its appearance alone. Instead, we propose a method which scores each candidate window in the context of all other windows in the image, taking into account their similarity in appearance space as well as their spatial relations in the image plane. Read More

Object detection is one of the most important challenges in computer vision. Object detectors are usually trained on bounding-boxes from still images. Recently, video has been used as an alternative source of data. Read More

Object class detectors typically apply a window classifier to all the windows in a large set, either in a sliding window manner or using object proposals. In this paper, we develop an active search strategy that sequentially chooses the next window to evaluate based on all the information gathered before. This results in a substantial reduction in the number of classifier evaluations and in a more elegant approach in general. Read More

Given unstructured videos of deformable objects, we automatically recover spatiotemporal correspondences to map one object to another (such as animals in the wild). While traditional methods based on appearance fail in such challenging conditions, we exploit consistency in object motion between instances. Our approach discovers pairs of short video intervals where the object moves in a consistent manner and uses these candidates as seeds for spatial alignment. Read More

We propose an unsupervised approach for discovering characteristic motion patterns in videos of highly articulated objects performing natural, unscripted behaviors, such as tigers in the wild. We discover consistent patterns in a bottom-up manner by analyzing the relative displacements of large numbers of ordered trajectory pairs through time, such that each trajectory is attached to a different moving part on the object. The pairs of trajectories descriptor relies entirely on motion and is more discriminative than state-of-the-art features that employ single trajectories. Read More

We present LS-CRF, a new method for very efficient large-scale training of Conditional Random Fields (CRFs). It is inspired by existing closed-form expressions for the maximum likelihood parameters of a generative graphical model with tree topology. LS-CRF training requires only solving a set of independent regression problems, for which closed-form expression as well as efficient iterative solvers are available. Read More

We propose a method for knowledge transfer between semantically related classes in ImageNet. By transferring knowledge from the images that have bounding-box annotations to the others, our method is capable of automatically populating ImageNet with many more bounding-boxes and even pixel-level segmentations. The underlying assumption that objects from semantically related classes look alike is formalized in our novel Associative Embedding (AE) representation. Read More