Ulrich Nierste - TU Munich

Ulrich Nierste
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Ulrich Nierste
TU Munich

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (50)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (10)
High Energy Physics - Lattice (1)

Publications Authored By Ulrich Nierste

This talk addresses two topics related to CP asymmetries in $D$ meson decays to two pseudoscalar mesons. First I discuss how new physics can be distinguished from the Standard Model through two sum rules relating three direct CP asymmetries each, using the sum rule correlating $D^0\to K^+K^-$, $D^0\to \pi^+ \pi^-$, and $D^0\to \pi^0 \pi^0$ for illustration. The other sum rule involves $a_{CP}^{\mathrm{dir}}(D^+\rightarrow \bar{K}^0K^+)$, $a_{CP}^{\mathrm{dir}}(D_s^+\rightarrow K^0\pi^+)$, and $a_{CP}^{\mathrm{dir}}(D_s^+\to K^+ \pi^0)$. Read More

The mixing-induced CP asymmetries in $B_d \to J/\psi K_S$ and $B_s \to J/\psi \phi$ are essential to detect or constrain new physics in the $B_d\! - \overline{\!B}{}_d$ and $B_s\! - \overline{\!B}{}_s$ mixing amplitudes, respectively. To this end one must control the penguin contributions to the decay amplitudes, which affect the extraction of fundamental CP phases from the measured CP asymmetries. Although the "penguin pollution" is doubly Cabibbo-suppressed, it could compete in size with current experimental errors. Read More

The Standard-Model (SM) prediction for the CP-violating quantity $\epsilon_K^{\prime}/\epsilon_K$ deviates from its measured value by 2.8 $\sigma$. It has been shown that this tension can be resolved within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) through gluino-squark box diagrams, even if squarks and gluinos are much heavier than 1 TeV. Read More

The quantities $\epsilon_K^\prime$ and $\epsilon_K$ measure the amount of direct and indirect CP violation in $K\to \pi\pi$ decays, respectively. Using the recent lattice results from the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations and a new compact implementation of the $\Delta S=1$ renormalization group evolution we predict $ \mbox{Re}\, \frac{\epsilon_{K}'}{\epsilon_{K}} = \left(1.06 \pm 5. Read More

Using the recent first lattice results of the RBC-UKQCD collaboration for $K \to \pi\pi$ decays, we perform a phenomenological analysis of $\epsilon_K^{\prime}/\epsilon_K$ and find a discrepancy between SM prediction and experiments by $\sim 3\,\sigma$. We discuss an explanation by new physics. The well-understood value of $\epsilon_K$, which quantifies indirect $CP$ violation, however, typically prevents large new physics contributions to $\epsilon_K^{\prime}/\epsilon_K$. Read More

The standard analytic solution of the renormalization group (RG) evolution for the $\Delta S = 1$ Wilson coefficients involves several singularities, which complicate analytic solutions. In this paper we derive a singularity-free solution of the next-to-leading order (NLO) RG equations, which greatly facilitates the calculation of $\epsilon_K^{\prime}$, the measure of direct $CP$ violation in $K\to \pi\pi$ decays. Using our new RG evolution and the latest lattice results for the hadronic matrix elements, we calculate the ratio $\epsilon_{K}^{\prime}/\epsilon_{K}$ (with $\epsilon_{K}$ quantifying indirect $CP$ violation) in the Standard Model (SM) at NLO to $\epsilon_{K}^{\prime}/\epsilon_{K} = (1. Read More

Recent progress in the determination of hadronic matrix elements has revealed a tension between the measured value of $\epsilon_K^{\prime}/\epsilon_K$, which quantifies direct $CP$ violation in $K \to \pi\pi$ decays, and the Standard-Model prediction. The well-understood indirect $CP$ violation encoded in the quantity $\epsilon_K$ typically precludes large new-physics contributions to $\epsilon_K^{\prime}/\epsilon_K$ and challenges such an explanation of the discrepancy. We show that it is possible to cure the $\epsilon_K^{\prime}/\epsilon_K$ anomaly in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with squark masses above 3 TeV without overshooting $\epsilon_K$. Read More

The direct CP asymmetry $a_{CP}^{\mathrm{dir}}(D^0\rightarrow K_SK_S)$ involves exchange diagrams which are induced at tree level in the Standard Model. Since the corresponding topological amplitude $E_{KK}$ can be large, $D^0\rightarrow K_SK_S$ is a promising discovery channel for charm CP violation. We estimate the penguin annihilation amplitude with a perturbative calculation and extract the exchange amplitude $E_{KK}$ from a global fit to $D$ branching ratios. Read More

We find new sum rules between direct CP asymmetries in $D$ meson decays with coefficients that can be determined from a global fit to branching ratio data. Our sum rules eliminate the penguin topologies $P$ and $PA$, which cannot be determined from branching ratios. In this way we can make predictions about direct CP asymmetries in the standard model without ad hoc assumptions on the sizes of penguin diagrams. Read More

LHCb has reported deviations from the Standard Model in $b\to s\mu^+\mu^-$ transitions for which a new neutral gauge boson is a prime candidate for an explanation. As this gauge boson has to couple in a flavour non-universal way to muons and electrons in order to explain $R_K$, it is interesting to examine the possibility that also lepton flavour is violated, especially in the light of the CMS excess in $h\to\tau^\pm\mu^\mp$. In this article, we investigate the perspectives to discover the lepton-flavour violating modes $B\to K^{(*)}\tau^\pm\mu^\mp$, $B_s\to \tau^\pm\mu^\mp$ and $B\to K^{(*)} \mu^\pm e^\mp$, $B_s\to \mu^\pm e^\mp$. Read More

We study decays of $D^0$, $D^+$, and $D_s^+$ mesons into two pseudoscalar mesons by expressing the decay amplitudes in terms of topological amplitudes. Including consistently SU(3)$_F$ breaking to linear order, we show how the topological-amplitude decomposition can be mapped onto the standard expansion using reduced amplitudes characterized by SU(3) representations. The tree and annihilation amplitudes can be calculated in factorization up to corrections which are quadratic in the color-counting parameter $1/N_c$. Read More

The precision of the CP phases $2\beta$ and $2\beta_s$ determined from the mixing-induced CP asymmetries in $B_d\to J/\psi K_S$ and $B_s\to J/\psi \phi$, respectively, is limited by the unknown long-distance contribution of a penguin diagram involving up quarks. The penguin contribution is expected to be comparable in size to the precision of the LHCb and Belle II experiments and therefore limits the sensitivity of the measured quantities to new physics. We analyze the infrared QCD structure of this contribution and find that all soft and collinear divergences either cancel between different diagrams or factorize into matrix elements of local four-quark operators up to terms suppressed by $\Lambda_{QCD}/m_{\psi}$, where $m_{\psi}$ denotes the $J/\psi$ mass. Read More

The parameters of the Higgs potential of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) receive large radiative corrections which lift the mass of the lightest Higgs boson to the measured value of 126 GeV. Depending on the MSSM parameters, these radiative corrections may also lead to the situation that the local minimum corresponding to the electroweak vacuum state is not the global minimum of the Higgs potential. We analyze the stability of the vacuum for the case of heavy squark masses as favored by current LHC data. Read More

The search for additional Higgs particles and the exact measurements of Higgs (self-) couplings is a major goal of future collider experiments. In this paper we investigate the possible sizes of new physics signals in these searches in the context of the $CP$-conserving two-Higgs doublet model of type II. Using current constraints from flavour, electroweak precision, and Higgs signal strength data, we determine the allowed sizes of the triple Higgs couplings and the branching fractions of the heavy Higgs bosons into lighter Higgs bosons. Read More

We determine the allowed parameter space of the CP-conserving two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) of type II with a softly broken Z_2 symmetry. Our analysis includes theoretical constraints from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as experimental constraints from signal strengths of the 126 GeV Higgs boson, the non-observation of additional Higgs resonances and electroweak precision and flavour observables. If the 126 GeV resonance is interpreted as the light CP-even Higgs boson of the 2HDM our analysis shows that scenarios where the couplings of this boson deviate substantially from those of the SM Higgs boson are disfavoured at one standard deviation and completely excluded for small values of tan(beta). Read More

In this talk I review the status of B mixing in the Standard Model and the room for new physics in B_s and B_d mixing in the light of recent LHCb data. Read More

I present numerical updates of the Standard-Model predictions for the mass and width differences and the CP asymmetries in flavor-specific decays in Bs-Bs-bar and Bd-Bd-bar mixing. Then I discuss the current status of new physics in these mixing amplitudes. Read More

We perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the standard model (SM) with three and four generations using the latest Higgs search results from LHC and Tevatron, the electroweak precision observables (EWPOs) measured at LEP and SLD and the latest determinations of M_W, m_t and alpha_s. For the three-generation case we analyse the tensions in the electroweak fit by removing individual observables from the fit and comparing their predicted values with the measured ones. In particular, we discuss the impact of the Higgs search results on the deviations of the EWPOs from their best-fit values. Read More

We perform a global fit of the parameters of the Standard Model with a sequential fourth generation (SM4) to LHC and Tevatron Higgs data and electroweak precision data. Using several likelihood ratio tests we compare the performance of the SM4 and SM3 at describing the measured data. Since the SM3 and SM4 are not nested (i. Read More

We analyse the impact of LHC and Tevatron Higgs data on the viability of the Standard Model with a sequential fourth generation (SM4), assuming Dirac neutrinos and a Higgs mass of 125 GeV. To this end we perform a combined fit to the signal cross sections of pp -> H -> gamma gamma,ZZ*,WW* at the LHC, to p pbar -> VH -> V b bbar (V = W, Z) at the Tevatron and to the electroweak precision observables. Fixing the mass of the fourth generation down-type quark b' to 600 GeV we find best-fit values of m_t' = 632 GeV, m_l4 = 113. Read More

The quantity R_K = Gamma(K -> e nu)/Gamma(K -> mu nu) studied by the experiment NA62 at CERN is known to probe lepton-flavour violating (LFV) parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). A non-zero parameter delta_{RR}^{13} can open the decay channel K -> e nu_tau and enhance R_K over its Standard-Model value. In the region of the parameter space probed by NA62 the contribution from a bino-stau loop diagram is numerically dominant and the mixing between left-handed and right-handed staus is important. Read More

In this article we review the phenomenological consequences of radiative flavor-violation (RFV) in the MSSM. In the model under consideration the U(3)^3 flavor symmetry of the gauge sector is broken in a first step to U(2)^3 by the top and bottom Yukawa couplings of the superpotential (and possibly also by the bilinear SUSY-breaking terms). In a second step the remaining U(2)^3 flavor symmetry is softly broken by the trilinear A-terms in order to obtain the measured quark masses and the CKM matrix of the Standard Model (SM) at low energies. Read More

A global fit to quark flavour-physics data disfavours the Standard Model with 3.6 standard deviations and points towards new CP-violating physics in meson-antimeson mixing amplitudes. Tevatron data call for a new Bs-Bs-bar mixing phase and new physics in Bd-Bd-bar mixing alleviates the tension on the unitarity triangle driven by B(B-> tau nu). Read More

In this article we investigate the consequences of radiative flavor violation (RFV) in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this framework the small off-diagonal elements of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix and the small quark masses of the first two generations are generated from the trilinear supersymmetry-breaking terms. The impact of RFV on flavor-physics observables is studied in detail. Read More

We update the Standard-Model predictions for several quantities related to $B_s - \bar B_s$ and $B_d - \bar B_d$ mixing. The mass and width differences in the $B_s$ system read $ \Delta M_s^{\rm SM} = (17.3 \pm 2. Read More

In supersymmetric grand-unified models, the lepton mixing matrix can possibly affect flavor-changing transitions in the quark sector. We present a detailed analysis of a model proposed by Chang, Masiero and Murayama, in which the near-maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle governs large new b -> s transitions. Relating the supersymmetric low-energy parameters to seven new parameters of this SO(10) GUT model, we perform a correlated study of several flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) processes. Read More

We study the interplay between a soft muon Yukawa coupling generated radiatively with the trilinear A-terms of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. In the absence of a tree-level muon Yukawa coupling the lightest smuon mass is predicted to be in the range between 750 GeV and 2700 GeV at 2 sigma, if the bino mass M_1 is below 1 TeV. Therefore, a detection of a smuon (in conjunction with a sub-TeV bino) at the LHC would directly imply a non-zero muon Yukawa coupling in the MSSM superpotential. Read More

I review recent progress in theoretical calculations related to the CKM unitarity triangle. After briefly discussing hints for new physics in B_d-B_d-bar mixing and B_s-B_s-bar mixing I present three topics of MSSM flavor physics: First I discuss new tan-beta-enhanced radiative corrections to flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) amplitudes which go beyond the familiar Higgs-mediated FCNC diagrams and may enhance the mixing-induced CP asymmetry in B_d -> phi K_S. The second topic is a reappraisal of the idea that flavor violation originates from the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms. Read More

We derive new constraints on the quantities delta_{XY}^{ij}, X,Y=L,R, which parametrise the flavour-off-diagonal terms of the charged slepton mass matrix in the MSSM. Considering mass and anomalous magnetic moment of the electron we obtain the bound |delta^{13}_{LL} delta^{13}_{RR}|<0.1 for tan beta=50, which involves the poorly constrained element delta^{13}_{RR}. Read More

We present results of our study of tan(beta)-enhanced loop corrections in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV). We demonstrate that these corrections induce flavour changing neutral current (FCNC) gluino couplings which have a large impact on the Wilson coefficient C_8 of the chromomagnetic operator. To illustrate the phenomenological consequences of this gluino-squark contribution to C_8, we briefly discuss its effect on the mixing-induced CP asymmetry in the decay B_d -> phi K_S. Read More

Chirally enhanced supersymmetric QCD corrections to FCNC processes are investigated in the framework of the MSSM with generic sources of flavor violation. These corrections arise from flavor-changing self-energy diagrams and can be absorbed into a finite renormalization of the squark-quark-gluino vertex. In this way enhanced two-loop and even three-loop diagrams can be efficiently included into a leading-order (LO) calculation. Read More

We study the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with Minimal Flavour Violation for the case of a large parameter tanbeta and arbitrary values of the supersymmetric mass parameters. We derive several resummation formulae for tanbeta-enhanced loop corrections, which were previously only known in the limit of supersymmetric masses far above the electroweak scale. Studying first the renormalisation-scheme dependence of the resummation formula for the bottom Yukawa coupling, we clarify the use of the sbottom mixing angle in the supersymmetric loop factor Delta_b. Read More

I give an introduction to the theory of meson-antimeson mixing, aiming at students who plan to work at a flavour physics experiment or intend to do associated theoretical studies. I derive the formulae for the time evolution of a neutral meson system and show how the mass and width differences among the neutral meson eigenstates and the CP phase in mixing are calculated in the Standard Model. Special emphasis is laid on CP violation, which is covered in detail for K mixing, Bd mixing and Bs mixing. Read More

We match the Higgs sector of the most general flavour breaking and CP violating minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) onto a generic two-Higgs-doublet model, paying special attention to the definition of tan beta in the effective theory. In particular no tan beta-enhanced loop corrections appear in the relation to tan beta defined in the DRbar scheme in the MSSM. The corrections to the Higgs-mediated flavour-changing amplitudes which result from this matching are especially relevant for the B_d and B_s mass differences dM_s,d for minimal flavour violation, where the superficially leading contribution vanishes. Read More

We compute the finite renormalisation of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix induced by gluino-squark diagrams in the MSSM with non-minimal sources of flavour violation. Subsequently we derive bounds on the flavour-off-diagonal elements of the squark mass matrices by requiring that the radiative corrections to the CKM elements do not exceed the experimental values. Our constraints on the associated dimensionless quantities delta^{d LR}_{ij}, j>i, are stronger than the bounds from flavour-changing neutral current (FCNC) processes if gluino and squarks are heavier than 500 GeV. Read More

We report on a two-loop supersymmetric contribution to the magnetic moment (g-2)_mu of the muon which is enhanced by two powers of tan(beta). This contribution arises from a shift in the relation between the muon mass and Yukawa coupling and can increase the supersymmetric contribution to (g-2)_mu sizably. As a result, if the currently observed 3 sigma deviation between the experimental and SM theory value of (g-2)_mu is analyzed within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the derived constraints on the parameter space are modified significantly: If (g-2)_mu is used to determine tan(beta) as a function of the other MSSM parameters, our corrections decrease tan(beta) by roughly 10% for tan(beta)=50. Read More

B physics is sensitive to the effects of Higgs bosons in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, if the parameter tan beta is large. I briefly summarise the role of B -> mu+ mu- and B -> tau nu in the hunt for new Higgs effects and present new results on the decay B -> D tau nu: Using the analyticity properties of form factors one can predict the ratio R=Br(B -> D tau nu)/Br(B -> D l nu), l=e,mu, with small hadronic uncertainties. In the Standard Model one finds R= 0. Read More

We show that the decay mode B -> D tau nu is competitive with and complementary to B -> tau nu in the search for charged-Higgs effects. Updating the relevant form factors, we find that the differential distribution in the decay chain B -> D nu tau[-> pi nu] excellently discriminates between Standard-Model and charged-Higgs contributions. By measuring the D and pi energies and the angle between the D and pi three-momenta one can determine the effective charged-Higgs coupling including a possible CP-violating phase. Read More

The analysis of tagged B_s -> J/psi phi decays determines the CP phase phi_s in B_s-anti-B_s mixing with a two-fold ambiguity. The solutions differ in the sign of cos(phi_s) which equals the sign of the width difference Delta Gamma_s among the two B_s mass eigenstates. We point out that this ambiguity can be removed with the help of B_s -> D_s K decays. Read More

I summarize the observables constraining the B_s-B_s-bar mixing complex and present a new calculation of the element Gamma_{12}^s of the decay matrix. Gamma_{12}^s enters the prediction of the width difference Delta Gamma_s, for which we obtain Delta Gamma_s^SM = 0.088 +/- 0. Read More

B-B-bar mixing involves three physical parameters: the magnitudes of the off-diagonal elements of the mass and decay matrices and their relative phase. They are related to the mass and width differences between the mass eigenstates and to the CP asymmetry in flavour-specific decays, a_fs. Introducing a new operator basis I present new, more precise theory predictions for the width differences in the B_s and B_d systems: in the Standard Model one finds Delta Gamma_s = 0. Read More

We update the theory predictions for the mass difference $\dm_s$, the width difference $\dg_s$ and the CP asymmetry in flavour-specific decays, $a_{\rm fs}^{s}$, for the \bbs system. In particular we present a new expression for the element $\Gamma_{12}^s$ of the decay matrix, which enters the predictions of $\dg_s$ and $a_{\rm fs}^{s}$. To this end we introduce a new operator basis, which reduces the troublesome sizes of the $1/m_b$ and $\alpha_s$ corrections and diminishes the hadronic uncertainty in $\dg_s/\dm_s$ considerably. Read More

We calculate the complete NNLO QCD corrections to the charm contribution of the rare decay K+ -> pi+ nu nu-bar. We encounter several new features, which were absent in lower orders. We discuss them in detail and present the results for the 2-loop matching conditions of the Wilson coefficients, the 3-loop anomalous dimensions, and the 2-loop matrix elements of the relevant operators that enter the NNLO renormalization group analysis of the Z-penguin and the electroweak box contribution. Read More

I present the status of the elements and parameters of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix and summarise the related theoretical progress since "Lepton-Photon 2003". One finds |V_{us}| = 0.2227 +/- 0. Read More

We study hadronic and leptonic flavor physics in a SUSY SO(10) model proposed by Chang, Masiero, and Murayama, which links b -> s transitions to the observed large atmospheric neutrino mixing angle. We find large effects in B_s-B_s-bar mixing and BR(tau -> mu gamma) and comment on B_d -> phi K_S. Read More

I first discuss the phenomenology of a^q_fs (q=d,s), which is the CP asymmetry in flavour-specific B_q decays such as B_d -> X l^+ nu-bar_l or B_s -> D_s^- pi^+. a^q_fs can be obtained from the time evolution of any untagged B_q decay. Then I present recently calculated next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to a_fs^q, which reduce the renormalisation scheme uncertainties significantly. Read More

We perform a renormalisation group analysis of the SO(10) model proposed by Chang, Masiero and Murayama, which links the large atmospheric neutrino mixing angle to loop-induced transitions between right-handed b and s quarks. We compute the impact on B_s-B_s-bar mixing and find that the mass difference in the B_s system can exceed its Standard Model value by a factor of 16. Read More

We perform an exhaustive analysis of the most general Higgs sector of the minimal left-right symmetric model (MLRM). We find that the CP properties of the vacuum state are connected to the Higgs spectrum: if CP is broken spontaneously, the MLRM does not approach the Standard Model in the limit of a decoupling left-right symmetry breaking scale. Depending on the size of the CP phases scenarios with extra non-decoupling flavor-violating doublet Higgses or very light SU(2) triplet Higgses emerge, both of which are ruled out by phenomenology. Read More

Next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the width difference Delta Gamma in the B_s-meson system are presented. I further discuss how Delta Gamma can be used to detect new physics. Read More

The presence of a sizeable CP-violating phase in B_s^0-B_s^0-bar mixing would be an unambiguous signal of physics beyond the Standard Model. We analyse various possibilities to detect such a new phase considering both tagged and untagged decays. The effects of a sizeable width difference Delta Gamma between the B_s mass eigenstates, on which the untagged analyses rely, are included in all formulae. Read More