# Tong Liu - DRL

## Contact Details

NameTong Liu |
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AffiliationDRL |
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Location |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (26) Quantum Physics (8) Mathematics - Number Theory (6) Nuclear Theory (2) Physics - Superconductivity (2) Physics - Accelerator Physics (2) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (2) Astrophysics of Galaxies (2) Mathematical Physics (1) High Energy Physics - Theory (1) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1) Computer Science - Computers and Society (1) Computer Science - Learning (1) Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (1) Physics - Materials Science (1) |

## Publications Authored By Tong Liu

Neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) around rotating stellar-mass black holes (BHs) are plausible candidates for the central engines of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). NDAFs are hyperaccretion disks with accretion rates in the range of around 0.001-10 $M_\odot ~\rm s^{-1}$, which have high density and temperature and therefore are extremely optically thick and geometrically slim or even thick. Read More

Off-diagonal Aubry-Andr\'{e} (AA) model has recently attracted a great deal of attention as they provide condensed matter realization of topological phases. We numerically study a generalized off-diagonal AA model with p-wave superfluid pairing in the presence of both commensurate and incommensurate hopping modulations. The phase diagram as functions of the modulation strength of incommensurate hopping and the strength of the p-wave pairing is obtained by using the multifractal analysis. Read More

We derive a simple analytical formula to describe the evolution of spectral index $\beta$ in the steep decay phase shaped by the curvature effect with assumption that the spectral parameters and Lorentz factor of jet shell is the same for different latitude. Here, the value of $\beta$ is estimated in 0.3$-$10keV energy band. Read More

The curvature effect may be responsible for the steep decay phase observed in gamma-ray bursts. For testing the curvature effect with observations, the zero time point $t_0$ adopted to plot observer time and flux on a logarithmic scale should be appropriately selected. In practice, however, the true $t_0$ cannot be directly constrained from the data. Read More

Suicide is an important but often misunderstood problem, one that researchers are now seeking to better understand through social media. Due in large part to the fuzzy nature of what constitutes suicidal risks, most supervised approaches for learning to automatically detect suicide-related activity in social media require a great deal of human labor to train. However, humans themselves have diverse or conflicting views on what constitutes suicidal thoughts. Read More

Recent simulations on super-Eddington accretion flows have shown that, apart from the diffusion process, the vertical advection based on magnetic buoyancy can be a more efficient process to release the trapped photons in the optically thick disk. As a consequence, the radiative luminosity from the accretion disk can be far beyond the Eddington value. Following this spirit, we revisit the structure and radiation of hyper-accretion disks with mass accretion rates in the range $10^{-3}\sim 10~M_{\sun}~{\rm s}^{-1}$. Read More

SDSS J072910.34+333634.3 is a reddened quasar at z=0. Read More

The realization of cross-Kerr nonlinearity is an important task for many applications in quantum information processing. In this work, we propose a method for realizing cross-Kerr nonlinearity interaction between two superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators coupled by a three-level superconducting flux qutrit (coupler). By employing the qutrit-resonator dispersive interaction, we derive an effective Hamiltonian involving two-photon number operators and a coupler operator. Read More

**Authors:**Jia Yu, Tong Liu, Bo-Jin Pan, Bin-Bin Ruan, Xiao-Chuan Wang, Qing-Ge Mu, Kang Zhao, Gen-Fu Chen, Zhi-An Ren

We report the discovery and characterization of a novel 112-type iron pnictide EuFeAs2, with La-doping induced superconductivity in a series of Eu1-xLaxFeAs2. The polycrystalline samples were synthesized through solid state reaction method only within a very narrow temperature window around 1073 K. Small single crystals were also grown from a flux method with the size about 100 um. Read More

In this paper, the theoretical aspects behind longitudinal RF capture are reviewed and the capture process is simulated via a program based on this theory. Four kinds of cases with different initial distribution and capture curve are considered, i.e. Read More

For a perfect field $k$ of characteristic $p>0$ and a smooth and proper formal scheme $\mathscr{X}$ over the ring of integers of a finite and totally ramified extension $K$ of $W(k)[1/p]$, we propose a cohomological construction of the Breuil-Kisin modules attached to the $p$-adic \'etale cohomology $H^i_{\mathrm{\'et}}(\mathscr{X}_{\overline{K}},\mathbf{Z}_p)$. We then prove that our proposal works when $p>2$, $i < p-1$, and the crystalline cohomology of the special fiber of $\mathscr{X}$ is torsion-free in degrees $i$ and $i+1$. Read More

A qudit ($d$-level quantum systems) has a large Hilbert space and thus can be used to achieve many quantum information and communication tasks. Here, we propose a method to transfer arbitrary $d$-dimensional quantum states (known or unknown) between two superconducting qudits coupled to a single cavity. The state transfer can be performed fast because of employing resonant interactions only. Read More

Compared with a qubit, a qutrit (i.e., three-level quantum system) has a larger Hilbert space and thus can be used to encode more information in quantum information processing and communication. Read More

Electron beam probe (EBP) is a new principle detector, which makes use of a low-intensity and low-energy electron beam to measure the transverse profile, bunch shape, beam neutralization and beam wake field of an intense beam with small dimensions. While can be applied to many aspects, we limit our analysis to beam distribution reconstruction. This kind of detector is almost non-interceptive for all of the beam and does not disturb the machine environment. Read More

This work focuses on a sample of seven extremely late-time X-ray flares with peak time $t_{\rm p} > 10^4 {\rm s}$, among which two flares can be confirmed as the late-time activity of central engine. The main purpose is to investigate the mechanism of such late-time flares based on the internal origin assumption. In the hyper-accreting black hole (BH) scenario, we study the possibility of two well-known mechanisms as the central engine to power such X-ray flares, i. Read More

We study a one-dimensional quasiperiodic system described by the off-diagonal Aubry-Andr\'{e} model and investigate its phase diagram by using the symmetry and the multifractal analysis. It was shown in a recent work ({\it Phys. Rev. Read More

In this paper, we consider Galois representations of the absolute Galois group $\text{Gal}(\overline {\mathbb Q}/\mathbb Q)$ attached to modular forms for noncongruence subgroups of $\text{SL}_2(\mathbb Z)$. When the underlying modular curves have a model over $\mathbb Q$, these representations are constructed by Scholl and are referred to as Scholl representations, which form a large class of motivic Galois representations. In particular, by a result of Belyi, Scholl representations include the Galois actions on the Jacobian varieties of algebraic curves defined over $\mathbb Q$. Read More

Here we report the synthesis and discovery of superconductivity in a novel ternary iridium-arsenide compound BaIr2As2. The polycrystalline BaIr2As2 sample was synthesized by a high temperature and high pressure method. Crystal structural analysis indicates that BaIr2As2 crystallizes in the ThCr2Si2-type layered tetragonal structure with space group I4/mmm (No. Read More

The emission from black hole binaries (BHBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) displays significant aperiodic variabilities. The most promising explanation for these variabilities is the propagating fluctuations in the accretion flow. It is natural to expect that the mechanism driving variabilities in BHBs and AGNs may operate in a black hole hyper-accretion disk, which is believed to power gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Read More

HLX-1, currently the best intermediate-mass black hole candidate, has undergone seven violent outbursts, each with a peak X-ray luminosity of $L_{\mathrm{peak},\mathrm{X}}\sim 10^{42}\ \rm{erg\ s^{-1}}$. Interestingly, the properties of the HLX-1 outbursts evolve with time. In this work, we aim to constrain the physical parameters of the central engine of the HLX-1 outbursts in the framework of the black hole accretion. Read More

Let $p$ be a prime, $K$ a finite extension of $\mathbb Q_p$, and let $G_K$ be the absolute Galois group of $K$. The category of \'etale $(\varphi, \tau)$-modules is equivalent to the category of $p$-adic Galois representations of $G_K$. In this paper, we show that all \'etale $(\varphi, \tau)$-modules are overconvergent; this answers a question of Caruso. Read More

A supramassive, strongly-magnetized millisecond neutron star (NS) has been proposed to be the candidate central engine of at least some short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs), based on the "internal plateau" commonly observed in the early X-ray afterglow. While a previous analysis shows a qualitative consistency between this suggestion and the Swift SGRB data, the distribution of observed break time $t_b$ is much narrower than the distribution of the collapse time of supramassive NSs for the several NS equations-of-state (EoSs) investigated. In this paper, we study four recently-constructed "unified" NS EoSs, as well as three developed strange quark star (QS) EoSs within the new confinement density-dependent mass model. Read More

We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the host galaxy of short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) 150101B. Follow-up optical and X-ray observations suggested that the host galaxy, 2MASX J12320498-1056010, likely harbors a low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our modeling of the spectral energy distribution (SED) has confirmed the nature of the AGN, making it the first reported GRB host that contains an AGN. Read More

We propose a compact binary model for the fast radio burst (FRB) repeaters, where the system consists of a magnetic white dwarf (WD) and a neutron star (NS) with strong bipolar magnetic fields. When the WD fills its Roche lobe, mass transfer will occur from the WD to the NS through the inner Lagrange point. The accreted magnetized materials may trigger magnetic reconnection when they approach the NS surface, and therefore the electrons can be accelerated to an ultra-relativistic speed. Read More

The transfer of quantum entanglement (or quantum coherence) is not only fundamental in quantum mechanics but also important in quantum information processing. We here propose a way to achieve the coherent transfer of $W$-class entangled states of qubits among different cavities. Because no photon is excited in each cavity, decoherence caused by the photon decay is suppressed during the transfer. Read More

Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are generally considered to originate from the massive collapsars. It is believed that the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is a neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) around a rotating stellar-mass black hole (BH). The neutrino annihilation above the NDAF is a feasible mechanism to power GRB. Read More

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are radio transients lasting only about a few milliseconds. They seem to occur at cosmological distances. We propose that these events can be originated in the collapse of the magnetosphere of Kerr-Newman black holes (KNBHs). Read More

A neutrino-dominated accretion disk around a stellar-mass black hole (BH) can power a gamma-ray burst (GRB) via annihilation of neutrinos launched from the disk. For the BH hyperaccretion system, high accretion rate should trigger the violent evolution of the BH's characteristics, which further leads to the evolution of the neutrino annihilation luminosity. In this paper, we consider the evolution of the accretion system to analyze the mean time-dependent neutrino annihilation luminosity with the different mean accretion rates and initial BH parameters. Read More

Neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) around rotating stellar-mass black holes (BHs) have been theorized as the central engine of relativistic jets launched in massive star core collapse events or compact star mergers. In this work, we calculate the electron neutrino/anti-neutrino spectra of NDAFs by fully taking into account the general relativistic effects, and investigate the effects of viewing angle, BH spin, and mass accretion rate on the results. We show that even though a typical NDAF has a neutrino luminosity lower than that of a typical supernova (SN), it can reach $10^{50}-10^{51}~{\rm erg~s^{-1}}$ peaking at $\sim 10$ MeV, making them potentially detectable with the upcoming sensitive MeV neutrino detectors if they are close enough to Earth. Read More

Working adults spend nearly one third of their daily time at their jobs. In this paper, we study job-related social media discourse from a community of users. We use both crowdsourcing and local expertise to train a classifier to detect job-related messages on Twitter. Read More

Black holes (BHs) hide themselves behind various astronomical phenomena, and their properties, i.e., mass and spin, are usually difficult to constrain. Read More

Cavity-based large scale quantum information processing (QIP) may involve multiple cavities and require performing various quantum logic operations on qubits distributed in different cavities. Geometric-phase-based quantum computing has drawn much attention recently, which offers advantages against inaccuracies and local fluctuations. In addition, multiqubit gates are particularly appealing and play important roles in QIP. Read More

We prove several results concerning the existence of potentially crystalline lifts with prescribed Hodge-Tate weights and inertial types of a given n-dimensional mod p representation of the absolute Galois group of K, where K/Q_p is a finite extension. Some of these results are proved by purely local methods, and are expected to be useful in the application of automorphy lifting theorems. The proofs of the other results are global, making use of automorphy lifting theorems. Read More

By proposing a pure leptonic radiation model, we study the potential gamma-ray emissions from jets of the low-mass X-ray binaries. In this model, the relativistic electrons that are accelerated in the jets are responsible for radiative outputs. Nevertheless, dynamics of jets are dominated by the magnetic and proton-matter kinetic energies. Read More

A neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) around a rotating stellar-mass black hole (BH) is one of the plausible candidates for the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Two mechanisms, i.e. Read More

Stellar-mass black holes (BHs) surrounded by neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) are the plausible candidates to power gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) via neutrinos emission and their annihilation. The progenitors of short-duration GRBs (SGRBs) are generally considered to be compact binaries mergers. According to the simulation results, the disk mass of the NDAF has been limited after merger events. Read More

We present the effects of the vertical convection on the structure and luminosity of the neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) around a stellar-mass black hole in spherical coordinates. We found that the convective energy transfer can suppress the radial advection in the NDAF, and that the density, temperature and opening angle are slightly changed. As a result, the neutrino luminosity and annihilation luminosity are increased, which is conducive to achieve the energy requirement of gamma-ray bursts. Read More

We extend the theory of Kisin modules and crystalline representations to allow more general coefficient fields and lifts of Frobenius. In particular, for a finite and totally ramified extension $F/\mathbb Q_p$, and an arbitrary finite extension $K/F$, we construct a general class of infinite and totally wildly ramified extensions $K_\infty/K$ so that the functor $V\mapsto V|_{G_{K_\infty}}$ is fully-faithfull on the category of $F$-crystalline representations $V$. We also establish a new classification of $F$-Barsotti-Tate groups via Kisin modules of height 1 which allows more general lifts of Frobenius. Read More

We investigate the thermal stability of optically thin, two-temperature, radiative cooling-dominated accretion disks. Our linear analysis shows that the disk is thermally unstable without magnetic fields, which agrees with previous stability analysis on the Shapiro-Lightman-Eardley disk. By taking into account the effects of magnetic fields, however, we find that the disk can be or partly be thermally stable. Read More

We propose an efficient scheme for generating photonic NOON states of two resonators coupled to a four-level superconducting flux device. This proposal operates essentially by employing a technique of a coupler device resonantly interacting with two resonators simultaneously. As a consequence, the NOON-state preparation requires only $N+1$ operational steps and thus is much faster when compared with a recent proposal [Q. Read More

$W$-type entangled states can be used as quantum channels for, e.g., quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, and quantum key distribution. Read More

We present the effects of the self-gravity on the vertical structure and neutrino luminosity of the neutrino-dominated accretion disks in cylindrical coordinates. It is found that significant changes of the structure appear in the outer region of the disk, especially for high accretion rates (e.g. Read More

The particular giant X-ray bump of GRB 121027A triggered by \emph{Swift} is quite different from the typical X-ray flares in gamma-ray bursts. There exhibit four parts of the observed structural variabilities in the rise and decay phase of the bump. Considering the quality of four parts of the data, we can only analyze the data from about 5300 s to about 6100 s in the bump using the stepwise filter correlation method (Gao et al. Read More

In conventional scattering theory, to obtain an explicit result, one imposes a precondition that the distance between target and observer is infinite. With the help of this precondition, one can asymptotically replace the Hankel function and the Bessel function with the sine functions so that one can achieve an explicit result. Nevertheless, after such a treatment, the information of the distance between target and observer is inevitably lost. Read More

GRB 130925A, composed of three gamma-ray emission episodes and a series of orderly flares, has been detected by $Swift$, Fermi, Konus-$Wind$, and $INTEGRAL$. If the third weakest gamma-ray episode can be considered as a giant flare, we find that after the second gamma-ray episode observed by $INTEGRAL$ located at about 2000 s, there exists a positive relation between the time intervals of the adjacent flares and the time since the episode. We suggest that the second gamma-ray episode and its flares originate from the resumption of the accretion process due to the fragments from the collapsar falling back, such a relation may be related to a hyperaccretion disk around a precessed black hole (BH). Read More

The boiling of possible quark nuggets during the quark-hadron phase transition of the Universe at nonzero chemical potential is revisited within the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employed for the hadron phase, using two kinds of baryon interactions as fundamental inputs. To describe the deconfined phase of quark matter, we use a recently developed quark mass density-dependent model with a fully self-consistent thermodynamic treatment of confinement. We study the baryon number limit $A_{\rm boil}$ (above which boiling may be important) with three typical values for the confinement parameter $D$. Read More

Let p > 2 be prime. We use purely local methods to determine the possible reductions of certain two-dimensional crystalline representations, which we call "pseudo-Barsotti-Tate representations", over arbitrary finite extensions of the p-adics. As a consequence, we establish (under the usual Taylor-Wiles hypothesis) the weight part of Serre's conjecture for GL(2) over arbitrary totally real fields. Read More

Rapid temporal variability has been widely observed in the light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One possible mechanism for such variability is related to the relativistic eddies in the jet. In this paper, we include the contribution of the inter-eddy medium together with the eddies to the gamma-ray emission. Read More

The existence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in globular clusters (GCs) remains a crucial problem. Searching IMBHs in GCs reveals a discrepancy between radio observations and dynamical modelings: the upper mass limits constrained by radio observations are systematically lower than that of dynamical modelings. One possibility for such a discrepancy is that, as we suggest in this work, there exist outflows in accretion flows. Read More

The neutrino-cooled accretion disk, which was proposed to work as the central engine of gamma-ray bursts, encounters difficulty in interpreting the X-ray flares after the prompt gamma-ray emission. In this paper, the magnetic coupling between the inner disk and the central black hole is taken into consideration. For mass accretion rates around $0. Read More