# Timothy J. Hollowood - University of Wales Swansea

## Contact Details

NameTimothy J. Hollowood |
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AffiliationUniversity of Wales Swansea |
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CitySketty |
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CountryUnited Kingdom |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (49) High Energy Physics - Lattice (8) Quantum Physics (6) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (5) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (5) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2) Mathematical Physics (2) Nuclear Theory (1) |

## Publications Authored By Timothy J. Hollowood

The lambda model is a one parameter deformation of the principal chiral model that arises when regularizing the non-compactness of a non-abelian T dual in string theory. It is a current-current deformation of a WZW model that is known to be integrable at the classical and quantum level. The standard techniques of the quantum inverse scattering method cannot be applied because the Poisson bracket is non ultra-local. Read More

The amplitude A(s,t) for ultra-high energy scattering can be found in the leading eikonal approximation by considering propagation in an Aichelburg-Sexl gravitational shockwave background. Loop corrections in the QFT describing the scattered particles are encoded for energies below the Planck scale in an effective action which in general exhibits causality violation and Shapiro time advances. In this paper, we use Penrose limit techniques to calculate the full energy dependence of the scattering phase shift Theta_scat(hat_s},, where the single variable hat_s = Gs/m^2 b^(d-2) contains both the CM energy s and impact parameter b, for a range of scalar QFTs in d dimensions with different renormalizability properties. Read More

The effective actions describing the low-energy dynamics of QFTs involving gravity generically exhibit causality violations. These may take the form of superluminal propagation or Shapiro time advances and allow the construction of "time machines", i.e. Read More

**Authors:**Timothy J. Hollowood

In our quantum mechanics courses, measurement is usually taught in passing, as an ad-hoc procedure involving the ugly collapse of the wave function. No wonder we search for more satisfying alternatives to the Copenhagen interpretation. But this overlooks the fact that the approach fits very well with modern measurement theory with its notions of the conditioned state and quantum trajectory. Read More

We examine the partition function of N=2* supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on the four-sphere in the large radius limit. We point out that the large radius partition function, at fixed N, is computed by saddle points lying on particular walls of marginal stability on the Coulomb branch of the theory on R^4. For N an even (odd) integer and \theta_YM=0, (\pi), these include a point of maximal degeneration of the Donagi-Witten curve to a torus where BPS dyons with electric charge [N/2] become massless. Read More

We calculate the one loop beta function for the would-be marginal coupling on the world sheet of the k deformed sigma models associated to a quantum group with q=exp(i pi/k). This includes the bosonic principal chiral models and symmetric space sigma models but also the k deformed semi-symmetric space sigma model describing strings in a deformation of AdS_5 x S^5. The world sheet sigma model is a current-current deformation of the gauged WZW model for the supergroup PSU(2,2|4) with level k. Read More

Recently, several kinds of integrable deformations of the string world sheet theory in the gauge/gravity correspondence have been constructed. One class of these, the k deformations associated to the more general q deformations but with q=exp(i pi/k) a root of unity, has been shown to be related to a particular discrete deformation of the principal chiral models and (semi-)symmetric space sigma models involving a gauged WZW model. We conjecture a form for the exact S-matrices of the bosonic integrable field theories of this type. Read More

An approach to quantum mechanics is developed which makes the Heisenberg cut between the deterministic microscopic quantum world and the partly deterministic, partly stochastic macroscopic world explicit. The microscopic system evolves according to the Schrodinger equation with stochastic behaviour arising when the system is probed by a set of coarse grained macroscopic observables whose resolution scale defines the Heisenberg cut. The resulting stochastic process can account for the different facets of the classical limit: Newton's laws (ergodicity broken); statistical mechanics of thermal ensembles (ergodic); and solve the measurement problem (partial ergodicity breaking). Read More

The S-matrix on the world-sheet theory of the string in AdS5 x S5 has previously been shown to admit a deformation where the symmetry algebra is replaced by the associated quantum group. The case where q is real has been identified as a particular deformation of the Green-Schwarz sigma model. An interpretation of the case with q a root of unity has, until now, been lacking. Read More

A general class of deformations of integrable sigma-models with symmetric space F/G target-spaces are found. These deformations involve defining the non-abelian T dual of the sigma-model and then replacing the coupling of the Lagrange multiplier imposing flatness with a gauged F/F WZW model. The original sigma-model is obtained in the limit of large level. Read More

It has been argued that when black holes are treated as quantum systems there are implications at the horizon and not just the singularity. Infalling observers will meet a firewall of high energy quanta. We argue that the question of whether an observer falling into a black hole experiences a smooth horizon or a firewall is identical to the question of whether Schrodinger's cat is either in a definite state, alive or dead, or in a superposition of the two. Read More

Relativistic integrable field theories like the sine-Gordon equation have an infinite set of conserved charges. In a light-front formalism these conserved charges are closely related to the integrable modified KdV hierarchy at the classical level. The latter hierarchy admits a family of symplectic structures which we argue can be viewed as deformations of the relativistic sine-Gordon symplectic structure. Read More

**Authors:**Timothy J. Hollowood

We describe an interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description for macro-systems. The interpretation is a modal one, but does not suffer from the range of problems that plague other modal interpretations. The key feature is that quantum states carry an additional property assignment in the form of one the eigenvectors of the reduced density matrix which evolves evolves according to a stochastic process driven by the unmodified Schrodinger equation, but it is usually hidden from the emergent classical description due to the ergodic nature of its dynamics. Read More

We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. Read More

We consider a class of integrable quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions whose classical equations have kink solutions with internal collective coordinates that transform under a non-abelian symmetry group. These generalised sine-Gordon theories have been shown to be related to the world sheet theory of the string in the AdS/CFT correspondence. We provide a careful analysis of the boundary conditions at spatial infinity complicated by the fact that they are defined by actions with a WZ term. Read More

We study black holes carrying higher spin charge in AdS3 within the framework of SL(N, R) x SL(N, R) Chern-Simons theory. Focussing attention on the N=4 case, we explicitly analyze the asymptotic symmetry algebra of black hole solutions with a chemical potential for spin-four charge. We demonstrate that the background describes an RG flow between an IR fixed point with W_4 symmetry and a UV fixed point with W-symmetry associated to a non-principal embedding of sl(2) in sl(4). Read More

The world-sheet S-matrix of the string in AdS5 x S5 has been shown to admit a q-deformation that relates it to the S-matrix of a generalization of the sine-Gordon theory, which arises as the Pohlmeyer reduction of the superstring. Whilst this is a fascinating development the resulting S-matrix is not explicitly unitary. The problem has been known for a long time in the context of S-matrices related to quantum groups. Read More

The Copenhagen interpretation has been remarkably successful but seems at odds with the underlying linearity of quantum mechanics. We show how it can emerge in a simple way from the underlying microscopic quantum world governed by Schrodinger's equation without the need for observers or their brains. In order to achieve this, we assemble pieces of various pre-existing ideas. Read More

In this note we summarize the results from a longer article on obtaining the QCD phase diagram as a function of the temperature and chemical potential at large Nc and large Nf in the weak and the strong coupling limits. The weak coupling phase diagram is obtained from the Polyakov line order parameter, and the quark number, calculated using 1-loop perturbation theory for QCD formulated on S^1 x S^3. The strong coupling phase diagram is obtained from the same observables calculated at leading order in the lattice strong coupling and hopping parameter expansions. Read More

We calculate the deconfinement line of transitions for large Nc QCD at finite temperature and chemical potential in two different regimes: weak coupling in the continuum, and, strong coupling on the lattice, working in the limit where Nf is of order Nc. In the first regime we extend previous weak-coupling results from one-loop perturbation theory on S^1 x S^3 to higher temperatures, where the theory reduces to a matrix model, analogous to that of Gross, Witten, and Wadia. We obtain the line of transitions that extends from the temperature-axis, where to a first approximation the transition is higher than fourth order, to the chemical potential-axis, where the transition is third order. Read More

The investigation of the q deformation of the S-matrix for excitations on the
string world sheet in AdS5 x S5 is continued. We argue that due to the lack of
Lorentz invariance the situation is more subtle than in a relativistic theory
in that the nature of bound states depends on their momentum. At low enough
momentum |p|

We propose and prove a new exact duality between the F-terms of supersymmetric gauge theories in five and three dimensions with adjoint matter fields. The theories are compactified on a circle and are subject to the Omega deformation. In the limit proposed by Nekrasov and Shatashvili, the supersymmetric vacua become isolated and are identified with the eigenstates of a quantum integrable system. Read More

Gravitational tidal forces acting on the virtual e+ e- cloud surrounding a photon endow spacetime with a non-trivial refractive index. This has remarkable properties unique to gravitational theories including superluminal low-frequency propagation, in apparent violation of causality, and amplification of the renormalized photon field, in apparent violation of unitarity. Using the geometry of null congruences and the Penrose limit, we illustrate these phenomena and their resolution by tracing the history of a photon as it falls into the near-singularity region of a black hole. Read More

A set of four factorizable non-relativistic S-matrices for a multiplet of fundamental particles are defined based on the R-matrix of the quantum group deformation of the centrally extended superalgebra su(2|2). The S-matrices are a function of two independent couplings g and q=exp(i\pi/k). The main result is to find the scalar factor, or dressing phase, which ensures that the unitarity and crossing equations are satisfied. Read More

The effect of gravitational tidal forces on renormalized quantum fields propagating in curved spacetime is investigated and a generalisation of the optical theorem to curved spacetime is proved. In the case of QED, the interaction of tidal forces with the vacuum polarization cloud of virtual e^+ e^- pairs dressing the renormalized photon has been shown to produce several novel phenomena. In particular, the photon field amplitude can locally increase as well as decrease, corresponding to a negative imaginary part of the refractive index, in apparent violation of unitarity and the optical theorem. Read More

We study thermodynamics of free SU(N) gauge theory with a large number of colours and flavours on a three-sphere, in the presence of a baryon number chemical potential. Reducing the system to a holomorphic large-N matrix integral, paying specific attention to theories with scalar flavours (squarks), we identify novel third-order deconfining phase transitions as a function of the chemical potential. These transitions in the complex large-N saddle point configurations are interpreted as "melting" of baryons into (s)quarks. Read More

We construct a relativistic scattering theory based on a q deformation and large string tension limit of the magnon S-matrix of the string world sheet theory in AdS_5 x S^5. The S-matrix falls naturally into a previously studied class associated to affine quantum groups, in this case for a twisted affine loop superalgebra associated to an outer automorphism of sl(2|2). This infinite algebra includes the celebrated triply extended psl(2|2) x R^3 algebra, but only two of the centres, the lightcone components of the 2-momentum, are non-vanishing. Read More

The effects of vacuum polarization arising from loops of massive scalar particles on graviton propagation in curved space are considered. Physically, they are due to curvature induced tidal forces acting on the cloud of virtual scalar particles surrounding the graviton. The effects are tractable in a WKB and large mass limit and the results can be written as an effective refractive index for the graviton modes with both a real and imaginary part. Read More

We prove a duality, recently conjectured in arXiv:1103.5726, which relates the F-terms of supersymmetric gauge theories defined in two and four dimensions respectively. The proof proceeds by a saddle point analysis of the four-dimensional partition function in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit. Read More

The generalized symmetric space sine-Gordon theories are a series of 1+1-integrable field theories that are classically equivalent to superstrings on symmetric space spacetimes F/G. They are formulated in terms of a semi-symmetric space as a gauged WZW model with fermions and a potential term to deform it away from the conformal fixed point. We consider in particular the case of PSU(2,2|4)/Sp(2,2)xSp(4) which corresponds to AdS(5)xS(5). Read More

We present a new duality between the F-terms of supersymmetric field theories defined in two- and four-dimensions respectively. The duality relates N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in four dimensions, deformed by an Omega-background in one plane, to N=(2,2) gauged linear sigma-models in two dimensions. On the four dimensional side, our main example is N=2 SQCD with gauge group SU(L) and 2L fundamental flavours. Read More

In this note, we summarize recent progress in constructing and then semi-classically quantizing solitons, or non-abelian Q-balls, in the symmetric space sine-Gordon theories. We then consider the images of these solitons in the related constrained sigma model, which are the dyonic giant magnons on the string theory world-sheet. Focussing on the case of the symmetric space S^5, we perform a semi-classical quantization of the solitons and magnons and show that both lead to Chern-Simons quantum mechanics on the internal moduli space which is a real Grassmannian SO(4)/SO(2)xSO(2) but---importantly---with a different coupling constant. Read More

We construct the soliton solutions in the symmetric space sine-Gordon theories. The latter are a series of integrable field theories in 1+1-dimensions which are associated to a symmetric space F/G, and are related via the Pohlmeyer reduction to theories of strings moving on symmetric spaces. We show that the solitons are kinks that carry an internal moduli space that can be identified with a particular co-adjoint orbit of the unbroken subgroup H of G. Read More

In this proceedings we summarize our calculation of the phase diagram of QCD at non-zero temperature and chemical potential on S^1 x S^3 from one-loop perturbation theory [1], which is valid in the limit R << 1/Lambda, where R is the radius of S^3. We calculate several observables including the Polyakov lines and the quark number, for large number of colors N and large number of quark flavors Nf, on S^1 x S^3, and compare with results for the same system with N = 3, and with results for N=2 lattice QCD. For N > 2 the action is complex and the dominant contributions to the path integral occur in the space of complexified gauge field configurations. Read More

We consider QCD at very low temperatures and non-zero quark chemical potential from lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the two-color theory in a very small spatial volume (the attoscale). In this regime the quark number rises in discrete levels in qualitative agreement with what is found analytically at one loop on S3xS1 with radius R_S3 << 1/{\Lambda}_QCD. The detailed level degeneracy, however, cannot be accounted for using weak coupling arguments. Read More

The motion of strings on symmetric space target spaces underlies the integrability of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Although these theories, whose excitations are giant magnons, are non-relativistic they are classically equivalent, via the Polhmeyer reduction, to a relativistic integrable field theory known as a symmetric space sine-Gordon theory. These theories can be formulated as integrable deformations of gauged WZW models. Read More

It is now well-known that vacuum polarisation in QED can lead to superluminal low-frequency phase velocities for photons propagating in curved spacetimes. In a series of papers, we have shown that this quantum phenomenon is dispersive and have calculated the full frequency dependence of the refractive index, explaining in detail how causality is preserved and various familiar results from quantum field theory such as the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation and the optical theorem are realised in curved spacetime. These results have been criticised in a recent paper by Akhoury and Dolgov arXiv:1003. Read More

The effect of gravitational tidal forces on photon propagation in curved spacetime is investigated. It is found that the imaginary part of the local refractive index Im n(u;w) may be negative as well as positive, corresponding to a local amplification as well as attenuation of the amplitude of the renormalized photon field. This is interpreted in terms of the effect of tidal forces on the virtual e^+e^- cloud surrounding the bare photon field---a positive/negative Im n(u;w) corresponds to an increased dressing/undressing of the bare photon. Read More

To leading order in perturbation theory, we solve QCD, defined on a small three sphere in the large N and Nf limit, at finite chemical potential and map out the phase diagram in the (mu,T) plane. The action of QCD is complex in the presence of a non-zero quark chemical potential which results in the sign problem for lattice simulations. In the large N theory, which at low temperatures becomes a conventional unitary matrix model with a complex action, we find that the dominant contribution to the functional integral comes from complexified gauge field configurations. Read More

The phase diagram of SU(N) gauge theories with fermions in an arbitrary representation R can be calculated on finite volume manifolds such as S^1 x S^3. When S^3 is small a perturbative analysis is possible and the weak-coupling analogue of the pure Yang-Mills theory confinement-deconfinement transition is accessible in the large N limit. We calculate the large N phase diagram of adjoint QCD [SU(N) gauge theory with adjoint fermions] where periodic boundary conditions are applied to fermions on S^1 such that the confined phase is favored for light enough adjoint fermion mass. Read More

An introduction to the theory of the renormalization group in the context of quantum field theories of relevance to particle physics is presented in the form of 6 lectures delivered to the British Universities Summer School in Theoretical Elementary Particle Physics (BUSSTEPP). Emphasis is placed on gaining a physical understand of the running of the couplings and the Wilsonian version of the renormalization group is related to conventional perturbative calculations with dimensional regularization and minimal subtraction. An introduction is given to some of the remarkable renormalization group properties of supersymmetric theories. Read More

The phase structure of QCD-like gauge theories with fermions in various representations is an interesting but generally analytically intractable problem. One way to ensure weak coupling is to define the theory in a small finite volume, in this case S^3 x S^1. Genuine phase transitions can then occur in the large N theory. Read More

We show that the dressing transformation method produces a new type of dyonic CP^n magnon in terms of which all the other known solutions are either composites or arise as special limits. In particular, this includes the embedding of Dorey's dyonic magnon via an RP^3 subspace of CP^n. We also show how to generate Dorey's dyonic magnon directly in the S^n sigma model via the dressing method without resorting to the isomorphism with the SU(2) principle chiral model when n=3. Read More

This work considers the way that quantum loop effects modify the propagation of light in curved space. The calculation of the refractive index for scalar QED is reviewed and then extended for the first time to QED with spinor particles in the loop. It is shown how, in both cases, the low frequency phase velocity can be greater than c, as found originally by Drummond and Hathrell, but causality is respected in the sense that retarded Green functions vanish outside the lightcone. Read More

We study the solitons of the symmetric space sine-Gordon theories that arise once the Pohlmeyer reduction has been imposed on a sigma model with the symmetric space as target. Under this map the solitons arise as giant magnons that are relevant to string theory in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, we consider the cases S^n, CP^n and SU(n) in some detail. Read More

The effect of vacuum polarization on the propagation of photons in curved spacetime is studied in scalar QED. A compact formula is given for the full frequency dependence of the refractive index for any background in terms of the Van Vleck-Morette matrix for its Penrose limit and it is shown how the superluminal propagation found in the low-energy effective action is reconciled with causality. The geometry of null geodesic congruences is found to imply a novel analytic structure for the refractive index and Green functions of QED in curved spacetime, which preserves their causal nature but violates familiar axioms of S-matrix theory and dispersion relations. Read More

We study the N = 4 theory at weak coupling, on a three sphere in the grand canonical ensemble with R symmetry chemical potentials. We focus attention on near critical values for the chemical potentials, above which the classical theory has no ground state. By computing a one loop effective potential for the light degrees of freedom in this regime, we show the existence of flat directions of complex dimension N, 2N and 3N for one, two and three critical chemical potentials respectively; these correspond to one half, one quarter and one-eighth BPS states becoming light respectively at the critical values. Read More

We consider large-N confining gauge theories with a Hagedorn density of states. In such theories the potential between a pair of colour-singlet sources may diverge at a critical distance r_c = 1/ T_H. We consider, in particular, pure N=1 super Yang-Mills theory and argue that when a domain-wall and an anti domain-wall are brought to a distance near r_c the interaction potential is better described by an ``open QCD-string channel''. Read More

We consider how causality and micro-causality are realised in QED in curved spacetime. The photon propagator is found to exhibit novel non-analytic behaviour due to vacuum polarization, which invalidates the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation and calls into question the validity of micro-causality in curved spacetime. This non-analyticity is ultimately related to the generic focusing nature of congruences of geodesics in curved spacetime, as implied by the null energy condition, and the existence of conjugate points. Read More

It has been known for a long time that vacuum polarization in QED leads to a superluminal low-frequency phase velocity for light propagating in curved spacetime. Assuming the validity of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, this would imply a superluminal wavefront velocity and the violation of causality. Here, we calculate for the first time the full frequency dependence of the refractive index using world-line sigma model techniques together with the Penrose plane wave limit of spacetime in the neighbourhood of a null geodesic. Read More