Tim Van Linden - UC Santa Cruz

Tim Van Linden
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Tim Van Linden
UC Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz
United States

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (35)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (32)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (16)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (12)
Mathematics - Category Theory (12)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (6)
Mathematics - Rings and Algebras (3)
Physics - Space Physics (2)
Mathematics - Algebraic Topology (1)
High Energy Physics - Theory (1)
Mathematics - K-Theory and Homology (1)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (1)

Publications Authored By Tim Van Linden

Let $\mathbb{K}$ be an infinite field. We prove that if a variety of alternating $\mathbb{K}$-algebras (not necessarily associative, where $xx=0$ is a law) is locally algebraically cartesian closed, then it must be a variety of Lie algebras over $\mathbb{K}$. In particular, $\mathsf{Lie}_{\mathbb{K}}$ is the largest such. Read More

The antiproton-to-proton ratio in the cosmic-ray spectrum is a sensitive probe of new physics. Using recent measurements of the cosmic-ray antiproton and proton fluxes in the energy range of 1-1000 GeV, we study the contribution to the $\bar{p}/p$ ratio from secondary antiprotons that are produced and subsequently accelerated within individual supernova remnants. We consider several well-motivated models for cosmic-ray propagation in the interstellar medium and marginalize our results over the uncertainties related to the antiproton production cross section and the time-, charge-, and energy-dependent effects of solar modulation. Read More

If millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are responsible for the excess gamma-ray emission observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, the same region should also contain a large population of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In this study, we compile and utilize a sizable catalog of LMXBs observed in the the Milky Way's globular cluster system and in the Inner Galaxy, as well as the gamma-ray emission observed from globular clusters, to estimate the flux of gamma rays predicted from MSPs in the Inner Galaxy. From this comparison, we conclude that only up to $\sim$4-23% of the observed gamma-ray excess is likely to originate from MSPs. Read More

We prove a universal characterization of Hopf algebras among cocommutative bialgebras over a field: a cocommutative bialgebra is a Hopf algebra precisely when every split extension over it admits a join decomposition. We also explain why this result cannot be extended to a non-cocommutative setting. Read More

The origin of the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) --- the portion of the extragalactic gamma-ray sky that is not resolvable into individual point sources --- provides a powerful probe into the evolution of the high-energy universe. Star-forming galaxies (SFGs) are among the most likely contributors to the IGRB, though their contribution is difficult to constrain because their flux distribution is dominated by numerous faint sources. We produce a novel joint-likelihood analysis of the $\gamma$-ray emission from 584 SFGs, utilizing advanced statistical techniques to compare the distribution of low-significance excesses against the non-Poissonian $\gamma$-ray background fluctuations. Read More

The isotropic gamma-ray background arises from the contribution of unresolved sources, including members of confirmed source classes and proposed gamma-ray emitters such as the radiation induced by dark matter annihilation and decay. Clues about the properties of the contributing sources are imprinted in the anisotropy characteristics of the gamma-ray background. We use 81 months of Pass 7 Reprocessed data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to perform a measurement of the anisotropy angular power spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Read More

It has been suggested that the GeV excess, observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, might originate from a population of millisecond pulsars that formed in globular clusters. With this in mind, we employ the publicly available Fermi data to study the gamma-ray emission from 157 globular clusters, identifying a statistically significant signal from 25 of these sources (ten of which are not found in existing gamma-ray catalogs). We combine these observations with the predicted pulsar formation rate based on the stellar encounter rate of each globular cluster to constrain the gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecond pulsars in the Milky Way's globular cluster system. Read More

The aim of this paper is to solve a problem proposed by Dominique Bourn: to provide a categorical-algebraic characterisation of groups amongst monoids and of rings amongst semirings. In the case of monoids, our solution is given by the following equivalent conditions: (i) $G$ is a group; (ii) $G$ is a Mal'tsev object, i.e. Read More

Recent Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Milky Way have placed strong limits on the gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation. In order to produce the strongest limit on the dark matter annihilation cross-section, the observations of each dwarf galaxy have typically been "stacked" in a joint-likelihood analysis, utilizing optical observations to constrain the dark matter density profile in each dwarf. These limits have typically been computed only for singular annihilation final states, such as $b\bar{b}$ or $\tau^+\tau^-$. Read More

It has been suggested that unresolved radio galaxies and radio quasars (sometimes referred to as misaligned active galactic nuclei) could be responsible for a significant fraction of the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. In this study, we use the latest data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope to characterize the gamma-ray emission from a sample of 51 radio galaxies. In addition to those sources that had previously been detected using Fermi data, we report here the first statistically significant detection of gamma-ray emission from the radio galaxies 3C 212, 3C 411, and B3 0309+411B. Read More

Observations by the Fermi-LAT have uncovered a bright, spherically symmetric excess surrounding the center of the Milky Way galaxy. The spectrum of the gamma-ray excess peaks sharply at an energy ~2 GeV, exhibiting a hard spectrum at lower energies, and falls off quickly above an energy ~5 GeV. The spectrum of the excess above ~10 GeV is potentially an important discriminator between different physical models for its origin. Read More

Fermi-LAT observations of the Galactic Center (GC) have revealed a spherically- symmetric excess of GeV gamma rays extending to at least 10 deg from the dynamical center of the Galaxy. A critical uncertainty in extracting the intensity, spectrum, and morphology of this excess concerns the accuracy of astrophysical diffuse gamma-ray emission models near the GC. Recently, it has been noted that many diffuse emission models utilize a cosmic-ray injection rate far below that predicted based on the observed star formation rate in the Central Molecular Zone. Read More

In a previous paper, we pointed out that the gamma-ray source 3FGL J2212.5+0703 shows evidence of being spatially extended. If a gamma-ray source without detectable emission at other wavelengths were unambiguously determined to be spatially extended, it could not be explained by known astrophysics, and would constitute a smoking gun for dark matter particles annihilating in a nearby subhalo. Read More

We give a new sufficient condition for the normal extensions in an admissible Galois structure to be reflective. We then show that this condition is indeed fulfilled when X is the (protomodular) reflective subcategory of S-special objects of a Barr-exact S-protomodular category C, where S is the class of split epimorphic trivial extensions in C. Next to some concrete examples where the criterion may be applied, we also study the adjunction between a Barr-exact unital category and its abelian core, which we prove to be admissible. Read More

Recent observations of Reticulum II have uncovered an overabundance of r-process elements, compared to similar ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UFDs). Because the metallicity and star formation history of Reticulum II appear consistent with all known UFDs, the high r-process abundance of Reticulum II suggests enrichment through a single, rare event, such as a double neutron star (NS) merger. However, we note that this scenario is extremely unlikely, as binary stellar evolution models require significant supernova natal kicks to produce NS-NS or NS-black hole mergers, and these kicks would efficiently remove compact binary systems from the weak gravitational potentials of UFDs. Read More

An important factor limiting our ability to understand the production and propagation of cosmic rays pertains to the effects of heliospheric forces, commonly known as solar modulation. The solar wind is capable of generating time and charge-dependent effects on the spectrum and intensity of low energy ($\lsim$ 10 GeV) cosmic rays reaching Earth. Previous analytic treatments of solar modulation have utilized the force-field approximation, in which a simple potential is adopted whose amplitude is selected to best fit the cosmic-ray data taken over a given period of time. Read More

At present, all physical models of diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission assume that the distribution of cosmic-ray sources traces the observed populations of either OB stars, pulsars, or supernova remnants. However, since H2-rich regions host significant star formation and numerous supernova remnants, the morphology of observed H2 gas should also provide a physically motivated, high-resolution tracer for cosmic-ray injection. We assess the impact of utilizing H2 as a tracer for cosmic-ray injection on models of diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission. Read More

Observations using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have found a significant gamma-ray excess surrounding the center of the Milky Way (GC). One possible interpretation of this excess invokes gamma-ray emission from an undiscovered population of either young or recycled pulsars densely clustered throughout the inner kiloparsec of the Milky Way. While these systems, by construction, have individual fluxes that lie below the point source sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT, they may already be observed in multiwavelength observations. Read More

The aim of this paper is to investigate in which sense, for $n\geq 3$, $n$-Lie algebras admit universal enveloping algebras. There have been some attempts at a construction (see [10] and [5]) but after analysing those we come to the conclusion that they cannot be valid in general. We give counterexamples and sufficient conditions. Read More

Radio observations at multiple frequencies have detected a significant isotropic emission component between 22~MHz and 10~GHz, commonly termed the ARCADE-2 Excess. The origin of this radio emission is unknown, as the intensity, spectrum and isotropy of the signal are difficult to model with either traditional astrophysical mechanisms or novel physics such as dark matter annihilation. We posit a new model capable of explaining the key components of the excess radio emission. Read More

It has been proposed that a recent outburst of cosmic-ray electrons could account for the excess of GeV-scale gamma rays observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center. After studying this possibility in some detail, we identify scenarios in which a series of leptonic cosmic-ray outbursts could plausibly generate the observed excess. The morphology of the emission observed outside of $\sim1^{\circ}-2^{\circ}$ from the Galactic Center can be accommodated with two outbursts, one which took place approximately $\sim10^6$ years ago, and another (injecting only about 10\% as much energy as the first) about $\sim10^5$ years ago. Read More

We show that, for a right exact functor from an abelian category to abelian groups, Yoneda's isomorphism commutes with homology and, hence, with functor derivation. Then we extend this result to semiabelian domains. An interpretation in terms of satellites and higher central extensions follows. Read More

Dark matter annihilations taking place in nearby subhalos could appear as gamma-ray sources without detectable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this study, we consider the collection of unassociated gamma-ray sources reported by the Fermi Collaboration in an effort to identify the most promising dark matter subhalo candidates. While we identify 24 bright, high-latitude, non-variable sources with spectra that are consistent with being generated by the annihilations of ~20-70 GeV dark matter particles (assuming annihilations to $b\bar{b}$), it is not possible at this time to distinguish these sources from radio-faint gamma-ray pulsars. Read More

The recent discovery of ten new dwarf galaxy candidates by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) could increase the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope's sensitivity to annihilating dark matter particles, potentially enabling a definitive test of the dark matter interpretation of the long-standing Galactic Center gamma-ray excess. In this paper, we compare the previous analyses of Fermi data from the directions of the new dwarf candidates (including the relatively nearby Reticulum II) and perform our own analysis, with the goal of establishing the statistical significance of any gamma-ray signal from these sources. We confirm the presence of an excess from Reticulum II, with a spectral shape that is compatible with the Galactic Center signal. Read More

We establish a Galois-theoretic interpretation of cohomology in semi-abelian categories: cohomology with trivial coefficients classifies central extensions, also in arbitrarily high degrees. This allows us to obtain a duality, in a certain sense, between "internal" homology and "external" cohomology in semi-abelian categories. These results depend on a geometric viewpoint of the concept of a higher central extension, as well as the algebraic one in terms of commutators. Read More

Observations by the Fermi-LAT telescope have uncovered a significant $\gamma$-ray excess toward the Milky Way Galactic Center. There has been no detection of a similar signal in the direction of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Additionally, astronomical observations indicate that dwarf galaxies and other faint galaxies are less dense than predicted by the simplest cold dark matter models. Read More

The recent discovery of a neutron star accretor in the ultra-luminous X-ray source M82 X-2 challenges our understanding of high-mass X-ray binary formation and evolution. By combining binary population synthesis and detailed mass-transfer models, however, we show that the binary parameters of M82 X-2 are not surprising provided non-conservative mass transfer is allowed. Specifically, the donor-mass lower limit and orbital period measured for M82 X-2 lie near the most probable values predicted by population synthesis models, and systems such as M82 X-2 should exist in approximately 13% of the galaxies with a star-formation history similar to M82. Read More

Observations of the extragalactic radio background have uncovered a significant isotropic emission across multiple frequencies spanning from 22 MHz to 10 GHz. The intensity of this non-thermal emission component significantly exceeds the expected contribution from known astrophysical sources. Interestingly, models have indicated that the annihilation of dark matter particles may reproduce both the flux and spectrum of the excess. Read More

Measurements of the cosmic ray antiproton spectrum can be used to search for contributions from annihilating dark matter and to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. Depending on the assumptions made regarding cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy, such constraints can be quite stringent. We revisit this topic, utilizing a set of propagation models fit to the cosmic ray boron, carbon, oxygen and beryllium data. Read More

We call a finitely complete category algebraically coherent when the change-of-base functors of its fibration of points are coherent, which means that they preserve finite limits and jointly strongly epimorphic pairs of arrows. We give examples of categories satisfying this condition; for instance, coherent categories, categories of interest in the sense of Orzech, and (compact) Hausdorff algebras over a semi-abelian algebraically coherent theory. We study equivalent conditions in the context of semi-abelian categories, as well as some of its consequences: including amongst others, strong protomodularity, and normality of Higgins commutators for normal subobjects, and in the varietal case, fibre-wise algebraic cartesian closedness. Read More

The Fermi-LAT collaboration has studied the gamma-ray emission from a stacked population of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and used this information to set constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section. Interestingly, their analysis uncovered an excess with a test statistic (TS) of 8.7. Read More

A number of groups have employed radio observations of the Galactic center to derive stringent constraints on the annihilation cross section of weakly interacting dark matter. In this paper, we show that electron energy losses in this region are likely to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering on the interstellar radiation field, rather than by synchrotron, considerably relaxing the constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section compared to previous works. Strong convective winds, which are well motivated by recent observations, may also significantly weaken synchrotron constraints. Read More

In this article, we revisit the gamma-ray emission observed from millisecond pulsars and globular clusters. Based on 5.6 years of data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, we report gamma-ray spectra for 61 millisecond pulsars, finding most to be well fit by a power-law with an exponential cutoff, producing to a spectral peak near ~1-2 GeV (in $E^2 dN/dE$ units). Read More

Millisecond pulsars have been discussed as a possible source of the gamma-ray excess observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center. With this in mind, we use the observed population of bright low-mass X-ray binaries to estimate the number of millisecond pulsars in the Inner Galaxy. This calculation suggests that only ~1-5% of the excess is produced by millisecond pulsars. Read More

Recent observations by the PAMELA and AMS-02 telescopes have uncovered an anomalous rise in the positron fraction at energies above 10~GeV. One possible explanation for this excess is the production of primary electron/positron pairs through electromagnetic cascades in pulsar magnetospheres. This process results in a high multiplicity of electron/positron pairs within the wind-termination shock of pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Read More

The paucity of old millisecond pulsars observed at the galactic center of the Milky Way could be the result of dark matter accumulating in and destroying neutron stars. In regions of high dark matter density, dark matter clumped in a pulsar can exceed the Schwarzschild limit and collapse into a natal black hole which destroys the pulsar. We examine what dark matter models are consistent with this hypothesis and find regions of parameter space where dark matter accumulation can significantly degrade the neutron star population within the galactic center while remaining consistent with observations of old millisecond pulsars in globular clusters and near the solar position. Read More

Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use gamma-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. Read More

The Telescope Array (TA) has observed a statistically significant excess in cosmic-rays with energies above 57 EeV in a region of approximately 1150 square degrees centered on coordinates (R.A. = 146. Read More

We study the relation between Bourn's notion of peri-abelian category and conditions involving the coincidence of the Smith, Huq and Higgins commutators. In particular we show that a semi-abelian category is peri-abelian if and only if for each normal subobject $K\leq X$, the Higgins commutator of $K$ with itself coincides with the normalisation of the Smith commutator of the denormalisation of $K$ with itself. We show that if a category is peri-abelian, then the condition (UCE), which was introduced and studied by Casas and the second author, holds for that category. Read More

Past studies have identified a spatially extended excess of $\sim$1-3 GeV gamma rays from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, consistent with the emission expected from annihilating dark matter. We revisit and scrutinize this signal with the intention of further constraining its characteristics and origin. By applying cuts to the \textit{Fermi} event parameter CTBCORE, we suppress the tails of the point spread function and generate high resolution gamma-ray maps, enabling us to more easily separate the various gamma-ray components. Read More

We compare the 'Smith is Huq' condition (SH) with three commutator conditions in semi-abelian categories: first an apparently weaker condition which arose in joint work with Bourn and turns out to be equivalent with (SH), then an apparently equivalent condition which takes commutation of non-normal subobjects into account and turns out to be stronger than (SH). This leads to the even stronger condition that weighted commutators (in the sense of Gran, Janelidze and Ursini) are independent of the chosen weight, which is known to be false for groups but turns out to be true in any two-nilpotent semi-abelian category. Read More

Cosmic-ray anti-nuclei provide a promising discovery channel for the indirect detection of particle dark matter. Hadron showers produced by the pair-annihilation or decay of Galactic dark matter generate anti-nucleons which can in turn form light anti-nuclei. Previous studies have only focused on the spectrum and flux of low energy antideuterons which, although very rarely, are occasionally also produced by cosmic-ray spallation. Read More

In a semi-abelian context, we study the condition (NH) asking that Higgins commutators of normal subobjects are normal subobjects. We provide examples of categories that do or do not satisfy this property. We focus on the relationship with the "Smith is Huq" condition (SH) and characterise those semi-abelian categories in which both (NH) and (SH) hold in terms of reflection and preservation properties of the change of base functors of the fibration of points. Read More

Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from CDM predictions. Read More

We prove that the fundamental group functor from categorical Galois theory may be computed as a Kan extension. Read More

We prove that in a regular category all reflexive and transitive relations are symmetric if and only if every internal category is an internal groupoid. In particular, these conditions hold when the category is n-permutable for some n. Read More

We show that varietal techniques based on the existence of operations of a certain arity can be extended to n-permutable categories with binary coproducts. This is achieved via what we call approximate Hagemann-Mitschke co-operations, a generalisation of the notion of approximate Mal'tsev co-operation. In particular, we extend characterisation theorems for n-permutable varieties due to J. Read More

Using data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, a spatially extended component of gamma rays has been identified from the direction of the Galactic Center, peaking at energies of ~2-3 GeV. More recently, it has been shown that this signal is not confined to the innermost hundreds of parsecs of the Galaxy, but instead extends to at least ~3 kpc from the Galactic Center. While the spectrum, intensity, and angular distribution of this signal is in good agreement with predictions from annihilating dark matter, it has also been suggested that a population of unresolved millisecond pulsars could be responsible for this excess GeV emission from the Inner Galaxy. Read More

Recent observations indicating the existence of a monochromatic gamma-ray line with energy ~130 GeV in the Fermi-LAT data have attracted great interest due to the possibility that the line feature stems from the annihilation of dark matter particles. Many studies examining the robustness of the putative line-signal have concentrated on its spectral attributes. Here, we study the morphological features of the gamma-ray line photons, which can be used to differentiate a putative dark matter signal from astrophysical backgrounds or instrumental artifacts. Read More

Recent observations by PAMELA, Fermi-LAT, and AMS-02 have conclusively indicated a rise in the cosmic-ray positron fraction above 10 GeV, a feature which is impossible to mimic under the paradigm of secondary positron production with self-consistent Galactic cosmic-ray propagation models. A leading explanation for the rising positron fraction is an additional source of electron-positron pairs, for example one or more mature, energetic, and relatively nearby pulsars. We point out that any one of two well-known nearby pulsars, Geminga and Monogem, can satisfactorily provide enough positrons to reproduce AMS-02 observations. Read More