# Tiangang Cui

## Publications Authored By Tiangang Cui

We propose optimal dimensionality reduction techniques for the solution of goal-oriented linear-Gaussian inverse problems, where the quantity of interest (QoI) is a function of the inversion parameters. These approximations are suitable for large-scale applications. In particular, we study the approximation of the posterior covariance of the QoI as a low-rank negative update of its prior covariance, and prove optimality of this update with respect to the natural geodesic distance on the manifold of symmetric positive definite matrices. Read More

Prior distributions for Bayesian inference that rely on the $l_1$-norm of the parameters are of considerable interest, in part because they promote parameter fields with less regularity than Gaussian priors (e.g., discontinuities and blockiness). Read More

Two major bottlenecks to the solution of large-scale Bayesian inverse problems are the scaling of posterior sampling algorithms to high-dimensional parameter spaces and the computational cost of forward model evaluations. Yet incomplete or noisy data, the state variation and parameter dependence of the forward model, and correlations in the prior collectively provide useful structure that can be exploited for dimension reduction in this setting--both in the parameter space of the inverse problem and in the state space of the forward model. To this end, we show how to jointly construct low-dimensional subspaces of the parameter space and the state space in order to accelerate the Bayesian solution of the inverse problem. Read More

A priori dimension reduction is a widely adopted technique for reducing the computational complexity of stationary inverse problems. In this setting, the solution of an inverse problem is parameterized by a low-dimensional basis that is often obtained from the truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion of the prior distribution. For high-dimensional inverse problems equipped with smoothing priors, this technique can lead to drastic reductions in parameter dimension and significant computational savings. Read More

Many Bayesian inference problems require exploring the posterior distribution of high-dimensional parameters that represent the discretization of an underlying function. This work introduces a family of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers that can adapt to the particular structure of a posterior distribution over functions. Two distinct lines of research intersect in the methods developed here. Read More

In the Bayesian approach to inverse problems, data are often informative, relative to the prior, only on a low-dimensional subspace of the parameter space. Significant computational savings can be achieved by using this subspace to characterize and approximate the posterior distribution of the parameters. We first investigate approximation of the posterior covariance matrix as a low-rank update of the prior covariance matrix. Read More

The intrinsic dimensionality of an inverse problem is affected by prior information, the accuracy and number of observations, and the smoothing properties of the forward operator. From a Bayesian perspective, changes from the prior to the posterior may, in many problems, be confined to a relatively low-dimensional subspace of the parameter space. We present a dimension reduction approach that defines and identifies such a subspace, called the "likelihood-informed subspace" (LIS), by characterizing the relative influences of the prior and the likelihood over the support of the posterior distribution. Read More

One of the major challenges in the Bayesian solution of inverse problems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) is the computational cost of repeatedly evaluating numerical PDE models, as required by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for posterior sampling. This paper proposes a data-driven projection-based model reduction technique to reduce this computational cost. The proposed technique has two distinctive features. Read More