Thomas S. Huang

Thomas S. Huang
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Thomas S. Huang

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Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (30)
Computer Science - Learning (24)
Statistics - Machine Learning (6)
Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (4)
Computer Science - Information Retrieval (3)
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (2)
Computer Science - Multimedia (1)
Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1)
Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (1)
Computer Science - Sound (1)

Publications Authored By Thomas S. Huang

Convolutional autoregressive models have recently demonstrated state-of-the-art performance on a number of generation tasks. While fast, parallel training methods have been crucial for their success, generation is typically implemented in a na\"{i}ve fashion where redundant computations are unnecessarily repeated. This results in slow generation, making such models infeasible for production environments. Read More

In this paper, we present a label transfer model from texts to images for image classification tasks. The problem of image classification is often much more challenging than text classification. On one hand, labeled text data is more widely available than the labeled images for classification tasks. Read More

Image matting is a fundamental computer vision problem and has many applications. Previous algorithms have poor performance when an image has similar foreground and background colors or complicated textures. The main reasons are prior methods 1) only use low-level features and 2) lack high-level context. Read More

Single image super-resolution (SR) is an ill-posed problem which aims to recover high-resolution (HR) images from their low-resolution (LR) observations. The crux of this problem lies in learning the complex mapping between low-resolution patches and the corresponding high-resolution patches. Prior arts have used either a mixture of simple regression models or a single non-linear neural network for this propose. Read More

Learning from weakly-supervised data is one of the main challenges in machine learning and computer vision, especially for tasks such as image semantic segmentation where labeling is extremely expensive and subjective. In this paper, we propose a novel neural network architecture to perform weakly-supervised learning by suppressing irrelevant neuron activations. It localizes objects of interest by learning from image-level categorical labels in an end-to-end manner. Read More

This paper presents an efficient implementation of the Wavenet generation process called Fast Wavenet. Compared to a naive implementation that has complexity O(2^L) (L denotes the number of layers in the network), our proposed approach removes redundant convolution operations by caching previous calculations, thereby reducing the complexity to O(L) time. Timing experiments show significant advantages of our fast implementation over a naive one. Read More

This paper emphasizes the significance to jointly exploit the problem structure and the parameter structure, in the context of deep modeling. As a specific and interesting example, we describe the deep double sparsity encoder (DDSE), which is inspired by the double sparsity model for dictionary learning. DDSE simultaneously sparsities the output features and the learned model parameters, under one unified framework. Read More

With the agreement of my coauthors, I Zhangyang Wang would like to withdraw the manuscript "Stacked Approximated Regression Machine: A Simple Deep Learning Approach". Some experimental procedures were not included in the manuscript, which makes a part of important claims not meaningful. In the relevant research, I was solely responsible for carrying out the experiments; the other coauthors joined in the discussions leading to the main algorithm. Read More

In present object detection systems, the deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are utilized to predict bounding boxes of object candidates, and have gained performance advantages over the traditional region proposal methods. However, existing deep CNN methods assume the object bounds to be four independent variables, which could be regressed by the $\ell_2$ loss separately. Such an oversimplified assumption is contrary to the well-received observation, that those variables are correlated, resulting to less accurate localization. Read More

The increasing popularity of real-world recommender systems produces data continuously and rapidly, and it becomes more realistic to study recommender systems under streaming scenarios. Data streams present distinct properties such as temporally ordered, continuous and high-velocity, which poses tremendous challenges to traditional recommender systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of recommendation with stream inputs. Read More

With the incredibly growing amount of multimedia data shared on the social media platforms, recommender systems have become an important necessity to ease users' burden on the information overload. In such a scenario, extensive amount of heterogeneous information such as tags, image content, in addition to the user-to-item preferences, is extremely valuable for making effective recommendations. In this paper, we explore a novel hybrid algorithm termed {\em STM}, for image recommendation. Read More

We investigate the $\ell_\infty$-constrained representation which demonstrates robustness to quantization errors, utilizing the tool of deep learning. Based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM), we formulate the original convex minimization problem as a feed-forward neural network, named \textit{Deep $\ell_\infty$ Encoder}, by introducing the novel Bounded Linear Unit (BLU) neuron and modeling the Lagrange multipliers as network biases. Such a structural prior acts as an effective network regularization, and facilitates the model initialization. Read More

Interactive object selection is a very important research problem and has many applications. Previous algorithms require substantial user interactions to estimate the foreground and background distributions. In this paper, we present a novel deep learning based algorithm which has a much better understanding of objectness and thus can reduce user interactions to just a few clicks. Read More

Video object detection is challenging because objects that are easily detected in one frame may be difficult to detect in another frame within the same clip. Recently, there have been major advances for doing object detection in a single image. These methods typically contain three phases: (i) object proposal generation (ii) object classification and (iii) post-processing. Read More

We consider the task of dimensional emotion recognition on video data using deep learning. While several previous methods have shown the benefits of training temporal neural network models such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs) on hand-crafted features, few works have considered combining convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with RNNs. In this work, we present a system that performs emotion recognition on video data using both CNNs and RNNs, and we also analyze how much each neural network component contributes to the system's overall performance. Read More

In this paper, we design a Deep Dual-Domain ($\mathbf{D^3}$) based fast restoration model to remove artifacts of JPEG compressed images. It leverages the large learning capacity of deep networks, as well as the problem-specific expertise that was hardly incorporated in the past design of deep architectures. For the latter, we take into consideration both the prior knowledge of the JPEG compression scheme, and the successful practice of the sparsity-based dual-domain approach. Read More

Visual recognition research often assumes a sufficient resolution of the region of interest (ROI). That is usually violated in practice, inspiring us to explore the Very Low Resolution Recognition (VLRR) problem. Typically, the ROI in a VLRR problem can be smaller than $16 \times 16$ pixels, and is challenging to be recognized even by human experts. Read More

Image aesthetics assessment has been challenging due to its subjective nature. Inspired by the scientific advances in the human visual perception and neuroaesthetics, we design Brain-Inspired Deep Networks (BDN) for this task. BDN first learns attributes through the parallel supervised pathways, on a variety of selected feature dimensions. Read More

Sparse subspace clustering methods, such as Sparse Subspace Clustering (SSC) \cite{ElhamifarV13} and $\ell^{1}$-graph \cite{YanW09,ChengYYFH10}, are effective in partitioning the data that lie in a union of subspaces. Most of those methods use $\ell^{1}$-norm or $\ell^{2}$-norm with thresholding to impose the sparsity of the constructed sparse similarity graph, and certain assumptions, e.g. Read More

Despite being the appearance-based classifier of choice in recent years, relatively few works have examined how much convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can improve performance on accepted expression recognition benchmarks and, more importantly, examine what it is they actually learn. In this work, not only do we show that CNNs can achieve strong performance, but we also introduce an approach to decipher which portions of the face influence the CNN's predictions. First, we train a zero-bias CNN on facial expression data and achieve, to our knowledge, state-of-the-art performance on two expression recognition benchmarks: the extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) dataset and the Toronto Face Dataset (TFD). Read More

While sparse coding-based clustering methods have shown to be successful, their bottlenecks in both efficiency and scalability limit the practical usage. In recent years, deep learning has been proved to be a highly effective, efficient and scalable feature learning tool. In this paper, we propose to emulate the sparse coding-based clustering pipeline in the context of deep learning, leading to a carefully crafted deep model benefiting from both. Read More

Despite its nonconvex nature, $\ell_0$ sparse approximation is desirable in many theoretical and application cases. We study the $\ell_0$ sparse approximation problem with the tool of deep learning, by proposing Deep $\ell_0$ Encoders. Two typical forms, the $\ell_0$ regularized problem and the $M$-sparse problem, are investigated. Read More

Deep learning techniques have been successfully applied in many areas of computer vision, including low-level image restoration problems. For image super-resolution, several models based on deep neural networks have been recently proposed and attained superior performance that overshadows all previous handcrafted models. The question then arises whether large-capacity and data-driven models have become the dominant solution to the ill-posed super-resolution problem. Read More

As font is one of the core design concepts, automatic font identification and similar font suggestion from an image or photo has been on the wish list of many designers. We study the Visual Font Recognition (VFR) problem, and advance the state-of-the-art remarkably by developing the DeepFont system. First of all, we build up the first available large-scale VFR dataset, named AdobeVFR, consisting of both labeled synthetic data and partially labeled real-world data. Read More

Deep learning has been successfully applied to image super resolution (SR). In this paper, we propose a deep joint super resolution (DJSR) model to exploit both external and self similarities for SR. A Stacked Denoising Convolutional Auto Encoder (SDCAE) is first pre-trained on external examples with proper data augmentations. Read More

We address a challenging fine-grain classification problem: recognizing a font style from an image of text. In this task, it is very easy to generate lots of rendered font examples but very hard to obtain real-world labeled images. This real-to-synthetic domain gap caused poor generalization to new real data in previous methods (Chen et al. Read More

We study the complementary behaviors of external and internal examples in image restoration, and are motivated to formulate a composite dictionary design framework. The composite dictionary consists of the global part learned from external examples, and the sample-specific part learned from internal examples. The dictionary atoms in both parts are further adaptively weighted to emphasize their model statistics. Read More

This paper proposes a decentralized recommender system by formulating the popular collaborative filleting (CF) model into a decentralized matrix completion form over a set of users. In such a way, data storages and computations are fully distributed. Each user could exchange limited information with its local neighborhood, and thus it avoids the centralized fusion. Read More

Single image super-resolution (SR) aims to estimate a high-resolution (HR) image from a lowresolution (LR) input. Image priors are commonly learned to regularize the otherwise seriously ill-posed SR problem, either using external LR-HR pairs or internal similar patterns. We propose joint SR to adaptively combine the advantages of both external and internal SR methods. Read More

Convolutional neural networks perform well on object recognition because of a number of recent advances: rectified linear units (ReLUs), data augmentation, dropout, and large labelled datasets. Unsupervised data has been proposed as another way to improve performance. Unfortunately, unsupervised pre-training is not used by state-of-the-art methods leading to the following question: Is unsupervised pre-training still useful given recent advances? If so, when? We answer this in three parts: we 1) develop an unsupervised method that incorporates ReLUs and recent unsupervised regularization techniques, 2) analyze the benefits of unsupervised pre-training compared to data augmentation and dropout on CIFAR-10 while varying the ratio of unsupervised to supervised samples, 3) verify our findings on STL-10. Read More

We present a domain adaption framework to address a domain mismatch between synthetic training and real-world testing data. We demonstrate our method on a challenging fine-grain classification problem: recognizing a font style from an image of text. In this task, it is very easy to generate lots of rendered font examples but very hard to obtain real-world labeled images. Read More

Classifying large-scale image data into object categories is an important problem that has received increasing research attention. Given the huge amount of data, non-parametric approaches such as nearest neighbor classifiers have shown promising results, especially when they are underpinned by a learned distance or similarity measurement. Although metric learning has been well studied in the past decades, most existing algorithms are impractical to handle large-scale data sets. Read More

The ability to train large-scale neural networks has resulted in state-of-the-art performance in many areas of computer vision. These results have largely come from computational break throughs of two forms: model parallelism, e.g. Read More

Many real-valued stochastic time-series are locally linear (Gassian), but globally non-linear. For example, the trajectory of a human hand gesture can be viewed as a linear dynamic system driven by a nonlinear dynamic system that represents muscle actions. We present a mixed-state dynamic graphical model in which a hidden Markov model drives a linear dynamic system. Read More

Image colorization adds color to grayscale images. It not only increases the visual appeal of grayscale images, but also enriches the information contained in scientific images that lack color information. Most existing methods of colorization require laborious user interaction for scribbles or image segmentation. Read More

Unsupervised classification methods learn a discriminative classifier from unlabeled data, which has been proven to be an effective way of simultaneously clustering the data and training a classifier from the data. Various unsupervised classification methods obtain appealing results by the classifiers learned in an unsupervised manner. However, existing methods do not consider the misclassification error of the unsupervised classifiers except unsupervised SVM, so the performance of the unsupervised classifiers is not fully evaluated. Read More

Collective intelligence, which aggregates the shared information from large crowds, is often negatively impacted by unreliable information sources with the low quality data. This becomes a barrier to the effective use of collective intelligence in a variety of applications. In order to address this issue, we propose a probabilistic model to jointly assess the reliability of sources and find the true data. Read More

We propose a new method for estimating the intrinsic dimension of a dataset by applying the principle of regularized maximum likelihood to the distances between close neighbors. We propose a regularization scheme which is motivated by divergence minimization principles. We derive the estimator by a Poisson process approximation, argue about its convergence properties and apply it to a number of simulated and real datasets. Read More

This paper introduces a probabilistic graphical model for continuous action recognition with two novel components: substructure transition model and discriminative boundary model. The first component encodes the sparse and global temporal transition prior between action primitives in state-space model to handle the large spatial-temporal variations within an action class. The second component enforces the action duration constraint in a discriminative way to locate the transition boundaries between actions more accurately. Read More

In this work we investigate the relationship between Bregman distances and regularized Logistic Regression model. We present a detailed study of Bregman Distance minimization, a family of generalized entropy measures associated with convex functions. We convert the L1-regularized logistic regression into this more general framework and propose a primal-dual method based algorithm for learning the parameters. Read More