# Tetsufumi Hirano - Tokyo University & LBNL

## Contact Details

NameTetsufumi Hirano |
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AffiliationTokyo University & LBNL |
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CountryJapan |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesNuclear Theory (45) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (40) Nuclear Experiment (33) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Tetsufumi Hirano

We propose a new approach to initialize the hydrodynamic fields such as energy density distributions and four flow velocity fields in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions at the collider energies. Instead of matching the energy-momentum tensor or putting initial conditions of quark-gluon fluids at a fixed initial time, we utilize a framework of relativistic hydrodynamic equations with source terms to describe the initial stage. Putting the energy and momentum loss rate of initial partons into the source terms, we obtain hydrodynamic initial conditions dynamically. Read More

**Authors:**Federico Antinori, Francesco Becattini, Peter Braun-Munzinger, Tatsuya Chujo, Hideki Hamagaki, John Harris, Ulrich Heinz, Boris Hippolyte, Tetsufumi Hirano, Barbara Jacak, Dmitri Kharzeev, Constantin Loizides, Silvia Masciocchi, Alexander Milov, Andreas Morsch, Berndt Müller, Jamie Nagle, Jean-Yves Ollitrault, Guy Paic, Krishna Rajagopal, Gunther Roland, Jürgen Schukraft, Yves Schutz, Raimond Snellings, Johanna Stachel, Derek Teaney, Julia Velkovska, Sergei Voloshin, Urs Achim Wiedemann, Zhangbu Xu, William Zajc

This document summarizes thoughts on opportunities in the soft-QCD sector from high-energy nuclear collisions at high luminosities. Read More

We investigate effects of causal hydrodynamic fluctuations in the longitudinally expanding quark gluon plasma on final entropy distributions in high-energy nuclear collisions. Read More

We study effects of the hadronic rescattering on final observables especially for multi-strange hadrons such as $\phi$, $\Xi$ and $\Omega$ in high-energy heavy-ion collisions within an integrated dynamical approach. In this approach, (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics is combined with a microscopic transport model, JAM. We simulate the collisions with or without hadronic rescatterings and compare observables between these two options so that we quantify the effects of the hadronic rescattering. Read More

We develop a new integrated dynamical model to investigate the effects of the hydrodynamic fluctuations on observables in high-energy nuclear collisions. We implement hydrodynamic fluctuations in a fully 3-D dynamical model consisting of the hydrodynamic initialization models of the Monte-Carlo Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi model, causal dissipative hydrodynamics and the subsequent hadronic cascades. By analyzing the hadron distributions obtained by massive event-by-event simulations with both of hydrodynamic fluctuations and initial-state fluctuations, we discuss the effects of hydrodynamic fluctuations on the flow harmonics, $v_n$ and their fluctuations. Read More

We report on our recent attempt of quantitative modeling of the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in heavy-ion collisions. We perform 3+1 dimensional anomalous hydrodynamic simulations on an event-by-event basis, with constitutive equations that contain the anomaly-induced effects. We also develop a model of the initial condition for the axial charge density that captures the statistical nature of random chirality imbalances created by the color flux tubes. Read More

We study the hydrodynamic response to jet quenching in expanding quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and its signal in the resulting particle distribution. The ideal hydrodynamic simulations of the $\gamma$-jet events in heavy-ion collisions are performed in a full (3 + 1)-dimensional setup. The jet-induced Mach cone and the radial expansion of the background mutually push and distort each other. Read More

We study the effects of hadronic rescattering on hadron distributions in high-energy nuclear collisions by using an integrated dynamical approach. This approach is based on a hybrid model combining (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics for the quark gluon plasma (QGP), and a transport model for the hadron resonance gas. Since the hadron distributions are the result of the entire expansion history of the system, understanding the QGP properties requires investigating how rescattering during the hadronic stage affects the final distributions of hadrons. Read More

The (3+1)D relativistic hydrodynamics with chiral anomaly is used to obtain a quantitative description of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in heavy-ion collisions. We find that the charge-dependent hadron azimuthal correlations are sensitive to the CME, and that the experimental observations are consistent with the presence of the effect. Read More

We discuss multiplicity fluctuation caused by noises during hydrodynamic evolution of the quark-gluon fluid created in high-energy nuclear collisions. Read More

We study the collective flow of the {QGP}-fluid which transports the energy and momentum deposited from jets. Simulations of the propagation of jets together with expansion of the {QGP}-fluid are performed by solving relativistic hydrodynamic equations numerically in the fully (3+1)-dimensional space. Mach cones are induced by the energy-momentum deposition from jets and extended by the expansion of the {QGP}. Read More

We study the transport dynamics of momenta deposited from jets in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Assuming that the high-energy partons traverse expanding quark-gluon fluids and are subject to lose their energy and momentum, we simulate dijet asymmetric events by solving relativistic hydrodynamic equations numerically without linearization in the fully (3+1)-dimensional coordinate. Mach cones are formed and strongly broadened by radial flow of the background medium. Read More

**Authors:**Tetsufumi Hirano

In this review, I show a personal overview of theoretical results shown in the International Conference on the Initial Stages in High-Energy Nuclear Collision, in Illa da Toxa, Galicia, Spain, Sept.~8-14, 2013. Read More

Anomalous hydrodynamics is a low-energy effective theory that captures effects of quantum anomalies. We develop a numerical code of anomalous hydrodynamics and apply it to dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, where anomalous transports are expected to occur. This is the first attempt to perform fully non-linear numerical simulations of anomalous hydrodynamics. Read More

Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics including hydrodynamic fluctuations is formulated by putting an emphasis on non-linearity and causality. As a consequence of causality, dissipative currents become dynamical variables and noises appeared in an integral form of constitutive equations should be colored ones from fluctuation-dissipation relations. Nevertheless noises turn out to be white ones in its differential form when noises are assumed to be Gaussian. Read More

We show that in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions, especially off-central Cu+Au collisions, a sizable strength of electric field directed from Au nucleus to Cu nucleus is generated in the overlapping region, because of the difference in the number of electric charges between the two nuclei. This electric field would induce an electric current in the matter created after the collision, which result in a dipole deformation of the charge distribution. The directed flow parameters $v_1^{\pm}$ of charged particles turn out to be sensitive to the charge dipole and provide us with information about electric conductivity of the quark gluon plasma. Read More

We study dynamics of a QGP fluid induced by energetic partons propagating through it. We construct a (3+1)-dimensional QGP-fluid+Jet model. When a jet traverses a uniform fluid, it induces a Mach cone structure of energy density distribution and a vortex ring surrounding a path of the jet. Read More

We review integrated dynamical approaches to describe heavy ion reaction as a whole at ultrarelativistic energies. Since final observables result from all the history of the reaction, it is important to describe all the stages of the reaction to obtain the properties of the quark gluon plasma from experimental data. As an example of these approaches, we develop an integrated dynamical model, which is composed of a fully (3+1) dimensional ideal hydrodynamic model with the state-of-the-art equation of state based on lattice QCD, and subsequent hadronic cascade in the late stage. Read More

We present theoretical approaches to high energy nuclear collisions in detail putting a special emphasis on technical aspects of numerical simulations. Models include relativistic hydrodynamics, Monte-Carlo implementation of k_T-factorization formula, jet quenching in expanding fluids, a hadronic transport model and the Vlasov equation for colored particles. Read More

We attempt to understand the low-mass dielectron enhancement observed by PHENIX Collaboration at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) by transport peak in the spectral function. On the basis of the second-order formalism of relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics, we parameterize the spectral function in low-frequency and long-wavelength region by two transport coefficients, electric diffusion coefficient $D$ and relaxation time $\tau_{\rm J}$, and compared our theoretical dielectron spectra with the experimental data. We study spectrum of dielectrons produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions by using the profile of matter evolution under full (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics. Read More

With the new viscous hydrodynamic + hadron cascade hybrid code VISHNU, a rather precise (O(25%)) extraction of the QGP shear viscosity (eta/s)_QGP from heavy-ion elliptic flow data is possible if the initial eccentricity of the collision fireball is known with <5% accuracy. At this point, eccentricities from initial state models differ by up to 20%, leading to an O(100%) uncertainty for (eta/s)_QGP. It is shown that a simultaneous comparison of elliptic and triangular flow, v_2 and v_3, puts strong constraints on initial state models and can largely eliminate the present uncertainty in (eta/s)_QGP. Read More

We propose a novel relation between the low-mass enhancement of dielectrons observed at PHENIX and transport coefficients of QGP such as the charge diffusion constant $D$ and the relaxation time $\tau_{\rm J}$. We parameterize the transport peak in the spectral function using the second-order relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics by Israel and Stewart. Combining the spectral function and the full (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamical evolution with the lattice EoS, theoretical dielectron spectra and the experimental data are compared. Read More

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments have revealed that the predictions of the color glass condensate (CGC) tend to underestimate the multiplicity at mid-rapidity. We develop and estimate a full second-order viscous hydrodynamic model for the longitudinal expansion to find that the CGC rapidity distributions are visibly deformed during the hydrodynamic stage due to the interplay between the entropy production and the entropy flux to forward rapidity. The results indicate the importance of viscous hydrodynamic evolution with non-boost invariant flow for understanding the CGC in terms of the heavy ion collisions. Read More

Nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}(p_{T})$ for large transverse momentum pion spectra in $Pb+Pb$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV is predicted within the NLO perturbative QCD parton model. Effect of jet quenching is incorporated through medium modified fragmentation functions within the higher-twist approach. Read More

We investigate hydrodynamic evolution of the quark gluon plasma for the colour glass condensate type initial conditions. We solve full second-order viscous hydrodynamic equations in the longitudinal direction to find that non-boost invariant expansion leads to visible deformation on the initial rapidity distribution. The results indicate that hydrodynamic evolution with viscosity plays an important role in determining parameters for the initial distributions. Read More

It is shown that the recently developed hybrid code VISHNU, which couples a relativistic viscous fluid dynamical description of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with a microscopic Boltzmann cascade for the late hadronic rescattering stage, yields an excellent description of charged and identified hadron spectra and elliptic flow measured in 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). Using initial conditions that incorporate event-by-event fluctuations in the initial shape and orientation of the collision fireball and values eta/s for the specific shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma that were recently extracted from the measured centrality dependence of the eccentricity-scaled, p_T-integrated charged hadron elliptic flow, we obtain universally good agreement between theory and experiment for the p_T-spectra and differential elliptic flow v_2(p_T) for both pions and protons at all collision centralities. Read More

We analyze the elliptic flow parameter v_2 in Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV and in Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} =200 GeV using a hybrid model in which the evolution of the quark gluon plasma is described by ideal hydrodynamics with a state-of-the-art lattice QCD equation of state, and the subsequent hadronic stage by a hadron cascade model. For initial conditions, we employ Monte-Carlo versions of the Glauber and the Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi models and compare results with each other. Read More

**Authors:**Huichao Song

^{1}, Steffen A. Bass

^{2}, Ulrich W. Heinz

^{3}, Tetsufumi Hirano

^{4}, Chun Shen

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}LBNL & Ohio State,

^{2}Duke U.,

^{3}Ohio State,

^{4}Tokyo U. & LBNL,

^{5}Ohio State

The specific shear viscosity (eta/s)_QGP of a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) at temperatures T_c < T < 2T_c is extracted from the centrality dependence of the eccentricity-scaled elliptic flow measured in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Coupling viscous fluid dynamics for the QGP with a microscopic transport model for hadronic freeze-out we find that the eccentricity-scaled elliptic flow is a universal function of charged multiplicity per unit overlap area, (1/S)(dN_ch/dy), that depends only on the viscosity but not on the model used for computing the initial fireball eccentricity. Comparing with measurements we find 1 < (4pi)(eta/s)_QGP < 2. Read More

We predict the elliptic flow parameter v_2 in U+U collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV and in Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV using a hybrid model in which the evolution of the quark gluon plasma is described by ideal hydrodynamics with a state-of-the-art lattice QCD equation of state, and the subsequent hadronic stage by a hadron cascade model. Read More

We would like to formulate relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics for multi-component systems with multiple conserved currents. This is important for analyses of the hot matter created in relativistic heavy ion collisions because particle creations and annihilations of various particle species are frequently taking place there. We show that consistent formulation in such systems involves many non-trivialities, and derive constitutive equations that satisfy Onsager reciprocal relations and describe the systems without ambiguity. Read More

We derive the second order hydrodynamic equations for the relativistic system of multi-components with multiple conserved currents by generalizing the Israel-Stewart theory and Grad's moment method. We find that, in addition to the conventional moment equations, extra moment equations associated with conserved currents should be introduced to consistently match the number of equations with that of unknowns and to satisfy the Onsager reciprocal relations. Consistent expansion of the entropy current leads to constitutive equations which involve the terms not appearing in the original Israel-Stewart theory even in the single component limit. Read More

We develop a relativistic Langevin dynamics under the background of strongly interacting quark-gluon fluid described by the (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics. The drag force acting on charm and bottom quarks is parametrized according to the formula obtained from the anti-de-Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. In this setup, we calculate the nuclear modification factor $R_{\rm{AA}}$ for the single-electrons from the charm and bottom quarks to extract the magnitude of the drag force from the PHENIX and STAR data. Read More

We estimate the effects of viscosity on the phase space distribution appearing in the Cooper-Frye formula within the framework of the Grad's fourteen moment method and find that there are non-trivialities in the discussion of a multi-component system. We calculate the viscous corrections of particle spectra and elliptic flow coefficients from the distortion of the distribution using the flow and the hypersurface taken from a (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic simulation. We see that the bulk viscosity have visible effects on particle spectra. Read More

We study effects of eccentricity fluctuations on the elliptic flow coefficient v_2 at mid-rapidity in both Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV by using a hybrid model that combines ideal hydrodynamics for space-time evolution of the quark gluon plasma phase and a hadronic transport model for the hadronic matter. We find that the effect of eccentricity fluctuation is modest in semicentral Au+Au collisions but significantly enhances v_2 in Cu+Cu collisions. Read More

As a new and clean probe to the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP), we propose an azimuthal correlation of an electron and a muon which originate from the semileptonic decay of charm and bottom quarks. By solving the Langevin equation for the heavy quarks under the hydrodynamic evolution of the hot plasma, we show that substantial quenching of the away-side peak in the electron-muon correlation can be seen if the sQGP drag force acting on heavy quarks is large enough as suggested from the gauge/gravity correspondence. The effect could be detected in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider. Read More

We present a global fit to single- and double-inclusive suppression data of high-$p_T$ particles in central Au+Au collisions at top RHIC energy. We also include in this analysis data on heavy quarks via their D and B meson semi-leptonic decays (i.e. Read More

The elliptic flow $v_{2}$ of thermal photons at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV is predicted, based on three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics. Because of the interplay between the asymmetry and the strength of the transverse flow, the thermal photon $v_{2}$ reaches a maximum at $\pt \sim $ 2GeV/$c$ and the $\pt$-integrated $v_{2}$ reaches a maximum at about 50% centrality. The $\pt$-integrated $v_{2}$ is very sensitive to the lower limit of the integral but not sensitive to the upper limit due to the rapid decrease in the spectrum of the transverse momentum. Read More

We study effects of eccentricity fluctuations on the elliptic flow coefficient v_2 at mid-rapidity in both Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt{s_NN}=200 GeV by using a hybrid model that combines ideal hydrodynamics for space-time evolution of the quark gluon plasma phase and a hadronic transport model for the hadronic matter. For initial conditions in hydrodynamic simulations, both the Glauber model and the color glass condensate model are employed to demonstrate the effect of initial eccentricity fluctuations originating from the nucleon position inside a colliding nucleus. The effect of eccentricity fluctuations is modest in semicentral Au+Au collisions, but significantly enhances v_2 in Cu+Cu collisions. Read More

We investigate particle spectra and elliptic flow coefficients in relativistic heavy ion collisions by taking into account the distortion of phase space distributions due to bulk viscosity at freezeout. We first calculate the distortion of phase space distributions in a multi-component system within the Grad's fourteen moment method. We find some subtle issues when one matches macroscopic variables with microscopic momentum distributions in a multi-component system and develop a consistent procedure to uniquely determine the corrections in the phase space distributions. Read More

The transverse momentum (pt) dependence, the centrality dependence and the rapidity dependence of the elliptic flow of thermal photons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV are predicted, based on a three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic description of the hot and dense matter. The elliptic flow parameter $v_{2}$, i.e. Read More

NA60 collaboration has extracted the inverse slope parameters, T_{eff} of the dimuon spectra originating from the In+In collisions at root(s_NN)=17.3 GeV for various invariant mass region. They have observed that the inverse slope parameter as a function of invariant mass of the lepton pair drops beyond the rho-peak. Read More

Current status of dynamical modeling of relativistic heavy ion collisions and hydrodynamic description of the quark gluon plasma is reported. We find the hadronic rescattering effect plays an important role in interpretation of mass splitting pattern in the differential elliptic flow data observed at RHIC. To demonstrate this, we predict the elliptic flow parameter for phi mesons to directly observe the flow just after hadronisation. Read More

Jet quenching effect has been investigated in the direct photon production, based on a realistic data-constrained (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamic description of the expanding hot and dense matter, a reasonable treatment of the propagation of partons and their energy loss in the fluid, and a systematic study of the main sources of direct photons. Our resultant $\pt$ spectra agree with recent PHENIX data in a broad $\pt$ range. Parton energy loss in the plasma eventually effect significantly direct photon production from fragmentation and jet photon conversion, similar to hadron suppression in central heavy ion collisions. Read More

The relativistic diffusion process of heavy quarks is formulated on the basis of the relativistic Langevin equation in It\^{o} discretization scheme. The drag force inside the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is parametrized according to the formula for the strongly coupled plasma obtained by the AdS/CFT correspondence. The diffusion dynamics of charm and bottom quarks in QGP is described by combining the Langevin simulation under the background matter described by the relativistic hydrodynamics. Read More

In this lecture note, we present several topics on relativistic hydrodynamics and its application to relativistic heavy ion collisions. In the first part we give a brief introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics in the context of heavy ion collisions. In the second part we present the formalism and some fundamental aspects of relativistic ideal and viscous hydrodynamics. Read More

We calculate the centrality-dependence of transverse momentum ($\pt$) spectra for direct photons in Au+Au collisions at the RHIC energy, based on a realistic data-constrained (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamic description of the expanding hot and dense matter, a reasonable treatment of the propagation of partons and their energy loss in the fluid, and a systematic study of the main sources of direct photons. The resultant $\pt$ spectra agree with recent PHENIX data in a broad $\pt$ range. The competition among the different direct photon sources is investigated at various centralities. Read More

We simulate the dynamics of Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with a hybrid model that treats the dense early quark-gluon plasma (QGP) stage macroscopically as an ideal fluid, but models the dilute late hadron resonance gas (HG) microscopically using a hadronic cascade. By comparing with a pure hydrodynamic approach we identify effects of hadronic viscosity on the transverse momentum spectra and differential elliptic flow v_2(p_T). We investigate the dynamical origins of the observed mass-ordering of v_2(p_T) for identified hadrons, focusing on dissipative effects during the late hadronic stage. Read More

Recent development of a hydrodynamic model is discussed by putting an emphasis on realistic treatment of the early and late stages in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The model, which incorporates a hydrodynamic description of the quark-gluon plasma with a kinetic approach of hadron cascades, is applied to analysis of elliptic flow data at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energy. It is predicted that the elliptic flow parameter based on the hybrid model increases with the collision energy up to the Large Hadron Collider energy. Read More

We investigate the robustness of the discovery of the perfect fluid through comparison of hydrodynamic calculations with the elliptic flow coefficient v_2 at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV. Employing the Glauber model for initial entropy density distributions, the centrality dependence of v_2 is reasonably reproduced by using an ideal fluid description of the early QGP stage followed by a hadronic cascade in the late hadronic stage. On the other hand, initial conditions based on the Colour Glass Condensate model are found to generate larger elliptic flow due to larger initial eccentricity epsilon. Read More

We can establish a new picture, the perfect fluid sQGP core and the dissipative hadronic corona, of the space-time evolution of produced matter in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC. It is also shown that the picture works well also in the forward rapidity region through an analysis based on a new class of the hydro-kinetic model and is a manifestation of deconfinement. Read More