# Terence Tao

## Contact Details

NameTerence Tao |
||

Affiliation |
||

Location |
||

## Pubs By Year |
||

## Pub CategoriesMathematics - Combinatorics (22) Mathematics - Number Theory (17) Mathematics - Probability (10) Mathematics - Group Theory (5) Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (5) Mathematics - Dynamical Systems (4) Mathematics - Classical Analysis and ODEs (2) Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (2) Mathematics - General Topology (1) |

## Publications Authored By Terence Tao

Define $r_4(N)$ to be the largest cardinality of a set $A \subset \{1,\dots,N\}$ which does not contain four elements in arithmetic progression. In 1998 Gowers proved that \[ r_4(N) \ll N(\log \log N)^{-c}\] for some absolute constant $c>0$. In 2005, the authors improved this to \[ r_4(N) \ll N e^{-c\sqrt{\log\log N}}. Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - Combinatorics

Let $X$ be a finite collection of sets (or "clusters"). We consider the problem of counting the number of ways a cluster $A \in X$ can be partitioned into two disjoint clusters $A_1, A_2 \in X$, thus $A = A_1 \uplus A_2$ is the disjoint union of $A_1$ and $A_2$; this problem arises in the run time analysis of the ASTRAL algorithm in phylogenetic reconstruction. We obtain the bound $$ | \{ (A_1,A_2,A) \in X \times X \times X: A = A_1 \uplus A_2 \} | \leq |X|^{3/p} $$ where $|X|$ denotes the cardinality of $X$, and $p := \log_3 \frac{27}{4} = 1. Read More

The lonely runner conjecture of Wills and Cusick, in its most popular formulation, asserts that if $n$ runners with distinct constant speeds run around a unit circle ${\bf R}/{\bf Z}$ starting at a common time and place, then each runner will at some time be separated by a distance of at least $\frac{1}{n+1}$ from the others. In this paper we make some remarks on this conjecture. Firstly, we can improve the trivial lower bound of $\frac{1}{2n}$ slightly for large $n$, to $\frac{1}{2n} + \frac{c \log n}{n^2 (\log\log n)^2}$ for some absolute constant $c>0$; previous improvements were roughly of the form $\frac{1}{2n} + \frac{c}{n^2}$. Read More

We consider the global regularity problem for defocusing nonlinear Schr\"odinger systems $$ i \partial_t + \Delta u = (\nabla_{{\bf R}^m} F)(u) + G $$ on Galilean spacetime ${\bf R} \times {\bf R}^d$, where the field $u\colon {\bf R}^{1+d} \to {\bf C}^m$ is vector-valued, $F\colon {\bf C}^m \to {\bf R}$ is a smooth potential which is positive, phase-rotation-invariant, and homogeneous of order $p+1$ outside of the unit ball for some exponent $p >1$, and $G: {\bf R} \times {\bf R}^d \to {\bf C}^m$ is a smooth, compactly supported forcing term. This generalises the scalar defocusing nonlinear Schr\"odinger (NLS) equation, in which $m=1$ and $F(v) = \frac{1}{p+1} |v|^{p+1}$. In this paper we study the supercritical case where $d \geq 3$ and $p > 1 + \frac{4}{d-2}$. Read More

The "square peg problem" or "inscribed square problem" of Toeplitz asks if every simple closed curve in the plane inscribes a (non-degenerate) square, in the sense that all four vertices of that square lie on the curve. By a variety of arguments of a "homological" nature, it is known that the answer to this question is positive if the curve is sufficiently regular. The regularity hypotheses are needed to rule out the possibility of arbitrarily small squares that are inscribed or almost inscribed on the curve; because of this, these arguments do not appear to be robust enough to handle arbitrarily rough curves. Read More

In the language of differential geometry, the incompressible inviscid Euler equations can be written in vorticity-vector potential form as \begin{align*} \partial_t \omega + {\mathcal L}_u \omega &= 0\\ u &= \delta \tilde \eta^{-1} \Delta^{-1} \omega \end{align*} where $\omega$ is the vorticity $2$-form, ${\mathcal L}_u$ denotes the Lie derivative with respect to the velocity field $u$, $\Delta$ is the Hodge Laplacian, $\delta$ is the codifferential (the negative of the divergence operator), and $\tilde \eta^{-1}$ is the canonical map from $2$-forms to $2$-vector fields induced by the Euclidean metric $\eta$. In this paper we consider a generalisation of these Euler equations in three spatial dimensions, in which the vector potential operator $\tilde \eta^{-1} \Delta^{-1}$ is replaced by a more general operator $A$ of order $-2$; this retains the Lagrangian structure of the Euler equations, as well as most of its conservation laws and local existence theory. Despite this, we give three different constructions of such an operator $A$ which admits smooth solutions that blow up in finite time, including an example on ${\bf R}^3$ which is self-adjoint and positive definite. Read More

Let $\lambda$ denote the Liouville function. The Chowla conjecture asserts that $$ \sum_{n \leq X} \lambda(a_1 n + b_1) \lambda(a_2 n+b_2) \dots \lambda(a_k n + b_k) = o_{X \to \infty}(X) $$ for any fixed natural numbers $a_1,a_2,\dots,a_k$ and non-negative integer $b_1,b_2,\dots,b_k$ with $a_ib_j-a_jb_i \neq 0$ for all $1 \leq i < j \leq k$, and any $X \geq 1$. This conjecture is open for $k \geq 2$. Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - Number Theory

Let $P_1,\dots,P_k \colon {\bf Z} \to {\bf Z}$ be polynomials of degree at most $d$ for some $d \geq 1$, with the degree $d$ coefficients all distinct, and admissible in the sense that for every prime $p$, there exists integers $n,m$ such that $n+P_1(m),\dots,n+P_k(m)$ are all not divisible by $p$. We show that there exist infinitely many natural numbers $n,m$ such that $n+P_1(m),\dots,n+P_k(m)$ are simultaneously prime, generalizing a previous result of the authors, which was restricted to the special case $P_1(0)=\dots=P_k(0)=0$ (though it allowed for the top degree coefficients to coincide). Furthermore, we obtain an asymptotic for the number of such prime pairs $n,m$ with $n \leq N$ and $m \leq M$ with $M$ slightly less than $N^{1/d}$. Read More

We establish a number of "concatenation theorems" that assert, roughly speaking, that if a function exhibits "polynomial" (or "Gowers anti-uniform", "uniformly almost periodic", or "nilsequence") behaviour in two different directions separately, then it also exhibits the same behavior (but at higher degree) in both directions jointly. Among other things, this allows one to control averaged local Gowers uniformity norms by global Gowers uniformity norms. In a sequel to this paper, we will apply such control to obtain asymptotics for "polynomial progressions" $n+P_1(r),\dots,n+P_k(r)$ in various sets of integers, such as the prime numbers. Read More

Let $A$ be a finite subset of an arbitrary additive group $G$, and let $\phi(A)$ denote the cardinality of the largest subset $B$ in $A$ that is sum-avoiding in $A$ (that is to say, $b_1+b_2 \not \in A$ for all distinct $b_1,b_2 \in B$). The question of controlling the size of $A$ in terms of $\phi(A)$ in the case when $G$ was torsion-free was posed by Erd\H{o}s and Moser. When $G$ has torsion, $A$ can be arbitrarily large for fixed $\phi(A)$ due to the presence of subgroups. Read More

We discuss several questions concerning sum-free sets in groups, raised by Erd\H{o}s in his survey "Extremal problems in number theory" (Proceedings of the Symp. Pure Math. VIII AMS) published in 1965. Read More

We consider the global regularity problem for nonlinear wave systems $$ \Box u = f(u) $$ on Minkowski spacetime ${\bf R}^{1+d}$ with d'Alambertian $\Box := -\partial_t^2 + \sum_{i=1}^d \partial_{x_i}^2$, where the field $u \colon {\bf R}^{1+d} \to {\bf R}^m$ is vector-valued, and the nonlinearity $f \colon {\bf R}^m \to {\bf R}^m$ is a smooth function with $f(0)=0$ and all derivatives bounded; the higher-dimensional sine-Gordon equation $\Box u = \sin u$ is a model example of this class of nonlinear wave system. For dimensions $d \leq 9$, it follows from the work of Heinz, Pecher, Brenner, and von Wahl that one has smooth solutions to this equation for any smooth choice of initial data. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that this result is almost sharp, in the sense that for any $d \geq 11$, there exists an $m$ (in fact we can take $m=2$) and a nonlinearity $f \colon {\bf R}^m \to {\bf R}^m$ with all derivatives bounded, for which the above equation admits solutions that blow up in finite time. Read More

We consider the global regularity problem for defocusing nonlinear wave systems $$ \Box u = (\nabla_{{\bf R}^m} F)(u) $$ on Minkowski spacetime ${\bf R}^{1+d}$ with d'Alambertian $\Box := -\partial_t^2 + \sum_{i=1}^d \partial_{x_i}^2$, the field $u: {\bf R}^{1+d} \to {\bf R}^m$ is vector-valued, and $F: {\bf R}^m \to {\bf R}$ is a smooth potential which is positive and homogeneous of order $p+1$ outside of the unit ball, for some $p >1$. This generalises the scalar defocusing nonlinear wave (NLW) equation, in which $m=1$ and $F(v) = \frac{1}{p+1} |v|^{p+1}$. It is well known that in the energy sub-critical and energy-critical cases when $d \leq 2$ or $d \geq 3$ and $p \leq 1+\frac{4}{d-2}$, one has global existence of smooth solutions (for dimensions $d \leq 7$ at least) from arbitrary smooth initial data $u(0), \partial_t u(0)$. Read More

Let $p_n$ denote the $n$-th prime, and for any $k \geq 1$ and sufficiently large $X$, define the quantity $$ G_k(X) := \max_{p_{n+k} \leq X} \min( p_{n+1}-p_n, \dots, p_{n+k}-p_{n+k-1} ),$$ which measures the occurrence of chains of $k$ consecutive large gaps of primes. Recently, with Green and Konyagin, the authors showed that \[ G_1(X) \gg \frac{\log X \log \log X\log\log\log\log X}{\log \log \log X}\] for sufficiently large $X$. In this note, we combine the arguments in that paper with the Maier matrix method to show that \[ G_k(X) \gg \frac{1}{k^2} \frac{\log X \log \log X\log\log\log\log X}{\log \log \log X}\] for any fixed $k$ and sufficiently large $X$. Read More

We show that for any sequence $f: {\bf N} \to \{-1,+1\}$ taking values in $\{-1,+1\}$, the discrepancy $$ \sup_{n,d \in {\bf N}} \left|\sum_{j=1}^n f(jd)\right| $$ of $f$ is infinite. This answers a question of Erd\H{o}s. In fact the argument also applies to sequences $f$ taking values in the unit sphere of a real or complex Hilbert space. Read More

Let $\lambda$ denote the Liouville function. The Chowla conjecture, in the two-point correlation case, asserts that $$ \sum_{n \leq x} \lambda(a_1 n + b_1) \lambda(a_2 n+b_2) = o(x) $$ as $x \to \infty$, for any fixed natural numbers $a_1,a_2,b_1,b_2$ with $a_1b_2-a_2b_1 \neq 0$. In this paper we establish the logarithmically averaged version $$ \sum_{x/\omega(x) < n \leq x} \frac{\lambda(a_1 n + b_1) \lambda(a_2 n+b_2)}{n} = o(\log \omega(x)) $$ of the Chowla conjecture as $x \to \infty$, where $1 \leq \omega(x) \leq x$ is an arbitrary function of $x$ that goes to infinity as $x \to \infty$, thus breaking the "parity barrier" for this problem. Read More

Let $\lambda$ and $\mu$ denote the Liouville and M\"obius functions respectively. Hildebrand showed that all eight possible sign patterns for $(\lambda(n), \lambda(n+1), \lambda(n+2))$ occur infinitely often. By using the recent result of the first two authors on mean values of multiplicative functions in short intervals, we strengthen Hildebrand's result by proving that each of these eight sign patterns occur with positive lower natural density. Read More

We give a structural description of the finite subsets $A$ of an arbitrary group $G$ which obey the polynomial growth condition $|A^n| \leq n^d |A|$ for some bounded $d$ and sufficiently large $n$, showing that such sets are controlled by (a bounded number of translates of) a coset nilprogression in a certain precise sense. This description recovers some previous results of Breuillard-Green-Tao and Breuillard-Tointon concerning sets of polynomial growth; we are also able to describe the subsequent growth of $|A^m|$ fairly explicitly for $m \geq n$, at least when $A$ is a symmetric neighbourhood of the identity. We also obtain an analogous description of symmetric probability measures $\mu$ whose $n$-fold convolutions $\mu^{*n}$ obey the condition $\| \mu^{*n} \|_{\ell^2}^{-2} \leq n^d \|\mu \|_{\ell^2}^{-2}$. Read More

For any natural number $k$, consider the $k$-linear Hilbert transform $$ H_k( f_1,\dots,f_k )(x) := \operatorname{p.v.} \int_{\bf R} f_1(x+t) \dots f_k(x+kt)\ \frac{dt}{t}$$ for test functions $f_1,\dots,f_k: {\bf R} \to {\bf C}$. Read More

Let $F_2$ denote the free group on two generators $a,b$. For any measure-preserving system $(X, {\mathcal X}, \mu, (T_g)_{g \in F_2})$ on a finite measure space $X = (X,{\mathcal X},\mu)$, any $f \in L^1(X)$, and any $n \geq 1$, define the averaging operators $${\mathcal A}_n f(x) := \frac{1}{4 \times 3^{n-1}} \sum_{g \in F_2: |g| = n} f( T_g^{-1} x ),$$ where $|g|$ denotes the word length of $g$. We give an example of a measure-preserving system $X$ and an $f \in L^1(X)$ such that the sequence ${\mathcal A}_n f(x)$ is unbounded in $n$ for almost every $x$, thus showing that the pointwise and maximal ergodic theorems do not hold in $L^1$ for actions of $F_2$. Read More

Gaps (or spacings) between consecutive eigenvalues are a central topic in random matrix theory. The goal of this paper is to study the tail distribution of these gaps in various random matrix models. We give the first repulsion bound for random matrices with discrete entries and the first super-polynomial bound on the probability that a random graph has simple spectrum, along with several applications. Read More

Let $\lambda$ denote the Liouville function. A well known conjecture of Chowla asserts that for any distinct natural numbers $h_1,\dots,h_k$, one has $\sum_{1 \leq n \leq X} \lambda(n+h_1) \dotsm \lambda(n+h_k) = o(X)$ as $X \to \infty$. This conjecture remains unproven for any $h_1,\dots,h_k$ with $k \geq 2$. Read More

Let $p_n$ denotes the $n$-th prime. We prove that $$\max_{p_{n+1} \leq X} (p_{n+1}-p_n) \gg \frac{\log X \log \log X\log\log\log\log X}{\log \log \log X}$$ for sufficiently large $X$, improving upon recent bounds of the first three and fifth authors and of the fourth author. Our main new ingredient is a generalization of a hypergraph covering theorem of Pippenger and Spencer, proven using the R\"odl nibble method. Read More

Let $M_n = (\xi_{ij})_{1 \leq i,j \leq n}$ be a real symmetric random matrix
in which the upper-triangular entries $\xi_{ij}, i

For each prime $p$, let $n(p)$ denote the least quadratic nonresidue modulo $p$. Vinogradov conjectured that $n(p) = O(p^\eps)$ for every fixed $\eps>0$. This conjecture follows from the generalised Riemann hypothesis, and is known to hold for almost all primes $p$ but remains open in general. Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - Number Theory

In a previous paper of the authors, we showed that for any polynomials $P_1,\dots,P_k \in \Z[\mathbf{m}]$ with $P_1(0)=\dots=P_k(0)$ and any subset $A$ of the primes in $[N] = \{1,\dots,N\}$ of relative density at least $\delta>0$, one can find a "polynomial progression" $a+P_1(r),\dots,a+P_k(r)$ in $A$ with $0 < |r| \leq N^{o(1)}$, if $N$ is sufficiently large depending on $k,P_1,\dots,P_k$ and $\delta$. In this paper we shorten the size of this progression to $0 < |r| \leq \log^L N$, where $L$ depends on $k,P_1,\dots,P_k$ and $\delta$. In the linear case $P_i = (i-1)\mathbf{m}$, we can take $L$ independent of $\delta$. Read More

Let $G(X)$ denote the size of the largest gap between consecutive primes below $X$. Answering a question of Erdos, we show that $$G(X) \geq f(X) \frac{\log X \log \log X \log \log \log \log X}{(\log \log \log X)^2},$$ where $f(X)$ is a function tending to infinity with $X$. Our proof combines existing arguments with a random construction covering a set of primes by arithmetic progressions. Read More

The Navier-Stokes equation on the Euclidean space $\mathbf{R}^3$ can be expressed in the form $\partial_t u = \Delta u + B(u,u)$, where $B$ is a certain bilinear operator on divergence-free vector fields $u$ obeying the cancellation property $\langle B(u,u), u\rangle=0$ (which is equivalent to the energy identity for the Navier-Stokes equation). In this paper, we consider a modification $\partial_t u = \Delta u + \tilde B(u,u)$ of this equation, where $\tilde B$ is an averaged version of the bilinear operator $B$ (where the average involves rotations and Fourier multipliers of order zero), and which also obeys the cancellation condition $\langle \tilde B(u,u), u \rangle = 0$ (so that it obeys the usual energy identity). By analysing a system of ODE related to (but more complicated than) a dyadic Navier-Stokes model of Katz and Pavlovic, we construct an example of a smooth solution to such a averaged Navier-Stokes equation which blows up in finite time. Read More

This is an erratum to 'On the quantitative distribution of polynomial nilsequences' [GT]. The proof of Theorem 8.6 of that paper, which claims a distribution result for multiparameter polynomial sequences on nilmanifolds, was incorrect. Read More

Arithmetic combinatorics is often concerned with the problem of bounding the behaviour of arbitrary finite sets in a group or ring with respect to arithmetic operations such as addition or multiplication. Similarly, combinatorial geometry is often concerned with the problem of bounding the behaviour of arbitrary finite collections of geometric objects such as points, lines, or circles with respect to geometric operations such as incidence or distance. Given the presence of arbitrary finite sets in these problems, the methods used to attack these problems have primarily been combinatorial in nature. Read More

We show that random Cayley graphs of finite simple (or semisimple) groups of Lie type of fixed rank are expanders. The proofs are based on the Bourgain-Gamburd method and on the main result of our companion paper, establishing strongly dense subgroups in simple algebraic groups. Read More

In this paper, we establish some local universality results concerning the correlation functions of the zeroes of random polynomials with independent coefficients. More precisely, consider two random polynomials $f =\sum_{i=1}^n c_i \xi_i z^i$ and $\tilde f =\sum_{i=1}^n c_i \tilde \xi_i z^i$, where the $\xi_i$ and $\tilde \xi_i$ are iid random variables that match moments to second order, the coefficients $c_i$ are deterministic, and the degree parameter $n$ is large. Our results show, under some light conditions on the coefficients $c_i$ and the tails of $\xi_i, \tilde \xi_i$, that the correlation functions of the zeroes of $f$ and $\tilde f$ are approximately the same. Read More

We establish a version of the Furstenberg-Katznelson multi-dimensional Szemer\'edi in the primes ${\mathcal P} := \{2,3,5,\ldots\}$, which roughly speaking asserts that any dense subset of ${\mathcal P}^d$ contains constellations of any given shape. Our arguments are based on a weighted version of the Furstenberg correspondence principle, relative to a weight which obeys an infinite number of pseudorandomness (or "linear forms") conditions, combined with the main results of a series of papers by Green and the authors which establish such an infinite number of pseudorandomness conditions for a weight associated with the primes. The same result, by a rather different method, has been simultaneously established by Cook, Magyar, and Titichetrakun. Read More

Using an ergodic inverse theorem obtained in our previous paper, we obtain limit formulae for multiple ergodic averages associated with the action of $\mathbb{F}_{p}^{\omega}$. From this we deduce multiple Khintchine-type recurrence results analogous to those for $\mathbb{Z}$-systems obtained by Bergelson, Host, and Kra, and also present some new counterexamples in this setting. Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - Number Theory

Let A be a subset of a group G = (G,.). We will survey the theory of sets A with the property that |A. Read More

We study the mixing properties of progressions $(x,xg,xg^2)$, $(x,xg,xg^2,xg^3)$ of length three and four in a model class of finite non-abelian groups, namely the special linear groups $SL_d(F)$ over a finite field $F$, with $d$ bounded. For length three progressions $(x,xg,xg^2)$, we establish a strong mixing property (with error term that decays polynomially in the order $|F|$ of $F$), which among other things counts the number of such progressions in any given dense subset $A$ of $SL_d(F)$, answering a question of Gowers for this class of groups. For length four progressions $(x,xg,xg^2,xg^3)$, we establish a partial result in the $d=2$ case if the shift $g$ is restricted to be diagonalisable over the field, although in this case we do not recover polynomial bounds in the error term. Read More

We establish a new mixing theorem for quasirandom groups (finite groups with no low-dimensional unitary representations) $G$ which, informally speaking, asserts that if $g, x$ are drawn uniformly at random from $G$, then the quadruple $(g,x,gx,xg)$ behaves like a random tuple in $G^4$, subject to the obvious constraint that $gx$ and $xg$ are conjugate to each other. The proof is non-elementary, proceeding by first using an ultraproduct construction to replace the finitary claim on quasirandom groups with an infinitary analogue concerning a limiting group object that we call an \emph{ultra quasirandom group}, and then using the machinery of idempotent ultrafilters to establish the required mixing property for such groups. Some simpler recurrence theorems (involving tuples such as $(x,gx,xg)$) are also presented, as well as some further discussion of specific examples of ultra quasirandom groups. Read More

Let $P: \F \times \F \to \F$ be a polynomial of bounded degree over a finite field $\F$ of large characteristic. In this paper we establish the following dichotomy: either $P$ is a moderate asymmetric expander in the sense that $|P(A,B)| \gg |\F|$ whenever $A, B \subset \F$ are such that $|A| |B| \geq C |\F|^{2-1/8}$ for a sufficiently large $C$, or else $P$ takes the form $P(x,y) = Q(F(x)+G(y))$ or $P(x,y) = Q(F(x) G(y))$ for some polynomials $Q,F,G$. This is a reasonably satisfactory classification of polynomials of two variables that moderately expand (either symmetrically or asymmetrically). Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - Combinatorics

Let P be a set of n points in the plane, not all on a line. We show that if n is large then there are at least n/2 ordinary lines, that is to say lines passing through exactly two points of P. This confirms, for large n, a conjecture of Dirac and Motzkin. Read More

It is a classical result of Ginibre that the normalized bulk $k$-point correlation functions of a complex $n\times n$ Gaussian matrix with independent entries of mean zero and unit variance are asymptotically given by the determinantal point process on $\mathbb{C}$ with kernel $K_{\infty}(z,w):=\frac{1}{\pi}e^{-|z|^2/2-|w|^2/2+z\bar{w}}$ in the limit $n\to\infty$. In this paper, we show that this asymptotic law is universal among all random $n\times n$ matrices $M_n$ whose entries are jointly independent, exponentially decaying, have independent real and imaginary parts and whose moments match that of the complex Gaussian ensemble to fourth order. Analogous results at the edge of the spectrum are also obtained. Read More

Let p > 4 be a prime. We show that the largest subset of F_p^n with no 4-term arithmetic progressions has cardinality << N(log N)^{-c}, where c = 2^{-22} and N := p^n. A result of this type was claimed in a previous paper by the authors and published in Proc. Read More

We show that the distribution of (a suitable rescaling of) a single eigenvalue gap $\lambda_{i+1}(M_n)-\lambda_i(M_n)$ of a random Wigner matrix ensemble in the bulk is asymptotically given by the Gaudin-Mehta distribution, if the Wigner ensemble obeys a finite moment condition and matches moments with the GUE ensemble to fourth order. This is new even in the GUE case, as prior results establishing the Gaudin-Mehta law required either an averaging in the eigenvalue index parameter $i$, or fixing the energy level $u$ instead of the eigenvalue index. The extension from the GUE case to the Wigner case is a routine application of the Four Moment Theorem. Read More

We prove that every odd number $N$ greater than 1 can be expressed as the sum of at most five primes, improving the result of Ramar\'e that every even natural number can be expressed as the sum of at most six primes. We follow the circle method of Hardy-Littlewood and Vinogradov, together with Vaughan's identity; our additional techniques, which may be of interest for other Goldbach-type problems, include the use of smoothed exponential sums and optimisation of the Vaughan identity parameters to save or reduce some logarithmic losses, the use of multiple scales following some ideas of Bourgain, and the use of Montgomery's uncertainty principle and the large sieve to improve the $L^2$ estimates on major arcs. Our argument relies on some previous numerical work, namely the verification of Richstein of the even Goldbach conjecture up to $4 \times 10^{14}$, and the verification of van de Lune and (independently) of Wedeniwski of the Riemann hypothesis up to height $3. Read More

In this paper, we survey some recent progress on rigorously establishing the universality of various spectral statistics of Wigner Hermitian random matrix ensembles, focusing on the Four Moment Theorem and its refinements and applications, including the universality of the sine kernel and the Central limit theorem of several spectral parameters. We also take the opportunity here to issue some errata for some of our previous papers in this area. Read More

The nonlinear Fourier transform discussed in these notes is the map from the potential of a one dimensional discrete Dirac operator to the transmission and reflection coefficients thereof. Emphasis is on this being a nonlinear variant of the classical Fourier series, and on nonlinear analogues of classical analytic facts about Fourier series. These notes are a summary of a series of lectures given in 2003 at the Park City Mathematics Institute. Read More

Let $W_n= \frac{1}{\sqrt n} M_n$ be a Wigner matrix whose entries have vanishing third moment, normalized so that the spectrum is concentrated in the interval $[-2,2]$. We prove a concentration bound for $N_I = N_I(W_n)$, the number of eigenvalues of $W_n$ in an interval $I$. Our result shows that $N_I$ decays exponentially with standard deviation at most $O(\log^{O(1)} n)$. Read More

We prove that a K-approximate subgroup of an arbitrary torsion-free nilpotent group can be covered by a bounded number of cosets of a nilpotent subgroup of bounded rank, where the bounds are explicit and depend only on K. The result can be seen as a nilpotent analogue to Freiman's dimension lemma. Read More

We survey some recent progress on rigorously establishing the universality of various spectral statistics of Wigner random matrix ensembles, focusing in particular on the Four Moment Theorem and its applications. Read More

We establish a central limit theorem for the log-determinant $\log|\det(M_n)|$ of a Wigner matrix $M_n$, under the assumption of four matching moments with either the GUE or GOE ensemble. More specifically, we show that this log-determinant is asymptotically distributed like $N(\log \sqrt{n!} - 1/2 \log n, 1/2 \log n)_\R$ when one matches moments with GUE, and $N(\log \sqrt{n!} - 1/4 \log n, 1/4 \log n)_\R$ when one matches moments with GOE. Read More

Let K >= 1 be a parameter. A K-approximate group is a finite set A in a (local) group which contains the identity, is symmetric, and such that A^2 is covered by K left translates of A. The main result of this paper is a qualitative description of approximate groups as being essentially finite-by-nilpotent, answering a conjecture of H. Read More