# Tao Zhu

## Contact Details

NameTao Zhu |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (29) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (29) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (20) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (19) Physics - Optics (12) Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (3) Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (2) Mathematical Physics (2) Computer Science - Information Retrieval (2) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2) Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons (2) Astrophysics (2) Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics (1) Computer Science - Computers and Society (1) Astrophysics of Galaxies (1) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Tao Zhu

The evolutions of the flat FLRW universe and its linear perturbations are studied systematically in {\em the dressed metric approach} of LQC. When the evolution of the background at the quantum bounce is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton, it can be divided into three different phases prior to the preheating, {\em bouncing, transition and slow-roll inflation}. During the bouncing phase, the evolution is independent of not only the initial conditions, but also the inflationary potentials. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems,

^{2}Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems,

^{3}Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems,

^{4}Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems,

^{5}Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems

**Category:**Physics - Optics

We report a wavelength-tunable Q-switched mode-locked fiber laser based on a compact optical tuning device, which is fabricated by coating single-layer graphene on the surface of micro-fiber Bragg grating (MFBG). Based on thermal-optical effect through evanescent interaction between graphene and MFBG, the center wavelength of MFBG can be accurately controlled by adjusting power of an external laser. By inserting the fabricated device into a compact fiber laser cavity mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotubes, stable Q-switched mode-locked pulse is generated. Read More

In this paper, we revisit the issue of static hairs of black holes in gravitational theories with broken Lorentz invariance in the case that the speed $c_{\phi}$ of the khronon field becomes infinitely large, $c_{\phi} = \infty$, for which the sound horizon of the khronon field coincides with the universal horizon, and the boundary conditions at the sound horizon reduce to those given normally at the universal horizons. As a result, less boundary conditions are present in this extreme case in comparison with the case $c_{\phi} = $ finite. Then, it would be expected that static hairs might exist. Read More

The round trip time of the light pulse limits the maximum detectable frequency response range of vibration in phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry ({\phi}-OTDR). We propose a method to break the bandwidth barrier of {\phi}-OTDR system by modulating the light pulse interval randomly, which enables a random sampling for every vibration point in a long sensing fiber. This sub-Nyquist randomized sampling method is suits for detecting sparse-wideband-frequency vibration signals. Read More

Various physical structures exhibit a fundamentally probabilistic nature over diverse scales in space and time, to the point that the demarcation line between quantum and classic laws gets blurred. Here, we characterize the probability of intermittency in the laminar-turbulence transition of a partially mode-locked fibre laser system, whose degree of coherence is deteriorated by multiple mode mixing. Two competing processes, namely the proliferation and the decay of an optical turbulent puff, determine a critical behavior for the onset of turbulence in such a nonlinear dissipative system, where nondeterministic polarization rogue waves are introduced. Read More

The round trip time of the light pulse limits the maximum detectable frequency response range of vibration in phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry ({\phi}-OTDR). We propose a method to break the frequency response range restriction of {\phi}-OTDR system by modulating the light pulse interval randomly which enables a random sampling for every vibration point in a long sensing fiber. This sub-Nyquist randomized sampling method is suits for detecting sparse-wideband-frequency vibration signals. Read More

We demonstrate a hybrid distributed fiber sensing system for multi-parameter detection. The integration of phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry ({\Phi}-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (B-OTDR) enables measurement of vibration, temperature and strain. Exploiting the fast changing property of vibration and the static property of temperature and strain, the laser pulse width and intensity are modulated and then injected into the single-mode sensing fiber proportionally, so that the three concerned parameters can be extracted simultaneously by only one photo-detector and data acquisition channel. Read More

In this Letter, we study analytically the evolutions of the flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe and its linear perturbations in the framework of {\em the dressed metric approach} in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Assuming that the evolution of the background is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton at the quantum bounce, we find that both evolutions of the background and its perturbations are independent of the inflationary potentials during the pre-inflationary phase. During this period the effective potentials of the perturbations can be well approximated by a P\"oschl-Teller (PT) potential, from which we find analytically the mode functions and then calculate the corresponding Bogoliubov coefficients at the onset of the slow-roll inflation, valid for any inflationary model with a single scalar field. Read More

In this paper, we provide a systematic investigation of high-order primordial perturbations with nonlinear dispersion relations due to quantum gravitational effects in the framework of {\em uniform asymptotic approximations}. Because of these effects, the equation of motion of the mode function in general has multiple-turning points. After obtaining analytically approximated solutions to any order in different regions, associated with different types of turning points, we match them to the third one. Read More

We demonstrate the first experimental observation of coherent population oscillation, an optical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency, in graphene based on phase sensitive pump-probe system. Degenerate four-wave-mixing between pump and probe modifies the dispersion and absorption of the population oscillation process in graphene, and leads to enhance and depression of modulation instability with asymmetry in frequency. The analytically predicted asymmetrical burning hole fully consists with the experiments. Read More

We study analytically quantum tunneling of relativistic and non-relativistic particles at both Killing and universal horizons of Einstein-Maxwell-aether black holes, after high-order curvature corrections are taken into account, for which the dispersion relation of the particles becomes nonlinear. Our results at the Killing horizons confirm the previous ones, i.e. Read More

We first derive the primordial power spectra, spectral indices and runnings of both scalar and tensor perturbations of a flat inflationary universe to the second-order approximations of the slow-roll parameters, in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with the inverse-volume quantum corrections. This represents an extension of our previous work in which the parameter $\sigma$ was assumed to be an integer, where $\sigma$ characterizes the quantum corrections and in general can take any of values from the range $\sigma \in (0, 6]$. Restricting to the first-order approximations of the slow-roll parameters, we find corrections to the results obtained previously in the literature, and point out the causes for such errors. Read More

Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) provides promising resolutions to the trans-Planckian issue and initial singularity arising in the inflationary models of general relativity. In general, due to different quantization approaches, LQC involves two types of quantum corrections, the holonomy and inverse-volume, to both of the cosmological background evolution and perturbations. In this paper, using {\em the third-order uniform asymptotic approximations}, we derive explicitly the observational quantities of the slow-roll inflation in the framework of LQC with these quantum corrections. Read More

We derive the primordial power spectra and spectral indexes of the density fluctuations and gravitational waves in the framework of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) with holonomy and inverse-volume corrections, by using the uniform asymptotic approximation method to its third-order, at which the upper error bounds are $\lesssim 0.15\%$, and accurate enough for the current and forthcoming cosmological observations. Then, using the Planck, BAO and SN data we obtain the tightest constraints on quantum gravitational effects from LQC corrections, and find that such effects could be well within the detection of the current and forthcoming cosmological observations. Read More

We propose a Watt-level, all-fiber, ultrafast Er/Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser passively mode-locked by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) interacting with a weak evanescent field of photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The rGO solution is filled into the cladding holes of the PCF based on total reflection, and after evaporation, the rGO flakes bear only 1/107 of the total energy in laser system, which enhances the thermal damage threshold and decreases the accumulated nonlinearity. By incorporating the saturable absorber into an Er/Yb-codoped fiber ring cavity, stable conventional soliton with a duration of 573 fs is generated, and a average output power up to 1. Read More

Stochastically driven nonlinear processes limit the number of amplified modes in a natural system due to competitive mode interaction, which is accompanied by loss of coherence when increasing the complexity of system. Specifically, we find that modulation instability, which exhibits great fluctuations when it is spontaneously grown from noise in conservative systems, may possess a high degree of coherence in dissipative laser system with gain. Nonlinear mode interactions can be competitive or cooperative: adjusting the intracavity polarization state controls the process of loss of coherence. Read More

Cross-phase modulation instability (XPMI) is experimentally observed in a fiber ring cavity with net normal dispersion and mode-locked by long fiber taper. The taper is deposited with reduced graphene oxide, which can decrease the threshold of XPMI due to the enhanced nonlinearity realized by 8 mm evanescent field interaction length and strong mode confinement. Experimental results indicate that the phase matching conditions in two polarization directions are different, and sidebands with different intensities are generated. Read More

We demonstrate a wavelength spacing tunable, multiwavelength Q-switched mode-locked fiber laser (QML) based on a fiber taper deposited with graphene oxide. The operation of the laser can be understood in terms of the formation of bunches of QMLs which possess small temporal intervals, and multiwavelength spectra are generated due to the Fourier transformation. We find that the temporal spacing of the QMLs is highly sensitive to the pump power, and as a result, the wavelength spacing can be easily tuned by varying the pump power. Read More

$k$-inflation represents the most general single-field inflation, in which the perturbations usually obey an equation of motion with a time-dependent sound speed. In this paper, we study the observational predictions of the $k$-inflation by using the high-order uniform asymptotic approximation method. We calculate explicitly the slow-roll expressions of the power spectra, spectral indices, and running of the spectral indices for both the scalar and tensor perturbations. Read More

The uniform asymptotic approximation method provides a powerful, systematically-improved, and error-controlled approach to construct accurate analytical approximate solutions of mode functions of perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, designed especially for the cases where the relativistic linear dispersion relation is modified after gravitational quantum effects are taken into account. These include models from string/M-Theory, loop quantum cosmology and Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz quantum gravity. In this paper, we extend our previous studies of the first-order approximations to high orders for the cases where the modified dispersion relation (linear or nonlinear) has only one-turning point (or zero). Read More

A vector dual-wavelength rectangular-shape laser (RSL) based on a long fiber taper deposited with reduced graphene oxide is proposed, where the nonlinearity is enhanced due to large evanescent-field-interacting length and strong field confinement of a 8 mm fiber taper with a waist diameter of 4 micronmeters. Graphene flakes are deposited uniformly on the taper waist with light pressure effect, so this structure guarantees both excellent saturable absorption and high nonlinearity. The RSL with a repetition rate of 7. Read More

Recently BICEP2 found that the vanishing of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ is excluded at $7\sigma$ level, and its most likely value is $r=0.2^{+0.07}_{-0. Read More

A single longitudinal mode fiber laser with ultra-narrow linewidth based on self-injection feedback by using the linewidth compress mechanism of Rayleigh backscattering (RBS) are proposed and demonstrated. Since the linewidth of RBS is narrower than that of the incident light in optical fibers and they have the same centre wavelength, the RBS can act as a mechanism to compress the linewidth of the incident light in fiber ring laser. In addition, more RBS signal could be collected to help further compress the laser linewidth besides the free spectral range is expanded when the self-injection feedback method is used. Read More

A wavelength spacing tunable, multiwavelength Q-switched mode-locked (QML) fiber laser in an erbium-doped fiber cavity based on graphene oxide deposited on tapered fiber is proposed by choosing the diameter and length of the taper, graphene oxide thickness and cavity dispersion, in which the wavelength spacing could be tuned by pump power. The evolutions of temporal and spectral with different pump strengths are investigated. Results show that the tunability of the multiwavelength laser can be interpreted by the bound states of QML laser resulting from a mutual interaction of dispersion, nonlinear effect, insertion loss, and pump power. Read More

John Wheeler coined the phrase "it from bit" or "bit from it" in the 1980s. However, much of the interest in the connection between information, i.e. Read More

In this paper, we first propose a universal coupling between the gravity and matter in the framework of the Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory of gravity with an extra U(1) symmetry for both the projectable and non-projectable cases. Then, using this universal coupling we study the post-Newtonian approximations and obtain the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters in terms of the coupling constants of the theory. Contrary to the previous works in which only two PPN parameters were calculated, we obtain {\it all} PPN parameters. Read More

We present a technique, {\em the uniform asymptotic approximation}, to construct accurate analytical solutions of the linear perturbations of inflation after quantum effects of the early universe are taken into account, for which the dispersion relations generically become nonlinear. We construct explicitly the error bounds associated with the approximations and then study them in detail. With the understanding of the errors and the proper choice of the Liouville transformations of the differential equations of the perturbations, we show that the analytical solutions describe the exact evolution of the linear perturbations extremely well even only in the first-order approximations. Read More

We develop a technique to construct analytical solutions of the linear perturbations of inflation with a nonlinear dispersion relation, due to quantum effects of the early universe. Error bounds are given and studied in detail. The analytical solutions describe the exact evolution of the perturbations extremely well even when only the first-order approximations is used. Read More

In this paper, we study the effects of parity violation on non-gaussianities of primordial gravitational waves in the framework of Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory of gravity, in which high-order spatial derivative operators, including the ones violating parity, generically appear. By calculating the three point function, we find that the leading-order contributions to the non-gaussianities come from the usual second-order derivative terms, which produce the same bispectrum as that found in general relativity. The contributions from high-order spatial n-th derivative terms are always suppressed by a factor $(H/M_*)^{n-2} \; (n \ge 3)$, where $H$ denotes the inflationary energy and $M_*$ the suppression mass scale of the high-order spatial derivative operators of the theory. Read More

In this paper, we study 3-point correlation function of primordial gravitational waves generated in the de Sitter background in the framework of the general covariant Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity with an arbitrary coupling constant $\lambda$. We find that, at cubic order, the interaction Hamiltonian receives contributions from four terms built of the 3-dimensional Ricci tensor $R_{ij}$ of the leaves $t = $ constant. In particular, the 3D Ricci scalar $R$ yields the same $k$-dependence as that in general relativity, but with different magnitude due to coupling with the $U(1)$ field $A$ and a UV history. Read More

Weibo and other popular Chinese microblogging sites are well known for exercising internal censorship, to comply with Chinese government requirements. This research seeks to quantify the mechanisms of this censorship: how fast and how comprehensively posts are deleted.Our analysis considered 2. Read More

We present measurements and analysis of censorship on Weibo, a popular microblogging site in China. Since we were limited in the rate at which we could download posts, we identified users likely to participate in sensitive topics and recursively followed their social contacts. We also leveraged new natural language processing techniques to pick out trending topics despite the use of neologisms, named entities, and informal language usage in Chinese social media. Read More

We study primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) in the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) theory of quantum gravity, in which high-order spatial derivative operators, including the ones violating parity, generically appear in order for the theory to be power-counting renormalizable and ultraviolet (UV) complete. Because of both parity violation and non-adiabatic evolution of the modes due to a modified dispersion relationship, a large polarization of PGWs becomes possible, and it could be well within the range of detection of the BB, TB and EB power spectra of the forthcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. Read More

In this paper, we study inflation in the general covariant Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity without the projectability condition. We write down explicitly the equations of the linear scalar perturbations of the FRW universe for a single scalar field without specifying to any gauge. Applying these equations to a particular gauge, we are able to obtain a master equation of the perturbations, in contrast to all the other versions of the theory without the projectability condition. Read More

We consider an extended theory of Horava-Lifshitz gravity with the detailed balance condition softly breaking, but without the projectability condition. With the former, the number of independent coupling constants is significantly reduced. With the latter and by extending the original foliation-preserving diffeomorphism symmetry $ {{Diff}}(M, {\cal{F}})$ to include a local U(1) symmetry, the spin-0 gravitons are eliminated. Read More

In this paper, we show that the spin-0 gravitons appearing in Horava-Lifshitz gravity without the projectability condition can be eliminated by extending the gauge symmetries of the foliation-preserving diffeomorphisms to include a local U(1) symmetry. As a result, the problems of stability, ghost, strong coupling, and different speeds in the gravitational sector are automatically resolved. In addition, with the detailed balance condition softly breaking, the number of independent coupling constants can be significantly reduced (from more than 70 down to 15), while the theory is still UV complete and possesses a healthy IR limit, whereby the prediction powers of the theory are considerably improved. Read More

The imposition of government mandates upon Internet search engine operation is a growing area of interest for both computer science and public policy. Users of these search engines often observe evidence of censorship, but the government policies that impose this censorship are not generally public. To better understand these policies, we conducted a set of experiments on major search engines employed by Internet users in China, issuing queries against a variety of different words: some neutral, some with names of important people, some political, and some pornographic. Read More

We study the strong coupling problem in the Horava-Melby-Thompson setup of the Horava-Lifshitz gravity with an arbitrary coupling constant $\lambda$, generalized recently by da Silva, where $\lambda$ describes the deviation of the theory in the infrared from general relativity that has $\lambda_{GR} = 1$. We find that a scalar field in the Minkowski background becomes strong coupling for processes with energy higher than $\Lambda_{\omega} [\equiv (M_{pl}/c_1)^{3/2} M_{pl}|\lambda - 1|^{5/4}]$, where generically $c_1 \ll M_{pl}$. However, this problem can be cured by introducing a new energy scale $M_{*}$, so that $M_{*} < \Lambda_{\omega}$, where $M_{*}$ denotes the suppression energy of high order derivative terms of the theory. Read More

The behavior of a scalar field theory near the event horizon in a rotating black hole background can be effectively described by a two dimensional field theory in a gauge field background. Based on this fact, we proposal that the quantum tunneling from rotating black hole can be treated as "charged" particle' s tunneling process in its effectively two dimensional metric. Using this viewpoint and considering the corresponding "gauge charge" conservation, we calculate the non-thermal tunneling rate of Kerr black hole and Myers-Perry black hole, and results are consistent with Parikh-Wilczek's original result for spherically symmetric black holes. Read More

This paper investigates the information loss paradox in the WKB/tunneling picture of Hawking radiation. In the tunneling picture one can obtain the tunneling amplitude to all orders in $\hbar$. However all terms beyond the lowest, semi-classical term involve unknown constants. Read More

Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions. Read More

Fractional calculus is the calculus of differentiation and integration of non-integer orders. In a recently paper (Annals of Physics 323 (2008) 2756-2778), the Fundamental Theorem of Fractional Calculus is highlighted. Based on this theorem, in this paper we introduce fractional series expansion method to fractional calculus. Read More

Using the corrected expression of Hawking temperature derived from the tunneling formalism beyond semiclassical approximation developed by \emph{Banerjee} and \emph{Majhi}\cite{beyond}, we calculate the corrected entropy of a high dimensional Schwarzschild black hole and a 5-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet (GB) black hole. It is shown that the corrected entropy for this two kinds of black hole are in agreement with the corrected entropy formula (\ref{entropy of apparent horiozn}) that derived from tunneling method for a $(n+1)$-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe\cite{FRW}. This feature strongly suggests deep universality of the corrected entropy formula (\ref{entropy of apparent horiozn}), which may not depend on the dimensions of spacetime and gravity theories. Read More

We consider diffusion processes with the help of Markov random walk models. Especially the process of diffusion of a relativistic particle in a relativistic equilibrium system is considered. We interpret one of the results as causal Zeno effect for its similarity to quantum Zeno effect. Read More

In this paper, we study the thermodynamic quantities of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe by using the tunneling formalism beyond semiclassical approximation developed by \emph{Banerjee} and \emph{Majhi}\cite{beyond0}. For this we first calculate the corrected Hawking-like temperature on apparent horizon by considering both scalar particle and fermion tunneling. With this corrected Hawking-like temperature, the explicit expressions of the corrected entropy of apparent horizon for various gravity theories including Einstein gravity, Gauss-Bonnet gravity, Lovelock gravity, $f(R)$ gravity and scalar-tensor gravity, are computed. Read More

We study Hawking-like radiation in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe using the quasi-classical WKB/tunneling method which pictures this process as a "tunneling" of particles from behind the apparent horizon. The correct temperature of the Hawking-like radiation from the FRW spacetime is obtained using a canonical invariant tunneling amplitude. In contrast to the usual quantum mechanical WKB/tunneling problem where the tunneling amplitude has only a spatial contribution, we find that the tunneling amplitude for FRW spacetime (i. Read More

Recently, a Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond semiclassical approximation in black hole physics was developed by \emph{Banerjee} and \emph{Majhi}\cite{beyond0}. In this paper, we generalize their analysis of black holes to the case of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. It is shown that all the higher order quantum corrections in the single particle action are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. Read More

The influence of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and extended uncertainty principle (EUP) on the thermodynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe has been investigated. It is shown that the entropy of the apparent horizon of the FRW universe gets a correction if one considers the effect of the GUP or EUP. Moreover, starting with the modified entropy and applying the first law of thermodynamics, $dE=TdS$, to the apparent horizon of the FRW universe, we obtain the modified Friedmann equations. Read More

Spiral wave, whose rotation center can be regarded as a point defect, widely exists in various two dimensional excitable systems. In this paper, by making use of \emph{Duan's topological current theory}, we obtain the charge density of spiral waves and the topological inner structure of its topological charge. The evolution of spiral wave is also studied from the topological properties of a two-dimensional vector field. Read More

In this paper, by making use of Duan's topological current theory, the evolution of the vortex filaments in excitable media is discussed in detail. The vortex filaments are found generating or annihilating at the limit points and encountering, splitting, or merging at the bifurcation points of a complex function $Z(\vec{x},t)$. It is also shown that the Hopf invariant of knotted scroll wave filaments is preserved in the branch processes (splitting, merging, or encountering) during the evolution of these knotted scroll wave filaments. Read More