# T. Senthil - Indian Inst. Sci. / MIT

## Contact Details

NameT. Senthil |
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AffiliationIndian Inst. Sci. / MIT |
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CityMito |
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CountryJapan |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (50) High Energy Physics - Theory (10) Physics - Superconductivity (8) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (6) Quantum Physics (4) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) |

## Publications Authored By T. Senthil

When a fermionic quantum Hall system is projected into the lowest Landau level, there is an exact particle-hole symmetry between filling fractions $\nu$ and $1-\nu$. We investigate whether a similar symmetry can emerge in bosonic quantum Hall states, where it would connect states at filling fractions $\nu$ and $2-\nu$. We begin by showing that the particle-hole conjugate to a composite fermion `Jain state' is another Jain state, obtained by reverse flux attachment. Read More

In underdoped YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6+x}$, there is evidence of a small Fermi surface pocket subject to substantial mass enhancement in the doping regime $ 0.12

Read More

The deconfined quantum critical point (QCP), separating the N\'eel and valence bond solid phases in a 2D antiferromagnet, was proposed as an example of $2+1$D criticality fundamentally different from standard Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson-Fisher {criticality}. In this work we present multiple equivalent descriptions of deconfined QCPs, and use these to address the possibility of enlarged emergent symmetries in the low energy limit. The easy-plane deconfined QCP, besides its previously discussed self-duality, is dual to $N_f = 2$ fermionic quantum electrodynamics (QED), which has its own self-duality and hence may have an O(4)$\times Z_2^T$ symmetry. Read More

We study the interplay of particle-hole symmetry and fermion-vortex duality in multicomponent half-filled Landau levels, such as quantum Hall gallium arsenide bilayers and graphene. For the $\nu{=}1/2{+}1/2$ bilayer, we show that particle-hole-symmetric interlayer Cooper pairing of composite fermions leads to precisely the same phase as the electron exciton condensate realized in experiments. This equivalence is easily understood by applying the recent Dirac fermion formulation of $\nu{=}1/2$ to two components. Read More

Building on earlier work in the high energy and condensed matter communities, we present a web of dualities in $2+1$ dimensions that generalize the known particle/vortex duality. Some of the dualities relate theories of fermions to theories of bosons. Others relate different theories of fermions. Read More

We study composite fermi liquid (CFL) states in the lowest Landau level (LLL) limit at a generic filling $\nu = \frac{1}{n}$. We begin with the old observation that, in compressible states, the composite fermion in the lowest Landau level should be viewed as a charge-neutral particle carrying vorticity. This leads to the absence of a Chern-Simons term in the effective theory of the CFL. Read More

For continuous Mott metal-insulator transitions in layered two dimensional systems, we demonstrate the phenomenon of dimensional decoupling: the system behaves as a three-dimensional metal in the Fermi liquid side but as a stack of decoupled two-dimensional layers in the Mott insulator. We show that the dimensional decoupling happens at the Mott quantum critical point itself. We derive the temperature dependence of the interlayer electric conductivity in various crossover regimes near such a continuous Mott transition, and discuss experimental implications. Read More

We here investigate the entanglement structure of the ground state of a (3+1)-dimensional U(1) quantum spin liquid, which is described by the deconfined phase of a compact U(1) gauge theory. A gapless photon is the only low-energy excitation, with matter existing as deconfined but gapped excitations of the system. It is found that, for a given bipartition of the system, the elements of the entanglement spectrum can be grouped according to the electric flux between the two regions, leading to a useful interpretation of the entanglement spectrum in terms of electric charges living on the boundary. Read More

We synthesize and partly review recent developments relating the physics of the half-filled Landau level in two dimensions to correlated surface states of topological insulators in three dimensions. The latter are in turn related to the physics of certain three dimensional quantum spin liquid states. The resulting insights provide an interesting answer to the old question of how particle-hole symmetry is realized in composite fermion liquids. Read More

We propose a general scheme for the derivation of the signals resonant inelastic (and elastic) x-ray scattering (RIXS) gives access to. In particular, we find that RIXS should allow to directly detect many hidden orders, such as spin nematic, bond nematic, vector and scalar spin chiralities. To do so, we choose to take the point of view of effective operators, leaving microscopic details unspecified, but still keeping experimentally-controllable parameters explicit, like the incoming and outgoing polarizations of the x-rays. Read More

We discuss a non-fermi liquid gapless metallic surface state of the topological band insulator. It has an odd number of gapless Dirac fermions coupled to a non-compact U(1) gauge field. This can be viewed as a vortex dual to the conventional Dirac fermion surface state. Read More

We study possible quantum $U(1)$ spin liquids in three dimensions with time-reversal symmetry. We find a total of 7 families of such $U(1)$ spin liquids, distinguished by the properties of their emergent electric/magnetic charges. We show how these spin liquids are related to each other. Read More

We present a theory for the large suppression of the superfluid-density, $\rho_s$, in BaFe$_2$(As$_{1-x}$P$_x$)$_2$ in the vicinity of a putative spin-density wave quantum critical point at a P-doping, $x=x_{c}$. We argue that the transition becomes weakly first-order in the vicinity of $x_{c}$, and disorder induces puddles of superconducting and antiferromagnetic regions at short length-scales; thus the system becomes an electronic micro-emulsion. We propose that frustrated Josephson couplings between the superconducting grains suppress $\rho_s$. Read More

Spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry---known as `density wave' order---is common in nature. However such states are strongly sensitive to impurities or other forms of frozen disorder leading to fascinating glassy phenomena. We analyze impurity effects on a particularly ubiquitous form of broken translation symmetry in solids: a Spin Density Wave (SDW) with spatially modulated magnetic order. Read More

Time reversal protected three dimensional (3D) topological paramagnets are magnetic analogs of the celebrated 3D topological insulators. Such paramagnets have a bulk gap, no exotic bulk excitations, but non-trivial surface states protected by symmetry. We propose that frustrated spin-1 quantum magnets are a natural setting for realising such states in 3D. Read More

Recent observation of a mass enhancement in high magnetic fields in nearly optimally doped cuprates poses several puzzles. For the suggested nodal electron pocket induced by bidirectional charge order in high field, we propose that the mass enhancement is very anisotropic around the small Fermi surface. The corners of the pocket are proposed to have a big enhancement without any enhancement along the diagonal nodal direction. Read More

The standard theoretical approach to gapless spin liquid phases of two-dimensional frustrated quantum antiferromagnets invokes the concept of fermionic slave particles into which the spin fractionalizes. As an alternate we explore new kinds of gapless spin liquid phases in frustrated quantum magnets with XY anisotropy where the vortex of the spin fractionalizes into gapless itinerant fermions. The resulting gapless fractionalized vortex liquid phases are studied within a slave particle framework that is dual to the usual one. Read More

We describe recent progress in our understanding of the interplay between interactions, symmetry, and topology in states of quantum matter. We focus on a minimal generalization of the celebrated topological band insulators to interacting many particle systems, known as Symmetry Protected Topological (SPT) phases. In common with the topological band insulators these states have a bulk gap and no exotic excitations but have non-trivial surface states that are protected by symmetry. Read More

States of matter with a sharp Fermi-surface but no well-defined Landau quasiparticles arise in a number of physical systems. Examples include: ${\it (i)}$ quantum critical points associated with the onset of order in metals; ${\it (ii)}$ spinon Fermi-surface (U(1) spin-liquid) state of a Mott insulator; ${\it (iii)}$ Halperin-Lee-Read composite fermion charge liquid state of a half-filled Landau level. In this work, we use renormalization group techniques to investigate possible instabilities of such non-Fermi-liquids in two spatial dimensions to Cooper pairing. Read More

Symmetry Protected Topological (SPT) phases are a minimal generalization of the concept of topological insulators to interacting systems. In this paper we describe the classification and properties of such phases for three dimensional(3D) electronic systems with a number of different symmetries. For symmetries representative of all classes in the famous 10-fold way of free fermion topological insulators/superconductors, we determine the stability to interactions. Read More

It is well known that the 3D electronic topological insulator (TI) with charge-conservation and time-reversal symmetry cannot have a trivial insulating surface that preserves symmetry. It is often implicitly assumed that if the TI surface preserves both symmetries then it must be gapless. Here we show that it is possible for the TI surface to be both gapped and symmetry-preserving, at the expense of having surface-topological order. Read More

A fundamental open problem in condensed matter physics is how the dichotomy between conventional and topological band insulators is modified in the presence of strong electron interactions. We show that there are 6 new electronic topological insulators that have no non-interacting counterpart. Combined with the previously known band-insulators, these produce a total of 8 topologically distinct phases. Read More

In two dimensions strongly interacting bosons in a magnetic field can form an integer quantum Hall state. This state has a bulk gap, no fractional charges or topological order in the bulk but nevertheless has quantized Hall transport and symmetry protected edge excitations. Here we study a simple microscopic model for such a state in a system of two component bosons in a strong orbital magnetic field. Read More

We study several aspects of the realization of global symmetries in highly entangled phases of quantum matter. Examples include gapped topological ordered phases, gapless quantum spin liquids and non-fermi liquid phases. An insightful window into such phases is provided by recent developments in the theory of short ranged entangled Symmetry Protected Topological (SPT) phases . Read More

We study the structure of the ground state wave functions of bosonic Symmetry Protected Topological (SPT) insulators in 3 space dimensions. We demonstrate that the differences with conventional insulators are captured simply in a dual vortex description. As an example we show that a previously studied bosonic topological insulator with both global U(1) and time-reversal symmetry can be described by a rather simple wave function written in terms of dual "vortex ribbons". Read More

Recent terahertz conductivity measurements observed low-power-law frequency dependence of optical conduction within the Mott gap of the Kagome lattice spin-liquid candidate Herbertsmithite. We investigate mechanisms for this observed sub-gap conductivity for two possible scenarios in which the ground-state is described by: 1) a U(1) Dirac spin-liquid with emergent fermionic spinons or 2) a nearly critical Z2 spin-liquid in the vicinity of a continuous quantum phase transition to magnetic order. We identify new mechanisms for optical-absorption via magneto-elastic effects and spin- orbit coupling. Read More

Motivated by the potential chiral spin liquid in the metallic spin ice Pr2Ir2O7, we consider how such a chiral state might be selected from the spin ice manifold. We propose that chiral fluctuations of the conducting Ir moments promote ferro-chiral couplings between the local Pr moments, as a chiral analogue of the magnetic RKKY effect. Pr2Ir2O7 provides an ideal setting to explore such a chiral RKKY effect, given the inherent chirality of the spin-ice manifold. Read More

We propose a possible realization of the overscreened Kondo impurity problem by a magnetic s=1/2 impurity embedded in a two-dimensional S=1 U(1) spin liquid with a Fermi surface. This problem contains an interesting interplay between non-Fermi-liquid behavior induced by a U(1) gauge field coupled to fermions and a non-Fermi-liquid fixed point in the overscreened Kondo problem. Using a large-N expansion together with an expansion in the dynamical exponent of the gauge field, we find that the coupling to the gauge field leads to weak but observable changes in the physical properties of the system at the overscreened Kondo fixed point. Read More

We discuss physical properties of `integer' topological phases of bosons in D=3+1 dimensions, protected by internal symmetries like time reversal and/or charge conservation. These phases invoke interactions in a fundamental way but do not possess topological order and are bosonic analogs of free fermion topological insulators and superconductors. While a formal cohomology based classification of such states was recently discovered, their physical properties remain mysterious. Read More

Motivated by recent experiments on Ba3NiSb2O9, we investigate possible quantum spin liquid ground states for spin S=1 Heisenberg models on the triangular lattice. We use Variational Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the energies of microscopic spin liquid wave functions where spin is represented by three flavors of fermionic spinon operators. These energies are compared with the energies of various competing three-sublattice ordered states. Read More

We study theoretically quantum melting transitions of stripe order in a metallic environment, and the associated reconstruction of the electronic Fermi surface. We show that such quantum phase transitions can be continuous in situations where the stripe melting occurs by proliferating pairs of dislocations in the stripe order parameter without proliferating single dislocations. We develop an intuitive picture of such phases as "Stripe Loop Metals" where the fluctuating stripes form closed loops of arbitrary size at long distances. Read More

We discuss the universal transport signatures near a zero-temperature continuous Mott transition between a Fermi liquid (FL) and a quantum spin liquid in two spatial dimensions. The correlation-driven transition occurs at fixed filling and involves fractionalization of the electron: upon entering the spin liquid, a Fermi surface of neutral spinons coupled to an internal gauge field emerges. We present a controlled calculation of the value of the zero temperature universal resistivity jump predicted to occur at the transition. Read More

A simple physical realization of an integer quantum Hall state of interacting two dimensional bosons is provided. This is an example of a "symmetry-protected topological" (SPT) phase which is a generalization of the concept of topological insulators to systems of interacting bosons or fermions. Universal physical properties of the boson integer quantum Hall state are described and shown to correspond to those expected from general classifications of SPT phases. Read More

Loop current order has been reported in the pseudogap regime of a few cuprate systems in polarized neutron scattering experiments. Here we study several observable consequences of such order in the d-wave superconducting state at low T. The symmetries of the loop order removes degeneracy between momenta k and -k. Read More

We describe a new possible route to the metal-insulator transition in doped semiconductors such as Si:P or Si:B. We explore the possibility that the loss of metallic transport occurs through Mott localization of electrons into a quantum spin liquid state with diffusive charge neutral "spinon" excitations. Such a quantum spin liquid state can appear as an intermediate phase between the metal and the Anderson-Mott insulator. Read More

We present a fractionalized metallic phase which is indistinguishable from the Fermi liquid in conductivity and thermodynamics, but is sharply distinct in one electron properties, such as the electron spectral function. We dub this phase the `Orthogonal Metal.' The Orthogonal Metal and the transition to it from the Fermi liquid are naturally described using a slave particle representation wherein the electron is expressed as a product of a fermion and a slave Ising spin. Read More

We develop a concrete theory of continuous stripe melting quantum phase transitions in two dimensional metals and the associated Fermi surface reconstruction. Such phase transitions are strongly coupled but yet theoretically tractable in situations where the stripe ordering is destroyed by proliferating doubled dislocations of the charge stripe order. The resulting non-Landau quantum critical point (QCP) has strong stripe fluctuations which we show decouple dynamically from the Fermi surface even though static stripe ordering reconstructs the Fermi surface. Read More

We postulate the existence of universal crossover functions connecting the universal parts of the entanglement entropy to the low temperature thermal entropy in gapless quantum many-body systems. These scaling functions encode the intuition that the same low energy degrees of freedom which control low temperature thermal physics are also responsible for the long range entanglement in the quantum ground state. We demonstrate the correctness of the proposed scaling form and determine the scaling function for certain classes of gapless systems whose low energy physics is described by a conformal field theory. Read More

We study the entanglement properties of deconfined quantum critical points. We show not only that these critical points may be distinguished by their entanglement structure but also that they are in general more highly entangled that conventional critical points. We primarily focus on computations of the entanglement entropy of deconfined critical points in 2+1 dimensions, drawing connections to topological entanglement entropy and a recent conjecture on the monotonicity under RG flow of universal terms in the entanglement entropy. Read More

The bulk-edge correspondence for topological quantum liquids states that the spectrum of the reduced density matrix of a large subregion reproduces the thermal spectrum of a physical edge. This correspondence suggests an intricate connection between ground state entanglement and physical edge dynamics. We give a simple geometric proof of the bulk-edge correspondence for a wide variety of physical systems. Read More

Motivated by recent experiments on the material Ba_3NiSb_2O_9 we consider a spin-one quantum antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice with the Heisenberg bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions and a single-ion anisotropy. Using a fermionic "triplon" representation for spins, we study the phase diagram within mean field theory. In addition to a fully gapped spin-liquid ground state, we find a state where one gapless triplon mode with Fermi surface coexists with d + id topological pairing of the other triplons. Read More

We present a theoretical approach to describing the Mott transition of electrons on a two dimensional lattice that begins with the low energy effective theory of the Fermi liquid. The approach to the Mott transition must be characterized by the suppression of density and current fluctuations which correspond to specific shape deformations of the Fermi surface. We explore the nature of the Mott insulator and the corresponding Mott transition when these shape fluctuations of the Fermi surface are suppressed without making any a prior assumptions about other Fermi surface shape fluctuations. Read More

We study a time-reversal invariant non-abelian spin-liquid state in an $SU (2)$ symmetric spin $S = 1$ quantum magnet on a triangular lattice. The spin-liquid is obtained by quantum disordering a non-collinear nematic state. We show that such a spin-liquid cannot be obtained by the standard projective construction for spin-liquids. Read More

Sr2IrO4 has been suggested as a Mott insulator from a single J_eff=1/2 band, similar to the cuprates. However this picture is complicated by the measured large magnetic anisotropy and ferromagnetism. Based on a careful mapping to the J_eff=1/2 (pseudospin-1/2) space, we propose that the low energy electronic structure of Sr2IrO4 can indeed be described by a SU(2) invariant pseudospin-1/2 Hubbard model very similar to that of the cuprates, but with a "twisted" coupling to external magnetic field (a g-tensor with a staggered antisymmetric component). Read More

When a metal undergoes a transition to an insulator it will lose its electronic Fermi surface. Interestingly in some situations a `ghost' Fermi surface of electrically neutral spin carrying fermions may survive into the insulator. Such a novel ghost Fermi surface has been proposed to underlie the properties of a few different materials but its direct detection has proven elusive. Read More

Topological insulators are characterized by the presence of gapless surface modes protected by time-reversal symmetry. In three space dimensions the magnetoelectric response is described in terms of a bulk theta term for the electromagnetic field. Here we construct theoretical examples of such phases that cannot be smoothly connected to any band insulator. Read More

The destruction of Fermi liquid behavior when a gapless Fermi surface is coupled to a fluctuating gapless boson field is studied theoretically. This problem arises in a number of different contexts in quantum many body physics. Examples include fermions coupled to a fluctuating transverse gauge field pertinent to quantum spin liquid Mott insulators, and quantum critical metals near a Pomeranchuk transition. Read More

We study quantum phase transitions from easy-plane antiferromagnetic metals to paramagnetic metals in Kondo-Heisenberg lattice systems. If the paramagnetic metal is a fractionalized Fermi liquid then the universal critical properties of the phase transition are unaffected for a weak Kondo coupling even when the Fermi surface intersects the magnetic zone boundary. This is in striking contrast to the conventional theory of phase transitions between paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic metals where any Kondo coupling is strongly relevant, and leads to a Landau-damped `Hertz-Millis' theory. Read More

We study the energetics of Gutzwiller projected BCS states of various symmetries for the triangular lattice antiferromagnet with a four particle ring exchange using variational Monte Carlo methods. In a range of parameters the energetically favored state is found to be a projected $d_{x^2-y^2}$ paired state which breaks lattice rotational symmetry. We show that the properties of this nematic or orientationally ordered paired spin liquid state as a function of temperature and pressure can account for many of the experiments on organic materials. Read More

The issues of single particle coherence and its interplay with singlet pairing are studied within the slave boson gauge theory of a doped Mott insulator. Prior work by one of us (T. Senthil, arXiv:0804. Read More