# Suvrat Raju - Harish-Chandra Research Institute

## Contact Details

NameSuvrat Raju |
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AffiliationHarish-Chandra Research Institute |
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CityAllahabad |
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CountryIndia |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (27) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (10) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (4) Quantum Physics (4) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2) Astrophysics (1) Physics - Computational Physics (1) Physics - Classical Physics (1) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1) Physics - Physics and Society (1) Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (1) |

## Publications Authored By Suvrat Raju

A general principle of statistical mechanics is that low energy excitations of a thermal state change expectation values of observables by a very small amount. However some observables in the vicinity of the horizon of a large black hole in anti-de Sitter space naively seem to violate this bound. This potential violation is related to the question of whether the black hole interior can be described in AdS/CFT. Read More

We consider massless string scattering amplitudes in a limit where the number of external particles becomes very large, while the energy of each particle remains small. Using the growth of the volume of the relevant moduli space, and by means of independent numerical evidence, we argue that string perturbation theory breaks down in this limit. We discuss some remarkable implications for the information paradox. Read More

We review the paradox of low energy excitations about an AdS black hole. An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than $k T$ cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. Read More

We consider the algebra of simple operators defined in a time band in a CFT with a holographic dual. When the band is smaller than the light crossing time of AdS, an entire causal diamond in the center of AdS is separated from the band by a horizon. We show that this algebra obeys a version of the Reeh-Schlieder theorem: the action of the algebra on the CFT vacuum can approximate any low energy state in the CFT arbitrarily well, but no operator within the algebra can exactly annihilate the vacuum. Read More

We revisit the "state-dependence" of the map that we proposed recently between bulk operators in the interior of a large AdS black hole and operators in the boundary CFT. By refining recent versions of the information paradox, we show that this feature is necessary for the CFT to successfully describe local physics behind the horizon --- not only for single-sided black holes but even in the eternal black hole. We show that state-dependence is invisible to an infalling observer who cannot differentiate these operators from those of ordinary quantum effective field theory. Read More

We show that, in the AdS/CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge invariant relational observables that probe the black hole interior in these states and constrain their properties using effective field theory. By adapting recent versions of the information paradox we show that these observables are necessarily described by state-dependent bulk-boundary maps, which we construct explicitly. Read More

We used Bayesian methods to compare the predictions of probabilistic risk assessment -- the theoretical tool used by the nuclear industry to predict the frequency of nuclear accidents -- with empirical data. The existing record of accidents with some simplifying assumptions regarding their probability distribution is sufficient to rule out the validity of the industry's analyses at a very high confidence level. We show that this conclusion is robust against any reasonable assumed variation of safety standards over time, and across regions. Read More

We calculate the four point correlation function for scalar perturbations in the canonical model of slow-roll inflation. We work in the leading slow-roll approximation where the calculation can be done in de Sitter space. Our calculation uses techniques drawn from the AdS/CFT correspondence to find the wave function at late times and then calculate the four point function from it. Read More

We show that, within the AdS/CFT correspondence, recent formulations of the information paradox can be reduced to a question about the existence of certain kinds of operators in the CFT. We describe a remarkably simple construction of these operators on a given state of the CFT. Our construction leads to a smooth horizon, addresses the strong subadditivity paradox, while preserving locality within effective field theory, and reconciles the existence of the interior with the growth of states with energy in the CFT. Read More

We provide a simple and explicit construction of local bulk operators that describe the interior of a black hole in the AdS/CFT correspondence. The existence of these operators is predicated on the assumption that the mapping of CFT operators to local bulk operators depends on the state of the CFT. We show that our construction leads to an exactly local effective field theory in the bulk. Read More

We describe the experience of an observer falling into a black hole using the AdS/CFT correspondence. In order to do this, we reconstruct the local bulk operators measured by the observer along his trajectory outside the black hole. We then extend our construction beyond the black hole horizon. Read More

During inflation, spacetime is approximately described by de Sitter space which is conformally invariant with the symmetry group SO(1,4). This symmetry can significantly constrain the quantum perturbations which arise in the inflationary epoch. We consider a general situation of single field inflation and show that the three point function involving two scalar modes and one tensor mode is uniquely determined, up to small corrections, by the conformal symmetries. Read More

We compute three-point correlators between the stress-energy tensor and conserved currents of conformal field theories (CFTs) in 2+1 dimensions. We first compute the correlators in the large-flavor-number expansion of conformal gauge theories and then do the computation using holography. In the holographic approach, the correlators are computed from an effective action on 3+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS_4) proposed by Myers et al. Read More

We consider correlation functions of the stress-tensor or a conserved current in AdS_{d+1}/CFT_d computed using the Hilbert or the Yang-Mills action in the bulk. We introduce new recursion relations to compute these correlators at tree level. These relations have an advantage over the BCFW-like relations described in arXiv:1102. Read More

We compute four point functions of the stress tensor and conserved currents in AdS_4/CFT_3 using bulk perturbation theory. We work at treel level in the bulk theory, which we take to be either pure gravity or Yang Mills theory in AdS. We bypass the tedious evaluation of Witten diagrams using recently developed recursion relations for these correlators. Read More

We compute exact three and four point functions in the W_N minimal models that were recently conjectured to be dual to a higher spin theory in AdS_3. The boundary theory has a large number of light operators that are not only invisible in the bulk but grow exponentially with N even at small conformal dimensions. Nevertheless, we provide evidence that this theory can be understood in a 1/N expansion since our correlators look like free-field correlators corrected by a power series in 1/N . Read More

We provide dramatic evidence that `Mellin space' is the natural home for correlation functions in CFTs with weakly coupled bulk duals. In Mellin space, CFT correlators have poles corresponding to an OPE decomposition into `left' and `right' sub-correlators, in direct analogy with the factorization channels of scattering amplitudes. In the regime where these correlators can be computed by tree level Witten diagrams in AdS, we derive an explicit formula for the residues of Mellin amplitudes at the corresponding factorization poles, and we use the conformal Casimir to show that these amplitudes obey algebraic finite difference equations. Read More

The partition function of the W_N minimal model CFT is computed in the large N 't Hooft limit and compared to the spectrum of the proposed holographic dual, a 3d higher spin gravity theory coupled to massive scalar fields. At finite N, the CFT contains additional light states that are not visible in the perturbative gravity theory. We carefully define the large N limit, and give evidence that, at N = infinity, the additional states become null and decouple from all correlation functions. Read More

We expand on the results of arXiv:1011.0780 where we presented new recursion relations for correlation functions of the stress tensor and conserved currents in conformal field theories with an AdS_p dual for p > 4. These recursion relations are derived by generalizing the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) relations to amplitudes in anti-de Sitter space (AdS) that are dual to boundary correlators, and are usually computed perturbatively by Witten diagrams. Read More

We show that a generalization of the BCFW recursion relations gives a new and efficient method of computing correlation functions of the stress tensor or conserved currents in conformal field theories with an AdS_p dual, for p > 4, in the limit where the bulk theory is approximated by tree-level Yang-Mills or gravity. In supersymmetric theories, additional correlators of operators that live in the same multiplet as a conserved current or stress tensor can be computed by these means. Read More

We study rational remainders associated with gluon amplitudes in gauge theories coupled to matter in arbitrary representations. We find that these terms depend on only a small number of invariants of the matter-representation called indices. In particular, rational remainders can depend on the second and fourth order indices only. Read More

We describe new on-shell recursion relations for tree-amplitudes in N=1 and N=2 gauge theories and use these to show that the structure of the S-matrix in pure N=1 and N=2 gauge theories resembles that of pure Yang-Mills. We proceed to study gluon scattering in gauge theories coupled to matter in arbitrary representations. The contribution of matter to individual bubble and triangle coefficients can depend on the fourth and sixth order Indices of the matter representation respectively. Read More

As a simple example of how recently developed on-shell techniques apply to nonlocal theories, we study the S-matrix of noncommutative gauge theories. In the complex plane, this S-matrix has essential singularities that signal the nonlocal behavior of the theory. In spite of this, we show that tree-level amplitudes may be obtained by BCFW type recursion relations. Read More

We propose a general technique to solve the classical many-body problem with radiative damping. We modify the short-distance structure of Maxwell electrodynamics. This allows us to avoid runaway solutions as if we had a covariant model of extended particles. Read More

We present a trace formula for a Witten type Index for superconformal field theories in d=3,5 and 6 dimensions, generalizing a similar recent construction in d=4. We perform a detailed study of the decomposition of long representations into sums of short representations at the unitarity bound to demonstrate that our trace formula yields the most general index (i.e. Read More

We parameterize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve 4 supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur and (d) global $AdS_3 \times S_3 \times T^4/K3$. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector is tangent to the brane worldvolume at each point. We show that the supersymmetric sector of the D5 brane worldvolume theory may be analyzed in an effective 1+1 dimensional framework that places it on the same footing as D1 branes. Read More

We quantize the set of all quarter BPS brane probe solutions in global AdS_3 \times S^3 \times T^4/K3 found in arxiv:0709.1168 [hep-th]. We show that, generically, these solutions give rise to states in discrete representations of the SL(2,R) WZW model on AdS_3. Read More

We present a trace formula for an index over the spectrum of four dimensional superconformal field theories on $S^3 \times $ time. Our index receives contributions from states invariant under at least one supercharge and captures all information -- that may be obtained purely from group theory -- about protected short representations in 4 dimensional superconformal field theories. In the case of the $\CN=4$ theory our index is a function of four continuous variables. Read More

In this note, we determine the representation content of the free, large N, SU(N) Yang Mills theory on a sphere by decomposing its thermal partition function into characters of the irreducible representations of the conformal group SO(4,2). We also discuss the generalization of this procedure to finding the representation content of N=4 Super Yang Mills. Read More