Steven W. Allen - KIPAC Stanford/SLAC

Steven W. Allen
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Steven W. Allen
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KIPAC Stanford/SLAC
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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (25)
 
Astrophysics (9)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (5)
 
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (4)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (2)
 
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (2)
 
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High Energy Physics - Theory (1)

Publications Authored By Steven W. Allen

2016Oct

This book lays out the scientific goals to be addressed by the next-generation ground-based cosmic microwave background experiment, CMB-S4, envisioned to consist of dedicated telescopes at the South Pole, the high Chilean Atacama plateau and possibly a northern hemisphere site, all equipped with new superconducting cameras. CMB-S4 will dramatically advance cosmological studies by crossing critical thresholds in the search for the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves, in the determination of the number and masses of the neutrinos, in the search for evidence of new light relics, in constraining the nature of dark energy, and in testing general relativity on large scales. Read More

2016Jul
Authors: Hitomi Collaboration, Felix A. Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Keith A. Arnaud, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger D. Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko Hiraga, Ann E. Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Shota Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Kazunori Ishibashi, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masayuki Itoh, Naoko Iyomoto, Jelle S. Kaastra, Timothy Kallman, Tuneyoshi Kamae, Erin Kara, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Junichiro Katsuta, Madoka Kawaharada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Dmitry Khangulyan, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Ashley L. King, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Shu Koyama, Katsuji Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Francois Lebrun, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Grzegorz M. Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Harvey Moseley, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Toshio Murakami, Richard F. Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Masaharu Nomachi, Steve L. O'Dell, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stephane Paltani, Arvind Parmar, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Martin Pohl, F. Scott Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Brian D. Ramsey, Christopher S. Reynolds, Helen R. Russell, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Hiroaki Sameshima, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K. Smith, Yang Soong, Lukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew E. Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Keisuke Tamura, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki Tanaka, Makoto Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shiro Ueno, Shin'ichiro Uno, C. Meg Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Cor P. de Vries, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Daniel R. Wik, Dan R. Wilkins, Brian J. Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Atsumasa Yoshida, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with Hitomi was expected to resolve the origin of the faint unidentified E=3.5 keV emission line reported in several low-resolution studies of various massive systems, such as galaxies and clusters, including the Perseus cluster. We have analyzed the Hitomi first-light observation of the Perseus cluster. Read More

2016Jul
Authors: Hitomi Collaboration, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Naohisa Anabuki, Lorella Angelini, Keith Arnaud, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng Chiao, Paolo Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John Hughes, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Kazunori Ishibashi, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masayuki Itoh, Naoko Iyomoto, Jelle Kaastra, Timothy Kallman, Tuneyoshi Kamae, Erin Kara, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Junichiro Katsuta, Madoka Kawaharada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard Kelley, Dmitry Khangulyan, Caroline Kilbourne, Ashley King, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Shu Koyama, Katsuji Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Francois Lebrun, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Grzegorz Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric Miller, Jon Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Harvey Moseley, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Toshio Murakami, Richard Mushotzky, Ryo Nagino, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Masaharu Nomachi, Steve O'Dell, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stephane Paltani, Arvind Parmar, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Martin Pohl, F. Scott Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Brian Ramsey, Christopher Reynolds, Helen Russell, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Hiroaki Sameshima, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall Smith, Yang Soong, Lukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Keisuke Tamura, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki Tanaka, Makoto Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shiro Ueno, Shin'ichiro Uno, Meg Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Cor de Vries, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Daniel Wik, Dan Wilkins, Brian Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaok, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Atsumasa Yoshida, Takayuki Yuasa, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally-bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes of cosmological parameters and a host of astrophysical processes. Knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, which dominates in mass over stars in a cluster, is a crucial missing ingredient. Read More

This is the fifth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot in Papers I and II of this series. Here we use constraints on cluster mass profiles from X-ray data to test some of the basic predictions of cosmological structure formation in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm. Read More

2016Jun
Affiliations: 1KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 2KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 3KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 4Stony Brook, 5Bonn, 6UC Berkeley, 7KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 8IfA Hawaii, 9IfA Hawaii

We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. Read More

This is the third in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot (i.e. Read More

2015Feb
Affiliations: 1KICP Chicago, 2KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 3KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 4Heidelberg, 5KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 6KIPAC Stanford/SLAC

This is the first in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Here we present a new, automated method for identifying relaxed clusters based on their morphologies in X-ray imaging data. While broadly similar to others in the literature, the morphological quantities that we measure are specifically designed to provide a fair basis for comparison across a range of data quality and cluster redshifts, to be robust against missing data due to point-source masks and gaps between detectors, and to avoid strong assumptions about the cosmological background and cluster masses. Read More

2014Nov
Affiliations: 1Dark Cosmology Centre, 2Dark Cosmology Centre, 3MPA, 4KICP Chicago, 5KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 6Bonn, 7UC Berkeley, 8Dark Cosmology Centre, 9KIPAC Stanford/SLAC

The abundance of massive galaxy clusters is a powerful probe of departures from General Relativity (GR) on cosmic scales. Despite current stringent constraints placed by stellar and galactic tests, on larger scales alternative theories of gravity such as $f(R)$ can still work as effective theories. Here we present constraints on two popular models of $f(R)$, Hu-Sawicki and "designer", derived from a fully self-consistent analysis of current samples of X-ray selected clusters and accounting for all the covariances between cosmological and astrophysical parameters. Read More

In a series of three previous papers, formulation and specifics of the representation of World Coordinate Transformations in FITS data have been presented. This fourth paper deals with encoding time. Time on all scales and precisions known in astronomical datasets is to be described in an unambiguous, complete, and self-consistent manner. Read More

2014Jul
Affiliations: 1KICP Chicago, 2KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 3KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 4Bonn, 5UC Berkeley, 6KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 7DARK Cosmology Centre, 8Heidelberg, 9IGC Penn. State, 10KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 11KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 12KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 13DARK Cosmology Centre, 14IfA Hawaii, 15IfA Hawaii, 16IGC Penn. State, 17KIPAC Stanford/SLAC

We employ robust weak gravitational lensing measurements to improve cosmological constraints from measurements of the galaxy cluster mass function and its evolution, using X-ray selected clusters detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Our lensing analysis constrains the absolute mass scale of such clusters at the 8 per cent level, including both statistical and systematic uncertainties. Combining it with the survey data and X-ray follow-up observations, we find a tight constraint on a combination of the mean matter density and late-time normalization of the matter power spectrum, $\sigma_8(\Omega_m/0. Read More

2014Feb
Affiliations: 1KICP Chicago, 2KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 3KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 4DARK Cosmology Centre, 5Bonn, 6UC Berkeley, 7KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 8Heidelberg

We present cosmological constraints from measurements of the gas mass fraction, $f_{gas}$, for massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our data set consists of Chandra observations of 40 such clusters, identified in a comprehensive search of the Chandra archive, as well as high-quality weak gravitational lensing data for a subset of these clusters. Incorporating a robust gravitational lensing calibration of the X-ray mass estimates, and restricting our measurements to the most self-similar and accurately measured regions of clusters, significantly reduces systematic uncertainties compared to previous work. Read More

2014Feb
Affiliations: 1DARK Cosmology Centre, 2KICP Chicago, 3KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 4Bonn, 5UC Berkeley, 6KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 7KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 8KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 9KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 10KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 11IfA Hawaii, 12IfA Hawaii

In light of the tension in cosmological constraints reported by the Planck team between their SZ-selected cluster counts and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies, we compare the Planck cluster mass estimates with robust, weak-lensing mass measurements from the Weighing the Giants (WtG) project. For the 22 clusters in common between the Planck cosmology sample and WtG, we find an overall mass ratio of $\left< M_{Planck}/M_{\rm WtG} \right> = 0.688 \pm 0. Read More

Most of the metals (elements heavier than helium) ever produced by stars in the member galaxies of galaxy clusters currently reside within the hot, X-ray emitting intra-cluster gas. Observations of X-ray line emission from this intergalactic medium have suggested a relatively small cluster-to-cluster scatter outside of the cluster centers and enrichment with iron out to large radii, leading to the idea that the metal enrichment occurred early in the history of the Universe. Models with early enrichment predict a uniform metal distribution at large radii in clusters, while late-time enrichment, favored by some previous studies, is expected to introduce significant spatial variations of the metallicity. Read More

We report constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity from the abundance of X-ray detected clusters. Our analytic prescription for adding non-Gaussianity to the cluster mass function takes into account moments beyond the skewness, and we demonstrate that those moments should not be ignored in most analyses of cluster data. We constrain the amplitude of the skewness for two scenarios that have different overall levels of non-Gaussianity, characterized by how amplitudes of higher cumulants scale with the skewness. Read More

2012Aug
Affiliations: 1KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 2KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 3KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 4KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 5KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 6IfA Hawaii, 7KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 8KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 9IfA Hawaii, 10KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 11KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 12AIfA Bonn, 13KICP Chicago

This is the first in a series of papers in which we measure accurate weak-lensing masses for 51 of the most X-ray luminous galaxy clusters known at redshifts 0.15Read More

2012Aug
Affiliations: 1KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 2KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 3KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 4KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 5KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 6KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 7KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 8IfA Hawaii, 9Caltech, 10IfA Vienna, 11IfA Hawaii, 12KICP Chicago, 13KIPAC Stanford/SLAC

We present improved methods for using stars found in astronomical exposures to calibrate both star and galaxy colors as well as to adjust the instrument flat field. By developing a spectroscopic model for the SDSS stellar locus in color-color space, synthesizing an expected stellar locus, and simultaneously solving for all unknown zeropoints when fitting to the instrumental locus, we increase the calibration accuracy of stellar locus matching. We also use a new combined technique to estimate improved flat-field models for the Subaru SuprimeCam camera, forming `star flats' based on the magnitudes of stars observed in multiple positions or through comparison with available SDSS magnitudes. Read More

2012Aug
Affiliations: 1KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 2KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 3KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 4KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 5KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 6KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 7KIPAC Stanford/SLAC, 8IfA Hawaii, 9KICP Chicago, 10KIPAC Stanford/SLAC

We report weak-lensing masses for 51 of the most X-ray luminous galaxy clusters known. This cluster sample, introduced earlier in this series of papers, spans redshifts 0.15 < z_cl < 0. Read More

Combining galaxy cluster data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and the Chandra X-ray Observatory, cosmic microwave background data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and galaxy clustering data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, the 6-degree Field Galaxy Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, we test for consistency the cosmic growth of structure predicted by General Relativity (GR) and the cosmic expansion history predicted by the cosmological constant plus cold dark matter paradigm (LCDM). The combination of these three independent, well studied measurements of the evolution of the mean energy density and its fluctuations is able to break strong degeneracies between model parameters. We model the key properties of cosmic growth with the normalization of the matter power spectrum, sigma_8, and the cosmic growth index, gamma, and those of cosmic expansion with the mean matter density, Omega_m, the Hubble constant, H_0, and a kinematical parameter equivalent to that for the dark energy equation of state, w. Read More

We present a study of the mechanical power generated by both winds and jets across the black hole mass scale. We begin with the study of ionized X-ray winds and present a uniform analysis using Chandra grating spectra. The high quality grating spectra facilitate the characterization of the outflow velocity, ionization and column density of the absorbing gas. Read More

On October 5 and October 6, 2011, the Colloquium on the Decoupling Civil Timekeeping from Earth Rotation was hosted in Exton, Pennsylvania by Analytical Graphics, Inc. (AGI). This paper highlights various technical perspectives offered through these proceedings, including expressions of concern and various recommendations offered by colloquium participants. Read More

Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. Read More

Studies of galaxy clusters have proved crucial in helping to establish the standard model of cosmology, with a universe dominated by dark matter and dark energy. A theoretical basis that describes clusters as massive, multi-component, quasi-equilibrium systems is growing in its capability to interpret multi-wavelength observations of expanding scope and sensitivity. We review current cosmological results, including contributions to fundamental physics, obtained from observations of galaxy clusters. Read More

Studies of the diffuse X-ray emitting gas in galaxy clusters have provided powerful constraints on cosmological parameters and insights into plasma astrophysics. However, measurements of the faint cluster outskirts have become possible only recently. Using data from the Suzaku X-ray telescope, we determined an accurate, spatially resolved census of the gas, metals, and dark matter out to the edge of the Perseus Cluster. Read More

This is the third of a series of papers in which we derive simultaneous constraints on cosmological parameters and X-ray scaling relations using observations of the growth of massive, X-ray flux-selected galaxy clusters. Our data set consists of 238 clusters drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and incorporates extensive follow-up observations using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Here we present improved constraints on departures from General Relativity (GR) on cosmological scales, using the growth index, gamma, to parameterize the linear growth rate of cosmic structure. Read More

This is the fourth of a series of papers in which we derive simultaneous constraints on cosmological parameters and X-ray scaling relations using observations of the growth of massive, X-ray flux-selected galaxy clusters. Here we examine the constraints on neutrino properties that are enabled by the precise and robust constraint on the amplitude of the matter power spectrum at low redshift that is available from our data. In combination with cluster gas-mass fraction, cosmic microwave background, supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation data, and incorporating conservative allowances for systematic uncertainties, we limit the species-summed neutrino mass, M_nu, to <0. Read More

2009Sep

(Abridged) This is the first of a series of papers in which we derive simultaneous constraints on cosmological parameters and X-ray scaling relations using observations of the growth of massive, X-ray flux-selected galaxy clusters. Our data set consists of 238 clusters drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and incorporates extensive follow-up observations using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Here we describe and implement a new statistical framework required to self-consistently produce simultaneous constraints on cosmology and scaling relations from such data, and present results on models of dark energy. Read More

2009Sep
Affiliations: 1KIPAC, Stanford/SLAC, 2KIPAC, Stanford/SLAC, 3IfA, Hawaii, 4KIPAC, Stanford/SLAC, 5KIPAC, Stanford/SLAC

(Abridged) This is the second in a series of papers in which we derive simultaneous constraints on cosmology and X-ray scaling relations using observations of massive, X-ray flux-selected galaxy clusters. The data set consists of 238 clusters drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey with 0.1-2. Read More

2009Mar
Affiliations: 1KICP, U.Chicago, 2U. Florida, 3SAO/IKI, Moscow, 4U.Chicago, NRAO, 5Steward Observatory, 6Yale, 7SAO/IKI, Moscow, 8U.Chicago, 9Caltech, 10NRAO, 11U.Chicago, 12IAS, 13U.Michigan, 14Princeton, 15KIPAC, Stanford

Groups and clusters of galaxies occupy a special position in the hierarchy of large-scale cosmic structures because they are the largest and the most massive (from ~10^13 Msun to over 10^15 Msun) objects in the universe that have had time to undergo gravitational collapse. The large masses of clusters imply that their contents have been accreted from regions of ~8-40 comoving Mpc in size and should thus be representative of the mean matter content of the universe. During the next decade sensitive multi-wavelength observations should be able to map the radial distributions of all main mass components (stars, cold, warm, and hot gas and total mass) at z<~ 1 out to the virial radius. Read More

We use measurements of the growth of cosmic structure, as inferred from the observed evolution of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of galaxy clusters, to constrain departures from General Relativity (GR) on cosmological scales. We employ the popular growth rate parameterization, Omega_m(z)^gamma, for which GR predicts a growth index gamma~0.55. Read More

2008Jun
Affiliations: 1UCSB, 2KIPAC, Stanford, 3UCSB, 4UoHawaii, 5Edinburgh, 6KIPAC, Stanford, 7KIPAC, Stanford, 8KIPAC, Stanford
Category: Astrophysics

We constrain the physical nature of dark matter using the newly identified massive merging galaxy cluster MACSJ0025.4-1222. As was previously shown by the example of the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56), such systems are ideal laboratories for detecting isolated dark matter, and distinguishing between cold dark matter (CDM) and other scenarios (e. Read More

We examine the ability of a future X-ray observatory to constrain dark energy via measurements of the cluster X-ray gas mass fraction, fgas. We find that fgas measurements for a sample of ~500 hot, X-ray bright, dynamically relaxed clusters, to a precision of ~5 per cent, can be used to constrain dark energy with a Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) figure of merit of 15-40, with the possibility of boosting these values by 40 per cent or more by optimizing the redshift distribution of target clusters. Such constraints are comparable to those predicted by the DETF for other leading, planned dark energy experiments. Read More

Constellation-X (Con-X) will carry out two powerful and independent sets of tests of dark energy based on X-ray observations of galaxy clusters, providing comparable accuracy to other leading dark energy probes. The first group of tests will measure the absolute distances to clusters, primarily using measurements of the X-ray gas mass fraction in the largest, dynamically relaxed clusters, but with additional constraining power provided by follow-up observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. As with supernovae studies, such data determine the transformation between redshift and true distance, d(z), allowing cosmic acceleration to be measured directly. Read More

We present and employ a new kinematical approach to cosmological `dark energy' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q_0 and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all LCDM models have j(t)=1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the LCDM paradigm. Read More

We present new constraints on the evolution of dark energy from an analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background, supernova and X-ray galaxy cluster data. Our analysis employs a minimum of priors and exploits the complementary nature of these data sets. We examine a series of dark energy models with up to three free parameters: the current dark energy equation of state w_0, the early time equation of state w_et and the scale factor at transition, a_t. Read More

We present a snapshot Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of the galaxy cluster A1201 (z=0.169), revealing a tangential arc 2arcsec from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). Keck-ESI spectroscopy confirms that the arc is gravitational in nature and that the source galaxy lies at z=0. Read More

2002Feb

Chandra X-ray observations of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 resolve the thermal state of the hot interstellar medium into the accretion (Bondi) radius of its central 3 10^9 Msun black hole. We measure the X-ray gas temperature and density profiles and calculate the Bondi accretion rate, Mdot_Bondi \sim 0.1 Msun/yr. Read More

We explore the implications of the discovery of hard, power-law X-ray sources in the spectra of nearby elliptical galaxies for the origin of the X-ray background. The spectra of these sources are consistent with models of thermal bremsstrahlung emission from low radiative efficiency accretion flows around central supermassive black holes and are unique in that they approximately match that of the hard XRB. If such sources, with luminosities consistent with those observed in nearby ellipticals, are present in most early-type galaxies, then their integrated emission may contribute significantly to the XRB. Read More