# Steven L. Brunton

## Contact Details

NameSteven L. Brunton |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Fluid Dynamics (10) Mathematics - Dynamical Systems (8) Computer Science - Numerical Analysis (4) Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons (4) Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (4) Physics - Data Analysis; Statistics and Probability (3) Mathematics - Optimization and Control (3) Statistics - Computation (2) Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics (2) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1) Physics - Physics and Society (1) Physics - Optics (1) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1) Quantitative Biology - Neurons and Cognition (1) Computer Science - Mathematical Software (1) Statistics - Machine Learning (1) Computer Science - Learning (1) Statistics - Methodology (1) Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods (1) |

## Publications Authored By Steven L. Brunton

The CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor decomposition is a popular dimensionality-reduction method for multiway data. Dimensionality reduction is often sought since many high-dimensional tensors have low intrinsic rank relative to the dimension of the ambient measurement space. However, the emergence of `big data' poses significant computational challenges for computing this fundamental tensor decomposition. Read More

This paper presents a randomized algorithm for computing the near-optimal low-rank dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). Randomized algorithms are emerging techniques to compute low-rank matrix approximations. They are able to ease the computational challenges arising in the area of big data. Read More

Simple aerodynamic configurations under even modest conditions can exhibit complex flows with a wide range of temporal and spatial features. It has become common practice in the analysis of these flows to look for and extract physically important features, or modes, as a first step in the analysis. This step typically starts with a modal decomposition of an experimental or numerical dataset of the flow field, or of an operator relevant to the system. Read More

Sensor placement or selection is one of the most challenging unsolved problems in engineering. Optimizing sensor placement to characterize a high-dimensional system is critical for the downstream tasks of prediction, estimation, and control. The central focus of this paper is to select the best and fewest measurement locations for reconstruction in a given basis. Read More

Topological data analysis (TDA) has emerged as one of the most promising techniques to reconstruct the unknown shapes of high-dimensional spaces from observed data samples. TDA, thus, yields key shape descriptors in the form of persistent topological features that can be used for any supervised or unsupervised learning task, including multi-way classification. Sparse sampling, on the other hand, provides a highly efficient technique to reconstruct signals in the spatial-temporal domain from just a few carefully-chosen samples. Read More

We develop an algorithm for model selection which allows for the consideration of a combinatorially large number of candidate models governing a dynamical system. The innovation circumvents a disadvantage of standard model selection which typically limits the number candidate models considered due to the intractability of computing information criteria. Using a recently developed sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics algorithm, the sub-selection of candidate models near the Pareto frontier allows for a tractable computation of AIC (Akaike information criteria) or BIC (Bayes information criteria) scores for the remaining candidate models. Read More

Characterizing and controlling nonlinear, multi-scale phenomena play important roles in science and engineering. Cluster-based reduced-order modeling (CROM) was introduced to exploit the underlying low-dimensional dynamics of complex systems. CROM builds a data-driven discretization of the Perron-Frobenius operator, resulting in a probabilistic model for ensembles of trajectories. Read More

This work develops a parallelized algorithm to compute the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) on a graphics processing unit using the streaming method of snapshots singular value decomposition. This allows the algorithm to operate efficiently on streaming data by avoiding redundant inner-products as new data becomes available. In addition, it is possible to leverage the native compressed format of many data streams, such as HD video and computational physics codes that are represented sparsely in the Fourier domain, to massively reduce data transfer from CPU to GPU and to enable sparse matrix multiplications. Read More

Although major advances have been achieved over the past decades for the reduction and identification of linear systems, deriving nonlinear low-order models still is a chal- lenging task. In this work, we develop a new data-driven framework to identify nonlinear reduced-order models of a fluid by combining dimensionality reductions techniques (e.g. Read More

We propose a sparse regression method capable of discovering the governing partial differential equation(s) of a given system by time series measurements in the spatial domain. The regression framework relies on sparsity promoting techniques to select the nonlinear and partial derivative terms terms of the governing equations that most accurately represent the data, bypassing a combinatorially large search through all possible candidate models. The method balances model complexity and regression accuracy by selecting a parsimonious model via Pareto analysis. Read More

Understanding the interplay of order and disorder in chaotic systems is a central challenge in modern quantitative science. We present a universal, data-driven decomposition of chaos as an intermittently forced linear system. This work combines Takens' delay embedding with modern Koopman operator theory and sparse regression to obtain linear representations of strongly nonlinear dynamics. Read More

The singular value decomposition (SVD) is among the most ubiquitous matrix factorizations. Specifically, it is a cornerstone algorithm for data analysis, dimensionality reduction and data compression. However, despite modern computer power, massive datasets pose a computational challenge for traditional SVD algorithms. Read More

We consider the application of Koopman theory to nonlinear partial differential equations. We demonstrate that the observables chosen for constructing the Koopman operator are critical for enabling an accurate approximation to the nonlinear dynamics. If such observables can be found, then the dynamic mode decomposition algorithm can be enacted to compute a finite-dimensional approximation of the Koopman operator, including its eigenfunctions, eigenvalues and Koopman modes. Read More

A genetic algorithm procedure is demonstrated that refines the selection of interpolation points of the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) when used for constructing reduced order models for time dependent and/or parametrized nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) with proper orthogonal decomposition. The method achieves nearly optimal interpolation points with only a few generations of the search, making it potentially useful for {\em online} refinement of the sparse sampling used to construct a projection of the nonlinear terms. With the genetic algorithm, points are optimized to jointly minimize reconstruction error and enable dynamic regime classification. Read More

This paper addresses the problem of identifying different flow environments from sparse data collected by wing strain sensors. Insects regularly perform this feat using a sparse ensemble of noisy strain sensors on their wing. First, we obtain strain data from numerical simulation of a Manduca sexta hawkmoth wing undergoing different flow environments. Read More

How does the connectivity of a network system combine with the behavior of its individual components to determine its collective function? We approach this question by relating the internal network feedback to the statistical prevalence of connectivity motifs, a set of surprisingly simple and local statistics on the network topology. The resulting motif description provides a reduced order model of the network input-output dynamics and it relates the overall network function to feedback control theory. For example, this new formulation dramatically simplifies the classic Erdos-Renyi graph, reducing the overall graph behavior to a simple proportional feedback wrapped around the dynamics of a single node. Read More

Inferring the structure and dynamics of network models is critical to understanding the functionality and control of complex systems, such as metabolic and regulatory biological networks. The increasing quality and quantity of experimental data enable statistical approaches based on information theory for model selection and goodness-of-fit metrics. We propose an alternative method to infer networked nonlinear dynamical systems by using sparsity-promoting $\ell_1$ optimization to select a subset of nonlinear interactions representing dynamics on a fully connected network. Read More

Identifying governing equations from data is a critical step in the modeling and control of complex dynamical systems. Here, we investigate the data-driven identification of nonlinear dynamical systems with inputs and forcing using regression methods, including sparse regression. Specifically, we generalize the sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics (SINDY) algorithm to include external inputs and feedback control. Read More

Cross-flow turbines, also known as vertical-axis turbines, have numerous features that make them attractive for wind and marine renewable energy. To maximize power output, the turbine blade kinematics may be controlled during the course of the blade revolution, thus optimizing the unsteady fluid dynamic forces. Dynamically pitching the blades, similar to blade control in a helicopter, is an established method. Read More

We develop a new generalization of Koopman operator theory that incorporates the effects of inputs and control. Koopman spectral analysis is a theoretical tool for the analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems. Moreover, Koopman is intimately connected to Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD), a method that discovers spatial-temporal coherent modes from data, connects local-linear analysis to nonlinear operator theory, and importantly creates an equation-free architecture allowing investigation of complex systems. Read More

In this work we investigate the dynamics of inertial particles using finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE). In particular, we characterize the attractor and repeller structures underlying preferential concentration of inertial particles in terms of FTLE fields of the underlying carrier fluid. Inertial particles that are heavier than the ambient fluid (aerosols) attract onto ridges of the negative-time fluid FTLE. Read More

We introduce the method of compressed dynamic mode decomposition (cDMD) for background modeling. The dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is a regression technique that integrates two of the leading data analysis methods in use today: Fourier transforms and singular value decomposition. Borrowing ideas from compressed sensing and matrix sketching, cDMD eases the computational workload of high resolution video processing. Read More

In this work, we explore finite-dimensional linear representations of nonlinear dynamical systems by restricting the Koopman operator to an invariant subspace. The Koopman operator is an infinite-dimensional linear operator that evolves observable functions of the state-space of a dynamical system [Koopman 1931, PNAS]. Dominant terms in the Koopman expansion are typically computed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). Read More

The ability to discover physical laws and governing equations from data is one of humankind's greatest intellectual achievements. A quantitative understanding of dynamic constraints and balances in nature has facilitated rapid development of knowledge and enabled advanced technological achievements, including aircraft, combustion engines, satellites, and electrical power. In this work, we combine sparsity-promoting techniques and machine learning with nonlinear dynamical systems to discover governing physical equations from measurement data. Read More

We demonstrate that the integration of the recently developed dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) with a multi-resolution analysis allows for a decomposition method capable of robustly separating complex systems into a hierarchy of multi-resolution time-scale components. A one-level separation allows for background (low-rank) and foreground (sparse) separation of dynamical data, or robust principal component analysis. The multi-resolution dynamic mode decomposition is capable of characterizing nonlinear dynamical systems in an equation-free manner by recursively decomposing the state of the system into low-rank terms whose temporal coefficients in time are known. Read More

**Authors:**Thomas Duriez, Vladimir Parezanović, Kai von Krbek, Jean-Paul Bonnet, Laurent Cordier, Bernd R. Noack, Marc Segond, Markus Abel, Nicolas Gautier, Jean-Luc Aider, Cedric Raibaudo, Christophe Cuvier, Michel Stanislas, Antoine Debien, Nicolas Mazellier, Azeddine Kourta, Steven L. Brunton

**Category:**Physics - Fluid Dynamics

Turbulent shear flows have triggered fundamental research in nonlinear dynamics, like transition scenarios, pattern formation and dynamical modeling. In particular, the control of nonlinear dynamics is subject of research since decades. In this publication, actuated turbulent shear flows serve as test-bed for a nonlinear feedback control strategy which can optimize an arbitrary cost function in an automatic self-learning manner. Read More

We demonstrate the synthesis of sparse sampling and machine learning to characterize and model complex, nonlinear dynamical systems over a range of bifurcation parameters. First, we construct modal libraries using the classical proper orthogonal decomposition to uncover dominant low-rank coherent structures. Here, nonlinear libraries are also constructed in order to take advantage of the discrete empirical interpolation method and projection that allows for the approximation of nonlinear terms in a low-dimensional way. Read More

We develop a new method which extends Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) to incorporate the effect of control to extract low-order models from high-dimensional, complex systems. DMD finds spatial-temporal coherent modes, connects local-linear analysis to nonlinear operator theory, and provides an equation-free architecture which is compatible with compressive sensing. In actuated systems, DMD is incapable of producing an input-output model; moreover, the dynamics and the modes will be corrupted by external forcing. Read More

A novel framework for closed-loop control of turbulent flows is tested in an experimental mixing layer flow. This framework, called Machine Learning Control (MLC), provides a model-free method of searching for the best function, to be used as a control law in closed-loop flow control. MLC is based on genetic programming, a function optimization method of machine learning. Read More

Accurate and efficient methods for beam-steering of holographic metamaterial antennas is of critical importance for enabling consumer usage of satellite data capacities. We develop an optimization algorithm capable of performing adaptive, real-time control of antenna patterns while operating in dynamic environments. Our method provides a first analysis of the antenna pattern optimization problem in the context of metamaterials and for the purpose of directing the central beam and significantly suppressing sidelobe levels. Read More

Unsteady aerodynamic models are necessary to accurately simulate forces and develop feedback controllers for wings in agile motion; however, these models are often high dimensional or incompatible with modern control techniques. Recently, reduced-order unsteady aerodynamic models have been developed for a pitching and plunging airfoil by linearizing the discretized Navier-Stokes equation with lift-force output. In this work, we extend these reduced-order models to include multiple inputs (pitch, plunge, and surge) and explicit parameterization by the pitch-axis location, inspired by Theodorsen's model. Read More

This work develops compressive sampling strategies for computing the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) from heavily subsampled or output-projected data. The resulting DMD eigenvalues are equal to DMD eigenvalues from the full-state data. It is then possible to reconstruct full-state DMD eigenvectors using $\ell_1$-minimization or greedy algorithms. Read More

We show that for complex nonlinear systems, model reduction and compressive sensing strategies can be combined to great advantage for classifying, projecting, and reconstructing the relevant low-dimensional dynamics. $\ell_2$-based dimensionality reduction methods such as the proper orthogonal decomposition are used to construct separate modal libraries and Galerkin models based on data from a number of bifurcation regimes. These libraries are then concatenated into an over-complete library, and $\ell_1$ sparse representation in this library from a few noisy measurements results in correct identification of the bifurcation regime. Read More

Originally introduced in the fluid mechanics community, dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) has emerged as a powerful tool for analyzing the dynamics of nonlinear systems. However, existing DMD theory deals primarily with sequential time series for which the measurement dimension is much larger than the number of measurements taken. We present a theoretical framework in which we define DMD as the eigendecomposition of an approximating linear operator. Read More

This fluid dynamics video depicts the mixing that occurs as a two-dimensional flat plate plunges sinusoidally in a quiescent fluid. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents reveal sets that are attracting or repelling. As the flow field develops, strange faces emerge. Read More