# Stephen M Barnett - SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK

## Contact Details

NameStephen M Barnett |
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AffiliationSUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK |
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CityGlasgow |
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CountryUnited Kingdom |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (39) Physics - Optics (6) Physics - Atomic Physics (3) Physics - Other (2) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) Quantitative Biology - Populations and Evolution (1) Physics - General Physics (1) Statistics - Applications (1) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1) Computer Science - Computers and Society (1) Physics - Atomic and Molecular Clusters (1) Physics - Chemical Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Stephen M Barnett

Non-locality without entanglement is a rather counter-intuitive phenomenon in which information may be encoded entirely in product (unentangled) states of composite quantum systems in such a way that local measurement of the subsystems is not enough for optimal decoding. For simple examples of pure product states, the gap in performance is known to be rather small when arbitrary local strategies are allowed. Here we restrict to local strategies readily achievable with current technology; those requiring neither a quantum memory nor joint operations. Read More

Two particle interference phenomena, such as the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, are a direct manifestation of the nature of the symmetry properties of indistinguishable particles as described by quantum mechanics. The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect has recently been applied as a tool for pure state tomography of a single photon. In this article, we generalise the method to extract additional information for a pure state and extend this to the full tomography of mixed states as well. Read More

We show how a simple calculation leads to the surprising result that an excited two-level atom moving through vacuum sees a tiny friction force of first order in v/c. At first sight this seems to be in obvious contradiction to other calculations showing that the interaction with the vacuum does not change the velocity of an atom. It is yet more surprising that this change in the atom's momentum turns out to be a necessary result of energy and momentum conservation in special relativity. Read More

As an alternative to conventional multi-pixel cameras, single-pixel cameras enable images to be recorded using a single detector that measures the correlations between the scene and a set of patterns. However, to fully sample a scene in this way requires at least the same number of correlation measurements as there are pixels in the reconstructed image. Therefore single-pixel imaging systems typically exhibit low frame-rates. Read More

In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum - atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. Read More

Online Social Networking may be a way to support health professionals' need for continuous learning through interaction with peers and experts. Understanding and evaluating such learning is important but difficult, and Social Network Analysis (SNA) offers a solution. This paper demonstrates how SNA can be used to study levels of participation as well as the patterns of interactions that take place among health professionals in a large online professional learning network. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Aberg has claimed in a recent Letter," Phys. Rev. Lett. Read More

We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy: a new technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components $B_{XX}$, $B_{YY}$ and $B_{ZZ}$ of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centres. The principles that underpin chiral rotational spectroscopy could be exploited moreover in the search for molecular chirality in space, which, if found, might add weight to hypotheses that biological homochirality and indeed life itself are of cosmic origin. Read More

We recognise that Stegosaurus exhibited exterior chirality and could, therefore, have assumed either of two distinct, mirror-image forms. Our preliminary investigations suggest that both existed. Stegosaurus's exterior chirality raises new questions such as the validity of well-known exhibits whilst offering new insights into long-standing questions such as the function of the plates. Read More

We analyse the properties of a strongly-damped quantum harmonic oscillator by means of an exact diagonalisation of the full Hamiltonian, including both the oscillator and the reservoir degrees of freedom to which it is coupled. Many of the properties of the oscillator, including its steady-state properties and entanglement with the reservoir can be understood and quantified in terms of a simple probability density, which we may associate with the ground-state frequency spectrum of the oscillator. Read More

We respond to recent works by Bradshaw and Andrews on the discriminatory optical force for chiral molecules, in particular to the erroneous claims made by them concerning our earlier work. Read More

We determine the shared information that can be extracted from time-bin entangled photons using frame encoding. We consider photons generated by a general down-conversion source and also model losses, dark counts and the effects of multiple photons within each frame. Furthermore, we describe a procedure for including other imperfections such as after-pulsing, detector dead-times and jitter. Read More

We show how it is possible to operate end-to-end relays on a QKD network by treating each relay as a trusted eavesdropper operating an intercept/resend strategy. It is shown that, by introducing the concept of bit transport, the key rate compared to that of single-link channels is unaffected. The technique of bit transport extends the capability of QKD networks. Read More

We present a classical linear response theory for a magneto-dielectric material and determine the polariton dispersion relations. The electromagnetic field fluctuation spectra are obtained and polariton sum rules for their optical parameters are presented. The electromagnetic field for systems with multiple polariton branches is quantised in 3 dimensions and field operators are converted to 1-dimensional forms appropriate for parallel light beams. Read More

We present a tensorial relative of the familiar affine connection and argue that it should be regarded as the gravitational field tensor. Remarkably, the Lagrangian density expressed in terms of this tensor has a simple form, which depends only on the metric and its first derivatives and, moreover, is a true scalar quantity. The geodesic equation, moreover, shows that our tensor plays a role that is strongly reminiscent of the gravitational field in Newtonian mechanics and this, together with other evidence, which we present, leads us to identify it as the gravitational field tensor. Read More

Recent years have seen vast progress in the generation and detection of structured light, with potential applications in high capacity optical data storage and continuous variable quantum technologies. Here we measure the transmission of structured light through cold rubidium atoms and observe regions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use q-plates to generate a probe beam with azimuthally varying phase and polarisation structure, and its right and left circular polarisation components provide the probe and control of an EIT transition. Read More

That the speed of light in free space is constant is a cornerstone of modern physics. However, light beams have finite transverse size, which leads to a modification of their wavevectors resulting in a change to their phase and group velocities. We study the group velocity of single photons by measuring a change in their arrival time that results from changing the beam's transverse spatial structure. Read More

Quantum optical amplification that beats the noise addition limit for deterministic amplifiers has been realized experimentally using several different nondeterministic protocols. These schemes either require single-photon sources, or operate by noise addition and photon subtraction. Here we present an experimental demonstration of a protocol that allows nondeterministic amplification of known sets of coherent states with high gain and high fidelity. Read More

It is a fundamental principle of quantum theory that an unknown state cannot be copied or, as a consequence, an unknown optical signal cannot be amplified deterministically and perfectly. Here we describe a protocol that provides nondeterministic quantum optical amplification in the coherent state basis with high gain, high fidelity and which does not use quantum resources. The scheme is based on two mature quantum optical technologies, coherent state comparison and photon subtraction. Read More

The task of measuring in two mutually unbiased bases is central to many quantum information protocols, as well as being of fundamental interest. Increasingly, there is an experimental focus on generating and controlling high-dimensional photonic states. One approach is to use the arrival time of a photon, which can be split into discrete time bins. Read More

In thermodynamics one considers thermal systems and the maximization of entropy subject to the conservation of energy. A consequence is Landauer's erasure principle, which states that the erasure of 1 bit of information requires a minimum energy cost equal to $kT\ln(2)$ where $T$ is the temperature of a thermal reservoir used in the process and $k$ is Boltzmann's constant. Jaynes, however, argued that the maximum entropy principle could be applied to any number of conserved quantities which would suggest that information erasure may have alternative costs. Read More

Helicity is a property of light which is familiar from particle physics but less well-known in optics. In this paper we recall the explicit form taken by the helicity of light within classical electromagnetic theory and reflect upon some of its remarkable characteristics. The helicity of light is related to, but is distinct from, the spin of light. Read More

Busch's theorem deriving the standard quantum probability rule can be regarded as a more general form of Gleason's theorem. Here we show that a further generalisation is possible by reducing the number of quantum postulates used by Busch. We do not assume that the positive measurement outcome operators are effects or that they form a probability operator measure. Read More

Franson interferometers are increasingly being proposed as a means of securing high-dimensional energy-time entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Heuristic arguments have been proposed that purport to demonstrate the security of these schemes. We show, however, that such systems are vulnerable to attacks that localize the photons to several temporally separate locations. Read More

This paper shows that phase space methods using a positive P type distribution function involving both c-number variables (for the cavity mode) and Grassmann variables (for the two level atom) can be used to treat the Jaynes-Cummings model. Although it is a Grassmann function, the distribution function is equivalent to six c-number functions of the two bosonic variables. Experimental quantities are given as bosonic phase space integrals involving the six functions. Read More

A key goal of quantum communication is to determine the maximum number of bits shared between two quantum systems. An important example of this is in entanglement based quantum key distribution (QKD) schemes. A realistic treatment of this general communication problem must take account of the nonideal nature of the entanglement source and the detectors. Read More

One of the obstacles to deployment of QKD solutions has been the distance limitation. Solutions using relays have been proposed but these rely on link-by-link key establishment. We present a new technique to extend the distance of a quantum key distribution channel using an active relay. Read More

We present a simple new technique to secure quantum key distribution relay networks using secret sharing. Previous techniques have relied on creating distinct physical paths in order to create the shares. We show, however, how this can be achieved on a single physical path by creating distinct logical channels. Read More

We present a method for determining the presence of an eavesdropper in QKD systems without using any public bit comparison. Alice and Bob use a duplex QKD channel and the bit transport technique for relays. The only information made public is the respective basis choices which must be revealed in standard QKD systems anyway. Read More

This paper presents the general Schmidt decomposition of two-photon fields generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). It discusses in particular the separation of the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom, the role of projection in modal analysis, and the benefits of collinear phase mismatch. The paper is written in a review style and presents a wealth of numerical results. Read More

We examine how to distinguish between unitary operators, when the exact form of the possible operators is not known. Instead we are supplied with "programs" in the form of unitary transforms, which can be used as references for identifying the unknown unitary transform. All unitary transforms should be used as few times as possible. Read More

We examine the physical implementation of a discrete time quantum walk with a four-dimensional coin. Our quantum walker is a photon moving repeatedly through a time delay loop, with time being our position space. The quantum coin is implemented using the internal states of the photon: the polarization and two of the orbital angular momentum states. Read More

We investigate the complexity cost of demonstrating the key types of nonclassical correlations --- Bell inequality violation, EPR-steering, and entanglement --- with independent agents, theoretically and in a photonic experiment. We show that the complexity cost exhibits a hierarchy among these three tasks, mirroring the recently-discovered hierarchy for how robust they are to noise. For Bell inequality violations, the simplest test is the well-known CHSH test, but for EPR-steering and entanglement the tests that involve the fewest number of detection patterns require non-projective measurements. Read More

We examine the implementation of an arbitrary U(4) gate consisting of CNOT gates and single qubit unitary gates for the Hilbert space of photon spin polarization and two states of photon orbital angular momentum. Our scheme improves over a recently proposed one that uses q-plates because the fidelity is limited only by losses thus in principle it could be used to achieve a perfect transformation. Read More

Spontaneous parametric down conversion has been shown to be a reliable source of entangled photons. Amongst the wide range of properties that have been shown to be entangled, it is the orbital angular momentum that is the focus of our study. We investigate, in particular, the bi-photon state generated using a Gaussian pump beam. Read More

Landauer argued that the process of erasing the information stored in a memory device incurs an energy cost in the form of a minimum amount of mechanical work. We find, however, that this energy cost can be reduced to zero by paying a cost in angular momentum or any other conserved quantity. Erasing the memory of Maxwell's demon in this way implies that work can be extracted from a single thermal reservoir at a cost of angular momentum and an increase in total entropy. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

We investigate multi-boson interference. A Hamiltonian is presented that treats pairs of bosons as a single composite boson. This Hamiltonian allows two pairs of bosons to interact as if they were two single composite bosons. Read More

We investigate the uncertainty associated with a joint quantum measurement of two components of spin of a spin-1/2 particle and quantify this in terms of entropy. We consider two entropic quantities: the joint entropy and the sum of the marginal entropies, and obtain lower bounds for each of these quantities. For the case of joint measurements where we measure each spin observable equally well, these lower bounds are tight. Read More

We consider the forces exerted by a pulse of plane-wave light on a single atom. The leading edge of the pulse exerts a dispersive force on the atom, and this modifies the atomic momentum while the atom is enveloped in the light. The standard view of the optical dipole force indicates that red-detuned light should attract the atom towards high intensity. Read More

We provide a simple proof for the necessity of conditions for discriminating with minimum error between a known set of quantum states. Read More

It is a fundamental consequence of the superposition principle for quantum states that there must exist non-orthogonal states, that is states that, although different, have a non-zero overlap. This finite overlap means that there is no way of determining with certainty in which of two such states a given physical system has been prepared. We review the various strategies that have been devised to discriminate optimally between non-orthogonal states and some of the optical experiments that have been performed to realise these. Read More

We numerically simulate vortex nucleation in a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) subject to an effective magnetic field. The effective magnetic field is generated from the interplay between light with a non-trivial phase structure and the BEC, and can be shaped and controlled by appropriate modifications to the phase and intensity of the light. We demonstrate that the nucleation of vortices is seeded by instabilities in surface excitations which are coupled to by an asymmetric trapping potential (similar to the case of condensates subject to mechanical rotation) and show that this picture also holds when the applied effective magnetic field is not homogeneous. Read More

Quantum correlations do not allow signalling, and any operation which may be performed on one system of an entangled pair cannot be detected by measurement of the other system alone. This no-signalling condition limits allowed operations and, in the context of quantum communication, may be used to put bounds on quantum state discrimination. We find that the natural figure of merit to consider is the confidence in identifying a state, which is optimised by the maximum confidence strategy. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

The dynamics associated with a measurement-based master equation for quantum Brownian motion are investigated. A scheme for obtaining time evolution from general initial conditions is derived. This is applied to analyze dissipation and decoherence in the evolution of both a Gaussian and a Schr\"{o}dinger cat initial state. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK,

^{2}SUPA, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK,

^{3}IFISC, CSIC-UIB, Campus Universitat Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain,

^{4}SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK

**Category:**Physics - Other

We calculate the low energy elementary excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in an effective magnetic field. The field is created by the interplay between light beams carrying orbital angular momentum and the trapped atoms. We examine the role of the homogeneous magnetic field, familiar from studies of rotating condensates, and also investigate spectra for vector potentials with a more general radial dependence. Read More

The quantum theory of rotation angles (S. M. Barnett and D. Read More

We present the first experimental demonstration of the maximum confidence measurement strategy for quantum state discrimination. Applying this strategy to an arbitrary set of states assigns to each input state a measurement outcome which, when realized, gives the highest possible confidence that the state was indeed present. The theoretically optimal measurement for discriminating between three equiprobable symmetric qubit states is implemented in a polarization-based free-space interferometer. Read More

We demonstrate the Fourier relationship between angular position and angular momentum for a light mode. In particular we measure the distribution of orbital angular momentum states of light that has passed through an aperture and verify that the orbital angular momentum distribution is given by the complex Fourier-transform of the aperture function. We use spatial light modulators, configured as diffractive optical components, to define the initial orbital angular momentum state of the beam, set the defining aperture, and measure the angular momentum spread of the resulting beam. Read More

We consider the problem of discriminating between states of a specified set with maximum confidence. For a set of linearly independent states unambiguous discrimination is possible if we allow for the possibility of an inconclusive result. For linearly dependent sets an analogous measurement is one which allows us to be as confident as possible that when a given state is identified on the basis of the measurement result, it is indeed the correct state. Read More

We derive a master equation describing the evolution of a quantum system subjected to a sequence of observations. These measurements occur randomly at a given rate and can be of a very general form. As an example, we analyse the effects of these measurements on the evolution of a two-level atom driven by an electromagnetic field. Read More