# Simone Montangero

## Contact Details

NameSimone Montangero |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (46) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (12) Physics - Other (8) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (7) High Energy Physics - Lattice (3) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (3) Physics - Superconductivity (2) Quantitative Biology - Biomolecules (1) Physics - Biological Physics (1) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1) High Energy Physics - Theory (1) Physics - Atomic Physics (1) Physics - Chemical Physics (1) Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1) |

## Publications Authored By Simone Montangero

We show via tensor network methods that the Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian for hard-core bosons on a square geometry supports a topological phase realizing the $\nu=1/2$ fractional quantum Hall effect on the lattice. We address the robustness of the ground state degeneracy and of the energy gap, measure the many-body Chern number, and characterize the system using Green functions, showing that they decay algebraically at the edges of open geometries, indicating the presence of gapless edge modes. Moreover, we estimate the topological entanglement entropy, which is compatible with the expected value $\gamma=1/2$. Read More

Fully autonomous precise control of qubits is crucial for quantum information processing, quantum communication, and quantum sensing applications. It requires minimal human intervention on the ability to model, to predict and to anticipate the quantum dynamics [1,2], as well as to precisely control and calibrate single qubit operations. Here, we demonstrate single qubit autonomous calibrations via closed-loop optimisations of electron spin quantum operations in diamond. Read More

We introduce and study the adiabatic dynamics of free-fermion models subject to a local Lindblad bath and in the presence of a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The merit of these models is that they can be solved exactly, and will help us to study the interplay between non-adiabatic transitions and dissipation in many-body quantum systems. After the adiabatic evolution, we evaluate the excess energy (average value of the Hamiltonian) as a measure of the deviation from reaching the target final ground state. Read More

We present a technique to compute the microcanonical thermodynamical properties of a manybody quantum system using tensor networks. The Density Of States (DOS), and more general spectral properties, are evaluated by means of a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation performed on top of a real-time evolution, which is carried out via numerical methods based on tensor networks. As a consequence, the free energy and thermal averages can be also calculated. Read More

It has been established that Matrix Product States can be used to compute the ground state and single-particle excitations and their properties of lattice gauge theories at the continuum limit. However, by construction, in this formalism the Hilbert space of the gauge fields is truncated to a finite number of irreducible representations of the gauge group. We investigate quantitatively the influence of the truncation of the infinite number of representations in the Schwinger model, one-flavour QED$_2$, with a uniform electric background field. Read More

We present optimal control protocols to prepare different many-body quantum states of Rydberg atoms in optical lattices. Specifically, we show how to prepare highly ordered many-body ground states, GHZ states as well as some superposition of symmetric excitation number Fock states, that inherit the translational symmetry from the Hamiltonian, within sufficiently short excitation times minimizing detrimental decoherence effects. For the GHZ states, we propose a two-step detection protocol to experimentally verify the optimal preparation of the target state based only on standard measurement techniques. Read More

We investigate the finite-density phase diagram of a non-abelian SU(2) lattice gauge theory in (1+1)-dimensions using tensor network methods. We numerically characterise the phase diagram as a function of the matter filling and of the matter-field coupling, identifying different phases, some of them appearing only at finite densities. For weak matter-field coupling we find a meson BCS liquid phase, which is confirmed by second-order analytical perturbation theory. Read More

We demonstrate the effectiveness of quantum optimal control techniques in harnessing irreversibility generated by non-equilibrium processes, implemented in unitarily evolving quantum many-body systems. We address the dynamics of a finite-size quantum Ising model subjected to finite-time transformations, which unavoidably generate irreversibility. We show that work can be generated through such transformation by means of optimal controlled quenches, while quenching the degree of irreversibility to very low values, thus boosting the efficiency of the process and paving the way to a fully controllable non-equilibrium thermodynamics of quantum processes. Read More

When a semiconductor absorbs light, the resulting electron-hole superposition amounts to a uncontrolled quantum ripple that eventually degenerates into diffusion. If the conformation of these excitonic superpositions could be engineered, though, they would constitute a new means of transporting information and energy. We show that properly designed laser pulses can be used to create such excitonic wave packets. Read More

We study the environment assisted local transitionless dynamics in closed spin systems driven through quantum critical points. In general shortcut to adaiabaticity (STA) in quantum critical systems requires highly non-local control Hamiltonians. In this work we develop an approach to achieve local shortcuts to adiabaticity (LSTA) in spin chains, using local control fields which scale polynomially with the system size, following universal critical exponents. Read More

The Kibble-Zurek (KZ) hypothesis identifies the relevant time scales in out-of-equilibrium dynamics of critical systems employing concepts valid at equilibrium: It predicts the scaling of the defect formation immediately after quenches across classical and quantum phase transitions as a function of the quench speed. Here we study the crossover between the scaling dictated by a slow quench, which is ruled by the critical properties of the quantum phase transition, and the excitations due to a faster quench, where the dynamics is often well described by the classical model. We estimate the value of the quench rate that separates the two regimes and support our argument using numerical simulations of the out-of-equilibrium many-body dynamics. Read More

We study the equilibrium properties of the one-dimensional disordered Bose-Hubbard model by means of a gauge-adaptive tree tensor network variational method suitable for systems with periodic boundary conditions. We compute the superfluid stiffness and superfluid correlations close to the superfluid to glass transition line, obtaining accurate locations of the critical points. By studying the statistics of the exponent of the power-law decay of the correlation, we determine the boundary between the superfluid region and the Bose glass phase in the regime of strong disorder and in the weakly interacting region, not explored numerically before. Read More

We explore the challenges posed by the violation of Bell-like inequalities by $d$-dimensional systems exposed to imperfect state-preparation and measurement settings. We address, in particular, the limit of high-dimensional systems, naturally arising when exploring the quantum-to-classical transition. We show that, although suitable Bell inequalities can be violated, in principle, for any dimension of given subsystems, it is in practice increasingly challenging to detect such violations, even if the system is prepared in a maximally entangled state. Read More

In quantum optimal control theory the success of an optimization algorithm is highly influenced by how the figure of merit to be optimized behaves as a function of the control field, i.e. by the control landscape. Read More

We propose a protocol for measurement of the phonon number distribution of a harmonic oscillator based on selective mapping to a discrete spin-1/2 degree of freedom. We consider a system of a harmonically trapped ion, where a transition between two long lived states can be driven with resolved motional sidebands. The required unitary transforms are generated by amplitude-modulated polychromatic radiation fields, where the time-domain ramps are obtained from numerical optimization by application of the Chopped RAndom Basis (CRAB) algorithm. Read More

We realize on an Atom-Chip a practical, experimentally undemanding, tomographic reconstruction algorithm relying on the time-resolved measurements of the atomic population distribution among atomic internal states. More specifically, we estimate both the state density matrix as well as the dephasing noise present in our system by assuming complete knowledge of the Hamiltonian evolution. The proposed scheme is based on routinely performed measurements and established experimental procedures, hence providing a simplified methodology for quantum technological applications. Read More

We study the interplay between rotating wave approximation and optimal control. In particular, we show that for a wide class of optimal control problems one can choose the control field such that the Hamiltonian becomes time-independent under the rotating wave approximation. Thus, we show how to recast the functional minimization defined by the optimal control problem into a simpler multi-variable function minimization. Read More

We study optimal control strategies to optimize the relaxation rate towards the fixed point of a quantum system in the presence of a non-Markovian dissipative bath. Contrary to naive expectations that suggest that memory effects might be exploited to improve optimal control effectiveness, non-Markovian effects influence the optimal strategy in a non trivial way: we present a necessary condition to be satisfied so that the effectiveness of optimal control is enhanced by non-Markovianity subject to suitable unitary controls. For illustration, we specialize our findings for the case of the dynamics of single qubit amplitude damping channels. Read More

The difficulty of an optimization task in quantum information science depends on the proper mathematical expression of the physical target. Here we demonstrate the power of optimization functionals targeting an arbitrary perfect two-qubit entangler, creating a maximally-entangled state out of some initial product state. For two quantum information platforms of current interest, nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond and superconducting Josephson junctions, we show that an arbitrary perfect entangler can be reached faster and with higher fidelity than specific two-qubit gates or local equivalence classes of two-qubit gates. Read More

We extend the concept of quantum speed limit -- the minimal time needed to perform a driven evolution -- to complex interacting many-body systems. We investigate a prototypical many-body system, a bosonic Josephson junction, at increasing levels of complexity: (a) within the two-mode approximation {corresponding to} a nonlinear two-level system, (b) at the mean-field level by solving the nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation in a double well potential, and (c) at an exact many-body level by solving the time-dependent many-body Schr\"odinger equation. We propose a control protocol to transfer atoms from the ground state of a well to the ground state of the neighbouring well. Read More

Quantized integrable systems can be made to perform universal quantum computation by the application of a global time-varying control. The action-angle variables of the integrable system function as qubits or qudits, which can be coupled selectively by the global control to induce universal quantum logic gates. By contrast, chaotic quantum systems, even if controllable, do not generically allow quantum computation under global control. Read More

We introduce a variational algorithm to simulate quantum many-body states based on a tree tensor network ansatz which releases the isometry constraint usually imposed by the real-space renormalization coarse-graining: This additional numerical freedom, combined with the loop-free topology of the tree network, allows one to maximally exploit the internal gauge invariance of tensor networks, ultimately leading to a computationally flexible and efficient algorithm able to treat open and periodic boundary conditions on the same footing. We benchmark the novel approach against the 1D Ising model in transverse field with periodic boundary conditions and discuss the strategy to cope with the broken translational invariance generated by the network structure. We then perform investigations on a state-of-the-art problem, namely the bilinear-biquadratic model in the transition between dimer and ferromagnetic phases. Read More

Atom chips provide compact and robust platforms towards practical quantum technologies. A quick and faithful preparation of arbitrary input states for these systems is crucial but represents a very challenging experimental task. This is especially difficult when the dynamical evolution is noisy and unavoidable setup imperfections have to be considered. Read More

We present a unified framework to describe lattice gauge theories by means of tensor networks: this framework is efficient as it exploits the high amount of local symmetry content native of these systems describing only the gauge invariant subspace. Compared to a standard tensor network description, the gauge invariant one allows to speed-up real and imaginary time evolution of a factor that is up to the square of the dimension of the link variable. The gauge invariant tensor network description is based on the quantum link formulation, a compact and intuitive formulation for gauge theories on the lattice, and it is alternative to and can be combined with the global symmetric tensor network description. Read More

We study the crossover from classical to quantum phase transitions at zero temperature within the framework of $\phi^4$ theory. The classical transition at zero temperature can be described by the Landau theory, turning into a quantum Ising transition with the addition of quantum fluctuations. We perform a calculation of the transition line in the regime where the quantum fluctuations are weak. Read More

We demonstrate a two-pulse Ramsey-type interferometer for non-classical motional states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap. The control pulses used to manipulate the condensate wavefunction are obtained from Optimal Control Theory and directly optimised to maximise the interferometric contrast. They permit a fast manipulation of the atomic ensemble compared to the intrinsic decay and many-body dephasing effects, and thus to reach an interferometric contrast of 92% in the experimental implementation. Read More

Ions of the same charge inside confining potentials can form crystalline structures which can be controlled by means of the ions density and of the external trap parameters. In particular, a linear chain of trapped ions exhibits a transition to a zigzag equilibrium configuration, which is controlled by the strength of the transverse confinement. Studying this phase transition in the quantum regime is a challenging problem, even when employing numerical methods to simulate microscopically quantum many-body systems. Read More

Ultra fast and accurate quantum operations are required in many modern scientific areas - for instance quantum information, quantum metrology and magnetometry. However the accuracy is limited if the Rabi frequency is comparable with the transition frequency due to the breakdown of the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Here we report the experimental implementation of a method based on optimal control theory, which does not suffer these restrictions. Read More

We consider a two-level quantum system prepared in an arbitrary initial state and relaxing to a steady state due to the action of a Markovian dissipative channel. We study how optimal control can be used for speeding up or slowing down the relaxation towards the fixed point of the dynamics. We analytically derive the optimal relaxation times for different quantum channels in the ideal ansatz of unconstrained quantum control (a magnetic field of infinite strength). Read More

Electronic diodes, which enable the rectification of an electrical energy flux, have played a crucial role in the development of current microelectronics after the invention of semiconductor p-n junctions. Analogously, signal rectification at specific target wavelengths has recently become a key goal in optical communication and signal processing. Here we propose a genuinely quantum device with the essential rectifying features being demonstrated in a general model of a nonlinear-linear junction of coupled resonators. Read More

We explore the feasibility of coherent control of excitonic dynamics in light harvesting complexes, analyzing the limits imposed by the open nature of these quantum systems. We establish feasible targets for phase and phase/amplitude control of the electronically excited state populations in the Fenna-Mathews-Olson (FMO) complex and analyze the robustness of this control with respect to orientational and energetic disorder, as well as decoherence arising from coupling to the protein environment. We further present two possible routes to verification of the control target, with simulations for the FMO complex showing that steering of the excited state is experimentally verifiable either by extending excitonic coherence or by producing novel states in a pump-probe setup. Read More

A string of repulsively interacting particles exhibits a phase transition to a zigzag structure, by reducing the transverse trap potential or the interparticle distance. The transition is driven by transverse, short wavelength vibrational modes. Based on the emergent symmetry Z_2 it has been argued that this instability is a quantum phase transition, which can be mapped to an Ising model in transverse field. Read More

We investigate the implementation of a controlled-Z gate on a pair of Rydberg atoms in spatially separated dipole traps where the joint excitation of both atoms into the Rydberg level is strongly suppressed (the Rydberg blockade). We follow the adiabatic gate scheme of Jaksch et al. [1], where the pair of atoms are coherently excited using lasers, and apply it to the experimental setup outlined in Ga\"etan et al. Read More

In this work we describe in detail the "Chopped RAndom Basis" (CRAB) optimal control technique recently introduced to optimize t-DMRG simulations [arXiv:1003.3750]. Here we study the efficiency of this control technique in optimizing different quantum processes and we show that in the considered cases we obtain results equivalent to those obtained via different optimal control methods while using less resources. Read More

We apply theoretically open-loop quantum optimal control techniques to provide methods for the verification of various quantum coherent transport mechanisms in natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes under realistic experimental constraints. We demonstrate that optimally shaped laser pulses allow to faithfully prepare the photosystem in specified initial states (such as localized excitation or coherent superposition, i.e. Read More

Spin chains have long been considered as candidates for quantum channels to facilitate quantum communication. We consider the transfer of a single excitation along a spin-1/2 chain governed by Heisenberg-type interactions. We build on the work of Balachandran and Gong [1], and show that by applying optimal control to an external parabolic magnetic field, one can drastically increase the propagation rate by two orders of magnitude. Read More

We present an efficient strategy for controlling a vast range of non-integrable quantum many body one-dimensional systems that can be merged with state-of-the-art tensor network simulation methods like the density Matrix Renormalization Group. To demonstrate its potential, we employ it to solve a major issue in current optical-lattice physics with ultra-cold atoms: we show how to reduce by about two orders of magnitudes the time needed to bring a superfluid gas into a Mott insulator state, while suppressing defects by more than one order of magnitude as compared to current experiments [1]. Finally, we show that the optimal pulse is robust against atom number fluctuations. Read More

We apply quantum control techniques to control a large spin chain by only acting on two qubits at one of its ends, thereby implementing universal quantum computation by a combination of quantum gates on the latter and swap operations across the chain. It is shown that the control sequences can be computed and implemented efficiently. We discuss the application of these ideas to physical systems such as superconducting qubits in which full control of long chains is challenging. Read More

Optimal control theory is a promising candidate for a drastic improvement of the performance of quantum information tasks. We explore its ultimate limit in paradigmatic cases, and demonstrate that it coincides with the maximum speed limit allowed by quantum evolution (the quantum speed limit). Read More

In a Josephson phase qubit the coherent manipulations of the computational states are achieved by modulating an applied ac current, typically in the microwave range. In this work we show that it is possible to find optimal modulations of the bias current to achieve high-fidelity gates. We apply quantum optimal control theory to determine the form of the pulses and study in details the case of a NOT-gate. Read More

We study the dynamics of a non-integrable system comprising interacting cold bosons trapped in an optical lattice in one-dimension by means of exact time-dependent numerical DMRG techniques. Particles are confined by a parabolic potential, and dipole oscillations are induced by displacing the trap center of a few lattice sites. Depending on the system parameters this motion can vary from undamped to overdamped. Read More

We analyze the quality of the quantum information transmission along a correlated quantum channel by studying the average fidelity between input and output states and the average output purity, giving bounds for the entropy of the channel. Noise correlations in the channel are modeled by the coupling of each channel use with an element of a one dimensional interacting quantum spin chain. Criticality of the environment chain is seen to emerge in the changes of the fidelity and of the purity. Read More

We study finite two dimensional spin lattices with definite geometry (spin billiards) demonstrating the display of collective integrable or chaotic dynamics depending on their shape. We show that such systems can be quantum simulated by ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices and discuss how to identify their dynamical features in a realistic experimental setup. Possible applications are the simulation of quantum information tasks in mesoscopic devices. Read More

Tensor networks representations of many-body quantum systems can be described in terms of quantum channels. We focus on channels associated with the Multi-scale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) tensor network that has been recently introduced to efficiently describe critical systems. Our approach allows us to compute the MERA correspondent to the thermodynamic limit of a critical system introducing a transfer matrix formalism, and to relate the system critical exponents to the convergence rates of the associated channels. Read More

By gradually changing the degree of the anisotropy in a XXZ chain we study the defect formation in a quantum system that crosses an extended critical region. We discuss two qualitatively different cases of quenches, from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic phase and from the critical to the antiferromegnetic phase. By means of time-dependent DMRG simulations, we calculate the residual energy at the end of the quench as a characteristic quantity gauging the loss of adiabaticity. Read More

In adiabatic Cooper pair pumps, operated by means of gate voltage modulation only, the quantization of the pumped charge during a cycle is limited due to the quantum coherence of the macroscopic superconducting wave function. In this work we show that it is possible to obtain very accurate pumps in the non-adiabatic regime by a suitable choice of the shape of the gate voltage pulses. We determine the shape of these pulses by applying quantum optimal control theory to this problem. Read More

We describe an algorithm to simulate time evolution using the Multi-scale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) and test it by studying a critical Ising chain with periodic boundary conditions and with up to L ~ 10^6 quantum spins. The cost of a simulation, which scales as L log(L), is reduced to log(L) when the system is invariant under translations. By simulating an evolution in imaginary time, we compute the ground state of the system. Read More

We analyze the fidelity of a quantum simulation and we show that it displays fractal fluctuations iff the simulated dynamics is chaotic. This analysis allows us to investigate a given simulated dynamics without any prior knowledge. In the case of integrable dynamics, the appearance of fidelity fractal fluctuations is a signal of a highly corrupted simulation. Read More

We study decoherence induced on a two-level system coupled to a one-dimensional quantum spin chain. We consider the cases where the dynamics of the chain is determined by the Ising, XY, or Heisenberg exchange Hamiltonian. This model of quantum baths can be of fundamental importance for the understanding of decoherence in open quantum systems, since it can be experimentally engineered by using atoms in optical lattices. Read More

Quantum optimal control theory allows to design accurate quantum gates. We employ it to design high-fidelity two-bit gates for Josephson charge qubits in the presence of both leakage and noise. Our protocol considerably increases the fidelity of the gate and, more important, it is quite robust in the disruptive presence of 1/f noise. Read More