Sile Nic Chormaic - Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa, Japan

Sile Nic Chormaic
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Sile Nic Chormaic
Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa, Japan

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Physics - Optics (30)
Physics - Atomic Physics (8)
Quantum Physics (3)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1)

Publications Authored By Sile Nic Chormaic

We experimentally realized an optical nanofiber-based cavity by combining a 1-D photonic crystal and Bragg grating structures. The cavity morphology comprises a periodic, triplex air-cube introduced at the waist of the nanofiber. The cavity has been theoretically characterized using FDTD simulations to obtain the reflection and transmission spectra. Read More

A tunable, all-optical, coupling method has been realized for a high-\textit{Q} silica microsphere and an optical waveguide. By means of a novel optical nanopositioning method, induced thermal expansion of an asymmetric microsphere stem for laser powers up to 171~mW has been observed and used to fine tune the microsphere-waveguide coupling. Microcavity displacements ranging from (0. Read More

Tapered fibers with diameters ranging from 1-4 micron are widely used to excite the whispering-gallery (WG) modes of microcavities. Typically, the transmission spectrum of a WG cavity coupled to a waveguide around a resonance assumes a Lorentzian dip morphology due to resonant absorption of the light within the cavity. In this paper, we demonstrate that the transmission spectra of a WG cavity coupled with an ultrathin fiber (500-700nm) may exhibit both Lorentzian dips and peaks, depending on the gap between the fiber and the microcavity. Read More

We present a systematic treatment of higher-order modes of vacuum-clad ultrathin optical fibers. We show that, for a given fiber, the higher-order modes have larger penetration lengths, larger effective mode radii, and larger fractional powers outside the fiber than the fundamental mode. We calculate, both analytically and numerically, the Poynting vector, propagating power, energy, angular momentum, and helicity (or chirality) of the guided light. Read More

In this work, we show that the application of a sol-gel coating renders a microbubble whispering gallery resonator into an active device. During the fabrication of the resonator, a thin layer of erbium-doped sol-gel is applied to a tapered microcapillary, then a microbubble with a wall thickness of 1.3 $\mu$m is formed with the rare earth diffused into its walls. Read More

In whispering gallery mode resonator sensing applications, the conventional way to detect a change in the parameter to be measured is by observing the steady state transmission spectrum through the coupling waveguide. Alternatively, cavity ring-up spectroscopy (CRUS) sensing can be achieved transiently. In this work, we investigate CRUS using coupled mode equations and find analytical solutions with a large spectral broadening approximation of the input pulse. Read More

Frequency comb generation in microresonators at visible wavelengths has found applications in a variety of areas such as metrology, sensing, and imaging. To achieve Kerr combs based on four-wave mixing in a microresonator, dispersion must be in the anomalous regime. In this work, we demonstrate dispersion engineering in a microbubble resonator (MBR) fabricated by a two-CO$_2$ laser beam technique. Read More

Particles trapped in the evanescent field of an ultrathin optical fibre inter-act over very long distances via multiple scattering of the fibre-guided fields. In ultrathin fibres that support higher order modes, these interac-tions are stronger and exhibit qualitatively new behaviour due to the cou-pling of different fibre modes, which have different propagation wave-vectors, by the particles. Here, we study one dimensional longitudinal opti-cal binding interactions of chains of 3 {\mu}m polystyrene spheres under the influence of the evanescent fields of a two-mode microfibre. Read More

While conventional optical trapping techniques can trap objects with submicron dimensions, the underlying limits imposed by the diffraction of light generally restrict their use to larger or higher refractive index particles. As the index and diameter decrease, the trapping difficulty rapidly increases; hence, the power requirements for stable trapping become so large as to quickly denature the trapped objects in such diffraction-limited systems. Here, we present an evanescent field based device capable of confining low index nanoscale particles using modest optical powers as low as 1. Read More

We describe a novel method for making microbottle-shaped lasers by using a CO$_2$ laser to melt Er:Yb glass onto silica microcapillaries or fibres. This is realised by the fact that the two glasses have different melting points. The CO$_2$ laser power is controlled to flow the doped glass around the silica cylinder. Read More

Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. Read More

The tunability of an optical cavity is an essential requirement for many areas of research. Here, we use the Pound-Drever-Hall technique to lock a laser to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) of a microbubble resonator, to show that linear tuning of the WGM, and the corresponding locked laser, display almost zero hysteresis. By applying aerostatic pressure to the interior surface of the microbubble resonator, optical mode shift rates of around $58$ GHz/MPa are achieved. Read More

A hollow bottle-like microresonator (BLMR) with ultra-high quality factor is fabricated from a microcapillary with nearly parabolic profile. At 1.55 $\mu m$ pumping, degenerate four-wave mixing can be observed for a BLMR of diameter 102 $\mu$m. Read More

Ultrathin optical fibres integrated into cold atom setups are proving to be ideal building blocks for atom-photon hybrid quantum networks. Such optical nanofibres (ONF) can be used for the demonstration of nonlinear optics and quantum interference phenomena in atomic media. Here, we report on the observation of multilevel cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an optical nanofibre to interface cold $^{87}$Rb atoms through the intense evanescent fields that can be achieved at ultralow probe and coupling powers. Read More

Affiliations: 1Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna-son, Japan, 2Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna-son, Japan, 3Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna-son, Japan, 4Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna-son, Japan

Precise control of particle positioning is desirable in many optical propulsion and sorting applications. Here, we develop an integrated platform for particle manipulation consisting of a combined optical nanofibre and optical tweezers system. Individual silica microspheres were introduced to the nanofibre at arbitrary points using the optical tweezers, thereby producing pronounced dips in the fibre transmission. Read More

Sensors based on whispering gallery resonators have minute footprints and can push achievable sensitivities and resolutions to their limits. Here, we use a microbubble resonator, with a wall thickness of 500 nm and an intrinsic Q-factor of $10^7$ in the telecommunications C-band, to investigate aerostatic pressure sensing via stress and strain of the material. The microbubble is made using two counter-propagating CO$_2$ laser beams focused onto a microcapillary. Read More

We report on the fabrication of an ultrahigh quality factor, bottle-like microresonator from a microcapillary, and the realization of Raman lasing therein at pump wavelengths of $1.55~\mathrm{\mu m}$ and $780~\mathrm{nm}$. The dependence of the Raman laser threshold on mode volume is investigated. Read More

Coupled-mode induced transparency is realized in a single microbubble whispering gallery mode resonator. Using aerostatic tuning, we find that the pressure induced shifting rates are different for different radial order modes. A finite element simulation considering both the strain and stress effects shows a GHz/bar difference and this is confirmed by experiments. Read More

The tight confinement of the evanescent light field around the waist of an optical nanofiber makes it a suitable tool for studying nonlinear optics in atomic media. Here, we use an optical nanofiber embedded in a cloud of laser-cooled 87Rb for near-infrared frequency upconversion via a resonant two-photon process. Sub-nW powers of the two-photon beams, at 780 nm and 776 nm, co-propagate through the optical nanofiber and generation of 420 nm photons is observed. Read More

Dissipative optomechanics has some advantages in cooling compared to the conventional dispersion dominated systems. Here, we study the optical response of a cantilever-like, silica, microsphere pendulum, evanescently coupled to a fiber taper. In a whispering gallery mode resonator the cavity mode and motion of the pendulum result in both dispersive and dissipative optomechanical interactions. Read More

Affiliations: 1Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa, Japan, 2Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa, Japan, 3Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa, Japan, 4Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa, Japan, 5Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa, Japan

Optical manipulation in the vicinity of optical micro- and nanofibres has shown potential across several fields in recent years, including microparticle control, and cold atom probing and trapping. To date, most work has focussed on propagation of the fundamental mode through the fibre. However, along the maximum mode intensity axis, higher order modes have a longer evanescent field extension and larger field amplitude at the fibre waist compared to the fundamental mode, opening up new possibilities for optical manipulation and particle trapping. Read More

A review of hollow core whispering gallery resonators (WGRs)is given. After a short introduction to the topic of whispering gallery resonators we provide a description of whispering gallery modes in hollow or liquid core WGRs. Next, whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensing mechanisms are outlined and some fabrication methods for microbubbles, microcapillaries and other tubular WGM devices are discussed. Read More

The evanescent field of an optical nanofiber presents a versatile interface for the manipulation of micron-scale particles in dispersion. Here, we present a detailed study of the optical binding interactions of a pair of 3.13 $\mu$m SiO$_2$ particles in the nanofiber evanescent field. Read More

Optical properties and sensing capabilities of fused silica microbubbles were studied numerically using a finite element method. Mode characteristics, such as quality factor (Q) and effective refractive index, were determined for different bubble diameters and shell thicknesses. For sensing applications with whispering gallery modes (WGMs), thinner shells yield improved sensitivity. Read More

Precise control of particle positioning is desirable in many optical propulsion and sorting applications. Here, we develop an integrated platform for particle manipulation consisting of a combined optical nanofiber and optical tweezers system. Individual silica microspheres were introduced to the nanofiber at arbitrary points using the optical tweezers, thereby producing pronounced dips in the fiber transmission. Read More

Optical nanofibres are used to confine light to subwavelength regions and are very promising tools for the development of optical fibre-based quantum networks using cold, neutral atoms. To date, experimental studies on atoms near nanofibres have focussed on fundamental fibre mode interactions. In this work, we demonstrate the integration of a few-mode optical nanofibre into a magneto-optical trap for $^{87}$Rb atoms. Read More

We propose an optical dipole trap for cold neutral atoms based on the electric field produced from the evanescent fields in a hollow rectangular slot cut through an optical nanofibre. In particular, we discuss the trap performance in relation to laser-cooled rubidium atoms and show that a far off-resonance, blue-detuned field combined with the attractive surface-atom interaction potential from the dielectric material forms a stable trapping configuration. With the addition of a red-detuned field, we demonstrate how three dimensional confinement of the atoms at a distance of 140 - 200 nm from the fibre surface within the slot can be accomplished. Read More

We have previously discussed the design of a neutral atom quantum computer with an on-demand interaction [E. Hosseini Lapasar, et al., J. Read More

The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining ground in recent years. Read More

We report on the observation of a Zeeman shift (order of 100 MHz) of the Doppler-broadened D2 transition of both 85Rb and 87Rb isotopes via transmission through a tapered optical nanofiber in the presence of a DC magnetic field. Linearly-polarized light propagating in the nanofiber is analyzed as a superposition of two orthogonally circularly-polarized orientations, {\sigma}+ and {\sigma}-. In the absence of the magnetic field, the absorption of these polarizations by the atomic vapor, via the evanescent field at the waist of the nanofiber, is degenerate. Read More

We report on tuning the optical whispering gallery modes in a poly dimethyl siloxane-based (PDMS) microsphere resonator by more than a THz. The PDMS microsphere system consists of a solid spherical resonator directly formed with double stems on either side. The stems act like tie-rods for simple mechanical stretching of the microresonator over tens of microns, resulting in tuning of the whispering gallery modes by one free spectral range. Read More

We present experimental results on an all-optical, thermally-assisted technique for broad range tuning of microsphere cavity resonance modes to arbitrary probe wavelengths. An Er:Yb co-doped phosphate glass (Schott IOG-2) microsphere is pumped at 978 nm via the supporting stem and the heat generated by absorption of the pump light expands the cavity and changes the refractive index. This is a robust tuning method that decouples the pump from the probe and allows fine tuning of the microsphere's whispering gallery modes. Read More

We present results on the realization of an all-taper coupled, multicolour microspherical glass light source fabricated from the erbium doped fluoride glass ZBLALiP. Whispering gallery mode lasing and upconversion processes give rise to laser and fluorescent emissions at multiple wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the infrared. A single-mode tapered fibre coupling scheme, which serves to both launch pump light at 980 nm into the microresonator cavity and collect the resulting infrared lasing, is employed. Read More