# Sibasish Ghosh

## Contact Details

NameSibasish Ghosh |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (50) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (3) Mathematical Physics (3) Mathematics - Combinatorics (1) Physics - Other (1) Physics - Optics (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Sibasish Ghosh

The principle of superposition is an intriguing feature of Quantum Mechanics, which is regularly exploited at various instances. A recent work [PRL \textbf{116}, 110403 (2016)] shows that the fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics restrict the superposition of two arbitrary pure states of a quantum system, even though it is possible to superpose two quantum states with partial prior knowledge. The prior knowledge imposes geometrical constraints on the choice of input pure states. Read More

In this paper, we present a coherent state-vector method which can explain the results of a nested linear Mach-Zehnder Interferometric experiment. Such interferometers are used widely in Quantum Information and Quantum Optics experiments and also in designing quantum circuits. We have specifically considered the case of an experiment by Danan \emph{et al. Read More

In this work, we study coupled quantum systems as working media of thermodynamic machines. With suitable co-ordinate transformation, the coupled system appears to be uncoupled in the new frame of reference. In that case, the global efficiency of the total system is bounded (both from above and below) by the efficiencies of the independent subsystems, provided both the independent subsystems work in the engine mode. Read More

It has always been a difficult issue in Statistical Mechanics to provide a generic interaction Hamiltonian among the microscopic constituents of a macroscopic system which would give rise to equilibration of the system. One tries to evade this problem by incorporating the so-called $H-theorem$, according to which, the (macroscopic) system arrives at equilibrium when its entropy becomes maximum over all the accessible micro states. This approach has become quite useful for thermodynamic calculations using the (thermodynamic) equilibrium states of the system. Read More

Nonlocality is one of the main characteristic features of quantum systems involving more than one spatially separated subsystems. It is manifested theoretically as well as experimentally through violation of some local realistic inequality. On the other hand, classical behavior of all physical phenomena in the macroscopic limit gives a general intuition that any physical theory for describing microscopic phenomena should resemble classical physics in the macroscopic regime-- the so-called macro-realism. Read More

Interesting connection has been established between two apparently unrelated concepts, namely, quantum nonlocality and Bayesian game theory. It has been shown that nonlocal correlations in the form of advice can outperform classical equilibrium strategies in common interest Bayesian games and also in conflicting interest games. However, classical equilibrium strategies can be of two types, fair and unfair. Read More

Mixed states of a quantum system, represented by density operators, can be decomposed as a statistical mixture of pure states in a number of ways where each decomposition can be viewed as a different preparation recipe. However the fact that the density matrix contains full information about the ensemble makes it impossible to estimate the preparation basis for the quantum system. Here we present a measurement scheme to (seemingly) improve the performance of unsharp measurements. Read More

The question whether indeterminism in quantum measurement outcomes is fundamental or is there a possibility of constructing a finer theory underlying quantum mechanics that allows no such indeterminism, has been debated for a long time. We show that within the class of ontological models due to Harrigan and Spekkens, those satisfying preparation-measurement reciprocity must allow indeterminism of the order of quantum theory. Our result implies that one can design quantum random number generator, for which it is impossible, even in principle, to construct a reciprocal deterministic model. Read More

Experimental detection of entanglement of an arbitrary state of a given bipartite system is crucial for exploring many areas of quantum information. But such a detection should be made in a device independent way if the preparation process of the state is considered to be faithful, in order to avoid detection of a separable state as entangled one. The recently developed scheme of detecting bipartite entanglement in a measurement device independent way [Phys. Read More

We develop a very simple necessary condition for the perfect distinguishability of any set of maximally entangled states in a $\mathbb{C}^d \otimes \mathbb{C}^d$ system. This condition places constraints on the starting measurement of the LOCC protocol, and, by doing so, reduces the the complexity of the distinguishability problem, particularly for any set of $d$ maximally entangled states (MES). To test the strength of this necessary condition we use it for the perfect distinguishability of all sets of four generalized Bell basis states in $\mathbb{C}^4 \otimes \mathbb{C}^4$. Read More

In this paper, we extend Simon's criterion for Gaussian states to the multi-mode Gaussian states using the Marchenko-Pastur theorem. We show that the Marchenko-Pastur theorem from random matrix theory as necessary and sufficient condition for separability. Read More

The minimum error discrimination problem for ensembles of linearly independent pure states are known to have an interesting structure; for such a given ensemble the optimal POVM is given by the pretty good measurment of another ensemble which can be related to the former ensemble by a bijective mapping $\mathscr{R}$ on the "space of ensembles". In this paper we generalize this result to ensembles of general linearly independent states (not necessarily pure) and also give an analytic expression for the inverse of the map, i.e. Read More

The purpose of this short note is to utilize the work on isotropic lines, described by Albouy [J. Phys. A. Read More

In this note, we discuss a closed-form necessary and sufficient condition for any two-qubit state to show hidden nonlocality w.r.t the Bell-CHSH inequality. Read More

Inspired by the work done by Belavkin [Belavkin V. P., Stochastics, 1, 315 (1975)], and independently by Mochon, [Phys. Read More

The optimization conditions for minimum error discrimination of linearly independent pure states comprise of two kinds: stationary conditions over the space of rank one projective measurements and the global maximization conditions. A discrete number of projective measurments will solve th former of which a unique one will solve the latter. In the case of three real linearly independent pure states we show that the stationary conditions translate to a system of simultaneous polynomial (non linear) equations in three variabes thus explaining why it's so difficult to obtain a closed-form solution for the optimal POVM. Read More

Maximally entangled states--a resource for quantum information processing--can only be shared through noiseless quantum channels, whereas in practice channels are noisy. Here we ask: Given a noisy quantum channel, what is the maximum attainable purity (measured by singlet fraction) of shared entanglement for single channel use and local trace preserving operations? We find an exact formula of the maximum singlet fraction attainable for a qubit channel and give an explicit protocol to achieve the optimal value. The protocol distinguishes between unital and nonunital channels and requires no local post-processing. Read More

The purpose of this paper is to study the equivalence relation on unitary bases defined by R. F. Werner [{\it J. Read More

Entanglement breaking channels play a significant role in quantum information theory. In this work we investigate qubit channels through their property of `non-locality breaking', defined in a natural way but within the purview of CHSH nonlocality. This also provides a different perspective on the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality through the dual picture of quantum channels instead of through states. Read More

We show that three unsharp binary qubit measurements are enough to violate a generalized noncontextuality inequality, the LSW inequality, in a state-dependent manner. For the case of trine spin axes we calculate the optimal quantum violation of this inequality. Besides, we show that unsharp qubit measurements do not allow a state-independent violation of this inequality. Read More

The traditional scheme for realizing open-system quantum dynamics takes the initial state of the system-bath composite as a simple product. Currently, however, the issue of system-bath initial correlations possibly affecting the reduced dynamics of the system has been attracting considerable interest. The influential work of Shabani and Lidar [PRL {\bf 102}, 100402 (2009)] famously related this issue to quantum discord, a concept which has in recent years occupied the centre-stage of quantum information theory and has led to several fundamental results. Read More

In this paper, we study the decoherence and entanglement properties for the two site Bose-Hubbard model in the presence of a non-linear damping. We apply the techniques of thermo field dynamics and then use Hartree-Fock approximation to solve the corresponding master equation. The expectation values of the approximated field operators appearing in the solution of master equation, are computed self-consistently. Read More

Hardy's nonlocality argument, which establishes incompatibility of quantum theory with local-realism, can also be used to reveal the time-nonlocal feature of quantum states. For spin-1/2 systems, the maximum probability of success of this argument is known to be 25%. We show that this maximum remains 25% for all finite-dimensional quantum systems with suitably chosen observables. Read More

Quantum Teleportation, the transfer of the state of one quantum system to another without direct interaction between both systems, is an important way to transmit information encoded in quantum states and to generate quantum correlations (entanglement) between remote quantum systems. So far, for photons, only superpositions of two distinguishable states (one ``qubit'') could be teleported. Here we show how to teleport a ``qudit'', i. Read More

Complementarity principle is one of the central concepts in quantum mechanics which restricts joint measurement for certain observables. Of course, later development shows that joint measurement could be possible for such observables with the introduction of a certain degree of unsharpness or fuzziness in the measurement. In this paper, we show that the optimal degree of unsharpness, which guarantees the joint measurement of all possible pairs of dichotomic observables, determines the degree of nonlocality in quantum mechanics as well as in more general no-signaling theories. Read More

The effect of a number of mechanisms designed to suppress decoherence in open quantum systems are studied with respect to their effectiveness at slowing down the loss of entanglement. The effect of photonic band-gap materials and frequency modulation of the system-bath coupling are along expected lines in this regard. However, other control schemes, like resonance fluorescence, achieve quite the contrary: increasing the strength of the control kills entanglement off faster. Read More

We consider the question of perfect local distinguishability of mutually orthogonal bipartite quantum states, with the property that every state can be specified by a unitary operator acting on the local Hilbert space of Bob. We show that if the states can be exactly discriminated by one-way LOCC where Alice goes first, then the unitary operators can also be perfectly distinguished by an orthogonal measurement on Bob's Hilbert space. We give examples of sets of N<=d maximally entangled states in $d \otimes d $ for d=4,5,6 that are not perfectly distinguishable by one-way LOCC. Read More

We consider joint measurement of two and three unsharp qubit observables through an Arthur-Kelly type joint measurement model for qubits. We investigate the effect of initial state of the detectors on the unsharpness of the measurement as well as the post-measurement state of the system. Particular emphasis is given on a physical understanding of the POVM to PVM transition in the model and entanglement between system and detectors. Read More

Non-locality without inequality is an elegant argument introduced by L. Hardy for two qubit systems, and later generalised to $n$ qubits, to establish contradiction of quantum theory with local realism. Interestingly, for $n=2$ this argument is actually a corollary of Bell-type inequalities, viz. Read More

Entanglement sudden death in spatially separated two-mode Gaussian states coupled to local thermal and squeezed thermal baths is studied by mapping the problem to that of the quantum-to-classical transition. Using Simon's criterion concerning the characterisation of classicality in Gaussian states, the time to ESD is calculated by analysing the covariance matrices of the system. The results for the two-mode system at T=0 and T>0 for the two types of bath states are generalised to $n$-modes, and are shown to be similar in nature to the results for the general discrete $n$-qubit system. Read More

The phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD) in finite dimensional composite open systems is described here for both bi-partite as well as multipartite cases, where individual subsystems undergo Lindblad type heat bath evolution. ESD is found to be generic for non-zero temperature of the bath. At T=0, one-sided action of the heat bath on pure entangled states of two qubits does not show ESD. Read More

Generic forms of the entangled states of two spin-1 (and spin-3/2) particles, along with the set of appropriate spin observables that together exhibit maximum nonlocality under the Hardy's nonlocality test are given; the maximum nonlocality is shown to be 0.09017. It is conjectured that this result holds good for a system of two spin-$j$ particles for all values of $j$. Read More

Gisin's theorem assures that for any pure bipartite entangled state, there is violation of Bell-CHSH inequality revealing its contradiction with local realistic model. Whether, similar result holds for three-qubit pure entangled states, remained unresolved. We show analytically that all three-qubit pure entangled states violate a Bell-type inequality, derived on the basis of local realism, by exploiting the Hardy's non-locality argument. Read More

We look for local unitary operators $W_1 \otimes W_2$ which would rotate all equally entangled two-qubit pure states by the same but arbitrary amount. It is shown that all two-qubit maximally entangled states can be rotated through the same but arbitrary amount by local unitary operators. But there is no local unitary operator which can rotate all equally entangled non-maximally entangled states by the same amount, unless it is unity. Read More

Hardy's non-locality theorem for multiple two-level systems is explored in the context of generalized nonlocal theory. We find nonlocal but non-signaling probabilities, providing Hardy's nonlocal argument, which are higher than those in Quantum Mechanics. Maximum probability of success of Hardy's argument is obtained for three two-level systems in quantum as well as in a more generalized theory. Read More

We study robustness of bipartite entangled states that are positive under partial transposition (PPT). It is shown that almost all PPT entangled states are unconditionally robust, in the sense, both inseparability and positivity are preserved under sufficiently small perturbations in its immediate neighborhood. Such unconditionally robust PPT entangled states lie inside an open PPT entangled ball. Read More

In a recent paper [A. Ahanj et al., quant-ph/0603053], we gave a classical protocol to simulate quantum correlations corresponding to the spin $s$ singlet state for the infinite sequence of spins satisfying $2s+1 = 2^{n}$. Read More

We define the disentangling power of a unitary operator in a similar way as the entangling power defined by Zanardi, Zalka and Faoro [PRA, 62, 030301]. A general formula is derived and it is shown that both quantities are directly proportional. All results concerning the entangling power can simply be translated into similar statements for the disentangling power. Read More

We give a classical protocol to exactly simulate quantum correlations implied by a spin-$s$ singlet state for the infinite sequence of spins satisfying $(2s + 1) = 2^{n}$, in the worst-case scenario, where $n$ is a positive integer. The class of measurements we consider here are only those corresponding to spin observables. The required amount of communication is found to be $log_{2}d$ where $d = 2s + 1$ is the dimension of the spin-$s$ Hilbert space. Read More

Using a single NL-box, a winning strategy is given for the impossible colouring pseudo-telepathy game for the set of vectors having Kochen-Specker property in four dimension. A sufficient condition to have a winning strategy for the impossible colouring pseudo-telepathy game for general $d$-dimension, with single use of NL-box, is then described. It is also shown that the magic square pseudo-telepathy game of any size can be won by using just two ebits of entanglement -- for quantum strategy, and by a single NL-box -- for non-local strategy. Read More

We reconsider density matrices of graphs as defined in [quant-ph/0406165]. The density matrix of a graph is the combinatorial laplacian of the graph normalized to have unit trace. We describe a simple combinatorial condition (the "degree condition") to test separability of density matrices of graphs. Read More

The notion of entangling power of unitary matrices was introduced by Zanardi, Zalka and Faoro [PRA, 62, 030301]. We study the entangling power of permutations, given in terms of a combinatorial formula. We show that the permutation matrices with zero entangling power are, up to local unitaries, the identity and the swap. Read More

Gisin and Popescu [PRL, 83, 432 (1999)] have shown that more information about their direction can be obtained from a pair of anti-parallel spins compared to a pair of parallel spins, where the first member of the pair (which we call the pointer member) can point equally along any direction in the Bloch sphere. They argued that this was due to the difference in dimensionality spanned by these two alphabets of states. Here we consider similar alphabets, but with the first spin restricted to a fixed small circle of the Bloch sphere. Read More

We study entanglement properties of mixed density matrices obtained from combinatorial Laplacians. This is done by introducing the notion of the density matrix of a graph. We characterize the graphs with pure density matrices and show that the density matrix of a graph can be always written as a uniform mixture of pure density matrices of graphs. Read More

A systematic method for generating bound entangled states in any bipartite system, with ranks ranging from five to full rank, is presented. These states are constructed by mixing separable states with UPB (Unextendible Product Basis) - generated PPT bound entangled states. A subset of this class of PPT bound entangled states, having less than full rank, is shown to satisfy the range criterion [Phys. Read More

A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states. Read More

We give a proof of impossibility of probabilistic exact $1\to 2$ cloning of any three different states of a qubit. The simplicity of the proof is due to the use of a surprising result of remote state preparation [M.-Yong Ye, Y. Read More

The necessary and sufficient amount of entanglement required for cloning of orthogonal Bell states by local operation and classical communication is derived, and using this result, we provide here some additional examples of reversible, as well as irreversible states. Read More

In $2 \otimes 2$, more than 2 orthogonal Bell states with single copy can never be discriminated with certainty if only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed. More than $d$ orthogonal maximally entangled states in $d \otimed d$, which are in cannonical form, used by Bennett et. al. Read More

We show that the four states a|00>+b|11>, b^*|00>-a^*|11>, c|01>+d|10> and d^*|01>-c^*|10> cannot be discriminated with certainty if only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed and if only a single copy is provided, except in the case when they are simply |00>, |11>, |01> and |10> (in which case they are trivially distinguishable with LOCC). We go on to show that there exists a continuous range of values of a, b, c and d such that even three states among the above four are not locally distinguishable, if only a single copy is provided. The proof follows from the fact that logarithmic negativity is an upper bound of distillable entanglement. Read More