Shu Yang

Shu Yang
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Shu Yang
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Statistics - Methodology (9)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (7)
 
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (7)
 
High Energy Physics - Theory (5)
 
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (5)
 
Nuclear Theory (4)
 
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (4)
 
Physics - Materials Science (4)
 
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (2)
 
Physics - Superconductivity (2)
 
Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics (1)
 
Statistics - Applications (1)
 
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)
 
Physics - General Physics (1)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Shu Yang

Propensity score weighting is a tool for causal inference to adjust for measured confounders in observational studies. In practice, data often present complex structures, such as clustering, which make propensity score modeling and estimation challenging. In addition, for clustered data, there may be unmeasured cluster-specific variables that are related to both the treatment assignment and the outcome. Read More

We consider causal inference from observational studies when confounders have missing values. When the confounders are missing not at random, causal effects are generally not identifiable. In this article, we propose a novel framework for nonparametric identification of causal effects with confounders missing not at random, but subject to instrumental missingness, that is, the missing data mechanism is independent of the outcome, given the treatment and possibly missing confounder values. Read More

In this letter, we show that the dimensionless parameter in the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) can be constrained by the gravitational wave event GW150914, which was discovered by the LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations. Firstly, according to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (HUP) and the data of gravitational wave event GW150914, we derive the standard energy-momentum dispersion relation and calculate the difference between the propagation speed of gravitons and the speed of light, i.e. Read More

The Planck length and Planck energy should be taken as invariant scales are in agreement with various theories of quantum gravity. In this scenario, the original general relativity can be changed to the so-called gravity's rainbow which produces significant modifications to the black holes' evolution. In this paper, using two kinds of rainbow functions, we investigate the thermodynamics and the phase transition of Schwarzschild black hole in the context of gravity's rainbow theory. Read More

Propensity score weighting is a tool for causal inference to adjust for measured confounders. Survey data are often collected under complex sampling designs such as multistage cluster sampling, which presents challenges for propensity score modeling and estimation. In addition, for clustered data, there may also be unobserved cluster effects related to both the treatment and the outcome. Read More

In this paper, the modified entropic force law is studied by using a new kind of generalized uncertainty principle which contains a minimal length, a minimal momentum and a maximal momentum. Firstly, the quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of a black hole is investigated. Then, according to Verlinde's theory, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) corrected entropic force is obtained. Read More

We initiated the program to look for new and simple forms for the five-dimensional rotating squashed black holes by solving directly the equation of motion. In a recent paper, the metric ansatz of dimensional reduction along the fifth spatial dimension was used to obtain a new but rather simple form for the five-dimensional rotating uncharged black hole solution with squashed horizons via solving the vacuum Einstein field equations. In this work, we continue to seek for another new but relatively simple form for the neutral rotating squashed black hole solution by using a different metric ansatz of time-like dimensional reduction. Read More

Coarse Structural Nested Mean Models (SNMMs) provide useful tools to estimate treatment effects from longitudinal observational data with time-dependent confounders. Coarse SNMMs lead to a large class of estimators,within which an optimal estimator can be derived under the conditions of well-specified models for the treatment effect, for treatment initiation, and for nuisance regression outcomes (Lok & Griner, 2015). The key assumption lies in a well-specified model for the treatment effect; however, there is no existing guidance to specify the treatment effect model, and model misspecification leads to biased estimators, preventing valid inference. Read More

Estimation of the covariance structure of spatial processes is of fundamental importance in spatial statistics. In the literature, several non-parametric and semi-parametric methods have been developed to estimate the covariance structure based on the spectral representation of covariance functions. However,they either ignore the high frequency properties of the spectral density, which are essential to determine the performance of interpolation procedures such as Kriging, or lack of theoretical justification. Read More

Fractional imputation (FI) is a relatively new method of imputation for handling item nonresponse in survey sampling. In FI, several imputed values with their fractional weights are created for each missing item. Each fractional weight represents the conditional probability of the imputed value given the observed data, and the parameters in the conditional probabilities are often computed by an iterative method such as EM algorithm. Read More

In this paper, we develop new methods for estimating average treatment effects in observational studies, focusing on settings with more than two treatment levels under unconfoundedness given pre-treatment variables. We emphasize subclassification and matching methods which have been found to be effective in the binary treatment literature and which are among the most popular methods in that setting. Whereas the literature has suggested that these particular propensity-based methods do not naturally extend to the multi-level treatment case, we show, using the concept of weak unconfoundedness, that adjusting for or matching on a scalar function of the pre-treatment variables removes all biases associated with observed pre-treatment variables. Read More

Multiple imputation is a popular imputation method for general purpose estimation. Rubin(1987) provided an easily applicable formula for the variance estimation of multiple imputation. However, the validity of the multiple imputation inference requires the congeniality condition of Meng(1994), which is not necessarily satisfied for method of moments estimation. Read More

Confined smectic A liquid crystals (SmA LCs) form topological defects called focal conic domains (FCDs) that focus light as gradient-index lenses. Here, we exploit surface curvature to self-assemble FCDs in a single step into a hierarchical structure (coined "flower pattern") molded by the fluid interface that is pinned at the top of a micropillar. The structure resembles the compound eyes of some invertebrates, which consist of hundreds of microlenses on a curved interface, able to focus and construct images in three dimensions. Read More

We use a regular arrangement of kirigami elements to demonstrate an inverse design paradigm for folding a flat surface into complex target configurations. We first present a scheme using arrays of disclination defect pairs on the dual to the honeycomb lattice; by arranging these defect pairs properly with respect to each other and choosing an appropriate fold pattern a target stepped surface can be designed. We then present a more general method that specifies a fixed lattice of kirigami cuts to be performed on a flat sheet. Read More

In this paper we explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami -- folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper. Read More

Using a realistic equation of state (EOS) of strange quark matter, namely, the modified bag model, and considering the constraints to the parameters of EOS by the observational mass limit of neutron stars, we study the r-mode instability window of strange stars, and find the same result as the brief study of Haskell, Degenaar and Ho in 2012 that these instability windows are not consistent with the spin frequency and temperature observations of neutron stars in LMXBs. Read More

Recently the modified Dirac equation with Lorentz invariance violation has been proposed, which would be helpful to resolve some issues in quantum gravity theory and high energy physics. In this paper, the modified Dirac equation has been generalized in curved spacetime, and then fermion tunneling of black strings is researched under this correctional Dirac field theory. We also use semi-classical approximation method to get correctional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, so that the correctional Hawking temperature and correctional black hole's entropy are derived. Read More

We consider how the occurrence of first-order phase transitions in non-constant pressure differs from those at constant pressure. The former has shown the non-linear phase structure of mixed matter, which implies a particle number dependence of the binding energies of the two species. If the mixed matter is mixed hadron-quark phase, nucleon outgoing from hadronic phase and ingoing to quark phase probably reduces the system to a non-equilibrium state, in other words, there exists the imbalance of the two phases when deconfinement takes place. Read More

We present a new expression for the five-dimensional static Kaluza-Klein black hole solution with squashed $S^3$ horizons and three different charge parameters. This black hole solution belongs to $D = 5$ $N = 2$ supergravity theory, its spacetime is locally asymptotically flat and has a spatial infinity $R \times S^1 \hookrightarrow S^2$. The form of the solution is extraordinary simple and permits us very conveniently to calculate its conserved charges by using the counterterm method. Read More

Focal conic domains (FCDs) in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micro- and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. Read More

We exploit the long-ranged elastic fields inherent to confined nematic liquid crystals to assemble colloidal particles trapped at the liquid crystal interface into reconfigurable structures with complex symmetries and packings. Spherical colloids with homeotropic anchoring trapped at the interface between air and the nematic liquid crystal 5CB create quadrupolar distortions in the director field causing particles to repel and consequently form close-packed assemblies with a triangular habit. Here we report on complex, open structures organized via interactions with defects in the bulk. Read More

In this work, we show that Janus washers, genus-one colloids with hybrid anchoring conditions, form topologically required defects in nematic liquid crystals. Experiments under crossed polarizers reveal the defect structure to be a rigid disclination loop confined within the colloid, with an accompanying defect in the liquid crystal. When confined to a homeotropic cell, the resulting colloid-defect ring pair tilts relative to the far field director, in contrast to the behavior of toroidal colloids with purely homeotropic anchoring. Read More

This paper gives an brief overview of the structure of hypothetical strange quarks stars (quark stars, for short), which are made of absolutely stable 3-flavor strange quark matter. Such objects can be either bare or enveloped in thin nuclear crusts, which consist of heavy ions immersed in an electron gas. In contrast to neutron stars, the structure of quark stars is determined by two (rather than one) parameters, the central star density and the density at the base of the crust. Read More

Microbullet particles, cylinders with one blunt and one spherical end, offer a novel platform to study the effects of anisotropy and curvature on colloidal assembly in complex fluids. Here, we disperse microbullets in 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells and form oriented elastic dipoles with a nematic point defect located near the curved end. This feature allows us to study particle interactions as a function of dipole alignment. Read More

We proposed alternative explanation to the rapid cooling of neutron star in Cas A. It is suggested that the star is experiencing the recovery period following the r-mode heating process,assuming the star is differentially rotating. Like the neutron-superfluidity-triggering model, our model predicts the rapid cooling will continue for several decades. Read More

We use the dynamical cluster approximation to understand the proximity of the superconducting dome to the quantum critical point in the two-dimensional Hubbard model. In a BCS formalism, $T_c$ may be enhanced through an increase in the d-wave pairing interaction ($V_d$) or the bare pairing susceptibility ($\chi_{0d}$). At optimal doping, where $V_d$ is revealed to be featureless, we find a power-law behavior of $\chi_{0d}(\omega=0)$, replacing the BCS log, and strongly enhanced $T_c$. Read More

The radiative viscosity of superfluid $npe$ matter is studied, and it is found that to the lowest order of $\delta \mu/T$ the ratio of radiative viscosity to bulk viscosity is the same as that of the normal matter. Read More

We investigate the influence of nucleon superfluidity on the neutrino emissivity of non-equilibrium beta processes. Calculations are performed of the reduction factors for direct and modified Urca processes with three types of nucleon superfluidity in $npe$ matter. The numerical results are given since the analytical solution is impossible. Read More

The thermal evolution of neutron stars (NSs) is investigated by coupling with the evolution of $\textit{r}$-mode instability that is described by a second order model.The heating effect due to shear viscous damping of the $\textit{r}$-modes enables us to understand the high temperature of two young pulsars (i.e. Read More

We study non-linear effects of radiative viscosity of $npe$ matter in neutron stars for both direct Urca process and modified Urca process, and find that non-linear effects will decrease the ratio of radiative viscosity to bulk viscosity from 1.5 to 0.5 (for direct Urca process) and 0. Read More

Based on semiclassical tunneling method, we focus on charged fermions tunneling from higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\"{o}m black hole. We first simplify the Dirac equation by semiclassical approximation, and then a semiclassical Hamilton-Jacobi equation is obtained. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we study the Hawking temperature and fermions tunneling rate at the event horizon of the higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\"{o}m black hole spacetime. Read More

A method of `network filtering' has been proposed recently to detect the effects of certain external perturbations on the interacting members in a network. However, with large networks, the goal of detection seems a priori difficult to achieve, especially since the number of observations available often is much smaller than the number of variables describing the effects of the underlying network. Under the assumption that the network possesses a certain sparsity property, we provide a formal characterization of the accuracy with which the external effects can be detected, using a network filtering system that combines Lasso regression in a sparse simultaneous equation model with simple residual analysis. Read More

A scheme is proposed to improve the performance of the ensemble-based Kalman Filters during the initial spin-up period. By applying the no-cost ensemble Kalman Smoother, this scheme allows the model solutions for the ensemble to be "running in place" with the true dynamics, provided by a few observations. Results of this scheme are investigated with the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) implemented in a Quasi-geostrophic model, whose original framework requires a very long spin-up time when initialized from a cold start. Read More